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Patients With Traumatic Injuries

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Title: Patients With Traumatic Injuries


1
Patients With Traumatic Injuries
  • Condell Medical Center
  • EMS System
  • August 2008 CE
  • Site code 10-7200E1208

Prepared by Sharon Hopkins, RN, BSN, EMT-P
2
Objectives
  • Upon successful completion of this module, the
    EMS provider should be able to
  • Identify the differences between a Category I, II
    and III trauma patient
  • State transport decisions for trauma patients
    based on Region X guidelines
  • Understand what the mechanism of injury is and
    the information it provides
  • Understand the difference between the index of
    suspicion and the general impression

3
Objectives contd
  • Describe assessment and treatment appropriate for
    the patient with traumatic insult based on Region
    X SOPs
  • Burns, tension pneumothorax, sucking chest wound,
    flail chest, pericardial tamponade, eviscerated
    organs
  • Successfully calculate the GCS and RTS given the
    patients parameters
  • Identify and appropriately state interventions
    for a variety of EKG rhythms
  • Identify ST elevation on a 12 lead EKG
  • Successfully identify the landmark and perform
    chest needle decompression
  • Actively participate in trauma scenario
    discussion
  • Successfully complete the quiz with a score of
    80 or better

4
Leading Causes of Death
  • In the age groups from 1 to 44, unintentional
    injury is the leading cause of death
  • 45 and over, the leading causes of death are
    disease
  • cardiovascular disease and cancers
  • These statistics point to a financial burden
    placed on the patient as well as society for
    unintentional injuries
  • Source National Vital Statistics System,
    National Center for Health Statistics, CDC

5
Level I Trauma Centers
  • Prepared and committed to handle all types of
    specialty trauma 24/7
  • Provides leadership and resources to other levels
    of trauma care in the Region
  • Participates in data collection, research,
    continuing education, and public education
    programs
  • Level I Evanston Hospital, St. Francis in
    Evanston
  • Level I non-Region X Advocate Lutheran General,
    Froedtert (Wisconsin)

6
Level II Trauma Centers
  • Increased commitment to trauma care for the most
    common trauma emergencies with surgical
    capability available 24/7
  • Participates in data collection, continuing
    education, and public education programs
  • Level II Condell, Glenbrook, Highland Park, Lake
    Forest, Rush North Shore, Vista Medical Center
    East (VMH)

7
Additional Level II Trauma Centers -
Not Geographically In Region X
  • Centegra McHenry, Illinois
  • Good Shepherd Hospital (GSH) Barrington,
    Illinois
  • Northwest Community Hospital (NWCH) Arlington
    Heights

8
Region X SOP -Trauma Transport
  • Systolic B/P lt 90 on 2 consecutive readings (or
    peds lt 80)
  • Transport to the highest level Trauma Center
    within 25 minutes
  • 25 minute clock starts from the time of injury

9
Region X SOP Trauma Transport
  • Traumatic arrest, isolated burns gt20
  • Transport to the closest Trauma Center
  • No airway
  • Transport to the closest Emergency Department

10
Region X SOP Trauma Transport
  • Category I Trauma Patient
  • Unstable vital signs
  • Based on anatomy of the injury
  • Transport to the highest level Trauma Center
    within 25 minutes
  • 25 minute clock starts from the time of injury

11
Region X SOP Trauma Transport
  • Category II Trauma Patient
  • Based on mechanism of injury
  • High potential for injury but patient is stable
    for now
  • Based on existence of co-morbid factors that
    increase the risk of complications to recovery
  • Transport to the closest Trauma Center

12
Region X SOP Trauma Transport
  • Category III Trauma Patient
  • All other traumatic injuries and routine care is
    being provided
  • Isolated traumatic injury (generally GCS gt10)
  • Isolated fractures
  • Minor burns
  • Lacerations
  • Transport the patient to the closest Trauma Center

13
Mechanism of Injury
  • The process and forces that cause trauma
  • Mentally recreate the incident from the evidence
    noted
  • Identify strength of forces involved
  • Identify direction forces came from
  • Identify areas of the patients body most likely
    affected by the forces
  • Start to identify the mechanism of injury during
    the scene size-up

14
Injury Patterns Pedestrians
  • Adults
  • Generally turn away present lateral surfaces
  • Anatomically, impact is low on the body
  • Injuries to tibia, fibula, femur, knee, lateral
    chest, upper extremity, then head neck
  • Pediatrics
  • Generally turn and face the vehicle
  • Injuries anatomically higher on the body than
    adults
  • Injuries to femur, pelvis and then those
    sustained when run over or pushed aside by the
    vehicle

15
Injury Patterns Motor Vehicle
  • Rotational (38 of MVC)
  • Injuries similar to frontal lateral
  • Deceleration is usually more gradual injuries
    less serious although the vehicles look worse
  • Frontal (32 of MVC)
  • Up and over pathway
  • Femur fractures
  • Blunt abdominal injury via compression
  • Lower chest injuries after steering wheel impact
  • Head neck injuries with windshield impact

16
Injury Patterns Motor Vehicle
  • Down and under pathway
  • Lower leg injuries from sliding under the dash
  • Chest injuries with steering wheel impact
  • Collapsed lungs from breath holding at time of
    impact
  • Ejection
  • 27 of fatalities
  • 2 impacts with interior vehicle then the
    objects outside the car (ground, trees, fences,
    etc)

17
Injury Patterns Motor Vehicle
  • Lateral impact (15 of MVC 22 of all MVC
    fatalities)
  • Much less structural steel for protection between
    victim and impact site
  • Vehicle damage may not look severe but internal
    injury potential is high
  • Upper lower extremity fractures on impact side
  • Lateral compression with a large amount of
    internal injury to chest abdominal organs
  • Unrestrained passengers are missiles and add to
    injuries other passengers already sustained

18
Injury Patterns Motor Vehicle
  • Rear end (9 of MVC)
  • Head rotates backward and then snaps forward
  • Less neck injury if the head rest is in place
  • Rollover (6 of MVC)
  • Occupant experiences impact every time vehicle
    impacts a point on the ground
  • Vehicle sides and roof provide less crumple zones
    for absorbing impact forces
  • Ejection is common in unrestrained persons

19
Index of Suspicion
  • Your anticipation of injury to a body, region,
    organ, or structure based on identification of
    the mechanism of injury
  • Your index of suspicion is honed from experience
    and time on the job

20
General impression
  • Formed from mechanism of injury and index of
    suspicion
  • Will guide the EMS provider regarding a direction
    on how to proceed in caring for this patient and
    be a guideline on choosing which SOP to follow

21
Documentation To Include of The Complaint
  • O - onset
  • P provocation/palliation
  • Q - quality
  • R - radiation
  • S severity (0 10)
  • T timing when did it start

22
Documentation
  • Provide answers to
  • Who (the patient youre caring for)
  • What (happened)
  • When (did it happen)
  • Where (which body part)
  • How (did it occur)

23
Trauma Care Amputated Parts
  • Routine trauma care
  • To remove gross contamination, gently rinse with
    normal saline
  • DO NOT use distilled water to irrigate open
    wounds
  • Normal saline is isotonic and less harmful to
    tissue
  • Cover stump with damp (normal saline) sterile
    dressing and ace wrap
  • Ace provides uniform pressure to stump
  • Cover wounds with sterile dressing

24
Care of Amputated Parts
  • Place part in a plastic zip lock bag
  • Place bag in larger bag or container over ice and
    water
  • Do not ice the part alone

25
Pain Management Including for Adult Burns
  • Morphine for pain control
  • 2 mg slow IVP over 2 minutes
  • May repeat every 2 minutes as needed to a maximum
    of 10 mg
  • Watch for respiratory depression
  • Monitor for a drop in blood pressure due to
    vasodilation from the medication

26
Adult Burns - Electrical
  • Immobilize the patient
  • High potential for traumatic injury
  • Muscle spasms during contact with source
  • Thrown when power source cut
  • Assess for dysrhythmia place on cardiac monitor
  • Assess distal neurovascular status of affected
    part
  • Cover wounds with dry sterile dressings

27
Adult Burns - Inhalation
  • High risk for airway compromise
  • Note presence of wheezing, hoarseness, stridor,
    carbonaceous sputum, singed nasal hair
  • High flow oxygen via non-rebreather mask
  • Monitor for need of advanced airway device
  • ETT
  • Combitube if trained and approved

28
Adult Burns - Chemical
  • Consider need for HAZ-MAT involvement
  • If powdered chemical, first brush away excess dry
    material
  • Remove clothing if possible
  • Flush burned area with sterile saline
  • If eye involvement, remove contact lenses and
    flush continuously with sterile saline
  • Avoid contamination of noninvolved areas

29
Adult Burns - Thermal
  • Superficial 1st degree
  • Cool burned area with saline
  • lt20 BSA involved, apply sterile saline soaked
    dressings
  • gt20 BSA, apply dry sterile dressing
  • Do not overcool major burns or apply ice directly
    to burned areas

30
Adult Burns - Thermal
  • Partial or full thickness (2nd or 3rd degree)
  • Wear sterile gloves and mask while burn areas are
    exposed
  • Cover burn wound with dry sterile dressings
  • Preventing air flow over exposed burn areas
    reduces pain levels
  • Place patient on clean sheet on stretcher
  • Cover patient with dry clean sheets and blanket
    protect from hypothermia

31
Infant differences back 13, each buttocks
2.5, each entire leg 14
32
Case Study 1
  • Adult patient who reached over a charcoal grill
    just as the match was thrown onto the soaked
    coals
  • Injury is restricted to the right arm
  • What type of burn is this?
  • Using the Rule of Nines, what is the TSBA burned?
  • What type of care is appropriate?
  • How can the pain be managed?
  • What does the documentation look like?

33
Case Study 1 Patient with Burns
34
Case Study 1
  • Combination of superficial and partial thickness
    burns approx 4.5 TSBA (circumferential around
    forearm)
  • Evidence of redness with a blistered area
    although blister is broken
  • Appropriate care includes cooling burn, applying
    sterile saline soaked dressing (lt20 TBSA)
  • Additional helpful care
  • Elevation of arm, removal of ring before fingers
    swell
  • For pain control
  • Morphine 2 mg slow IVP can repeat 2 mg in 2
    minutes up to 10 mg

35
Case Study 1 - Documentation
  • What, when, where, how
  • Our 52 year-old patient received superficial and
    partial thickness burns approximately 20 minutes
    ago to her right forearm when reaching across
    flames from a charcoal grill.
  • Detailed description of injury
  • Description of intervention prior to EMS that
    which EMS provided
  • Response to intervention

36
Chest Injuries Traumatic Arrest Category I
Trauma
  • Begin CPR
  • Transport to closest Trauma Center
  • A hospital on by-pass must take a patient in life
    threatening condition if they are the closest
    appropriate hospital
  • Perform bilateral chest decompression
  • Use common sense does your scene size up,
    evaluation of mechanism of injury and general
    impression indicate a potential chest wall injury?

37
Chest Injuries Tension Pneumothorax Category
I Trauma
  • History of injury to the chest wall
  • Diminished breath sounds
  • Hyperresonance if percussion done
  • Severe dyspnea
  • Hyperinflation of chest
  • Jugular vein distention
  • Tachycardia
  • Hypotension

38
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39
Needle Decompression
  • Landmarks anterior approach
  • 2nd intercostal space in the midline of the
    clavicles
  • Place prepared flutter valve needle over the top
    of the rib
  • Avoids potential injury to vessels and nerves
    that run along the bottom of the rib

40
Quick Way to Find 2nd ICS
  • Feel for the top of the sternum
  • Roll your finger tip to the anterior surface at
    the top of the sternum
  • Feel the little bump near the top of the sternum
  • This bump is the Angle of Louis
  • From the Angle of Louis slide your fingers angled
    slightly downward toward the affected side
    following the rib space
  • You are automatically in the 2nd ICS
  • Identify the midline of the clavicle
  • The midline is more lateral than persons realize
    and usually runs in line with the nipple

41
Alternate Method to Find 2nd Intercostal Space
  • Palpate the clavicle and find the midline
  • The midline is farther out (more lateral) from
    the sternum than most persons realize
  • Move your finger tips under the clavicle into the
    1st intercostal space
  • 1st rib is under the clavicle and is not palpated
  • Spaces identified for the numbered rib above the
    space
  • Feel for the firm 2nd rib and palpate the soft
    space below the rib
  • This is the 2nd ICS

42
Needle Decompression
  • Find your own 2nd ICS
  • Now find your neighbors 2nd ICS
  • Use both methods to find the landmark and decide
    which is easiest for you
  • Documentation
  • To include signs and symptoms
  • Size of needle used (length and gauge)
  • Site needle inserted into
  • Response from the patient

43
Equipment
  • Long needle (preferably 2-3 inch) and large bore
    needle (preferably 12-14G)
  • Flutter valve
  • Cleanser to prepare skin overlying the site
  • Method to secure needle in place
  • Skin will most likely be diaphoretic
  • Tape may not stick
  • May need to maintain manual control of needle

44
Skin Preparation
Midline of clavicle
2nd ICS
Angle of Louis
45
Inserting the Needle
  • Remove proximal end cap
    from needle
  • Will be able to hear trapped air escaping
  • Needle inserted over top of rib
  • Once hiss of air heard continue to advance
    catheter while withdrawing stylet
  • Stabilize catheter as best as possible
  • Patient should symptomatically improve
  • Do not expect to hear improved breath sounds
    takes time for the lung to reexpand

46
Case Study 2
  • EMS is called to the scene for a 52 year-old male
    with c/o sudden onset dyspnea with pain between
    his shoulder blades while watching TV at home.
    The patient is agitated, short of breath, with
    increased respiratory rate and SaO2 of 89.
  • Further assessment reveals decreased breath
    sounds on the right and clear on the left
  • Vital signs 98/62 HR 118 RR 32 and shallow
  • Your impression intervention plan?

47
Case Study 2
  • Spontaneous tension pneumothorax
  • They dont all develop from trauma
  • Begin supplemental oxygen support via
    non-rebreather, cardiac monitor, preparation for
    IV
  • BUT
  • Quickly prepare for needle decompression while
    the above are being prepared
  • Patients with a tension pneumothorax cant wait
    and will deteriorate without needle decompression

48
Sucking Chest Wound Category I Trauma
  • Most common with penetrating wounds
  • Free passage of air between the atmosphere and
    pleural space if the open wound is at least 2/3rd
    the size of the diameter of the trachea
  • Size of trachea about the size of pts 5th finger
  • Air is drawn into the chest cavity
  • Air replaces lung tissue
  • Lung collapses

49
Sucking Chest Wound
  • Severe dyspnea
  • Open chest wound
  • Check anterior, posterior, axilla areas
  • Frothy blood at wound opening
  • Sucking sound as air moves in and out
  • Tachycardia with hypovolemia

50
Treatment Sucking Chest Wound
  • Immediate treatment is to seal the opening
  • May start by placing a gloved hand over the wound
  • When able, place an occlusive dressing, taped on
    3 sides, over the wound
  • Wound now converted to a closed pneumothorax
  • Monitor for signs of tension pneumothorax
  • May need to lift a corner of the dressing to
    release trapped air via burping dressing

51
Flail Chest Category I Trauma
  • 3 or more adjacent ribs broken in 2 or more
    places
  • Segment becomes free with pardoxical chest wall
    motion during respirations
  • Paradoxical movement more evident after the
    muscles splinting the flail segment fatigue
  • Usually takes a tremendous amount of blunt trauma
    to cause a flail chest
  • Often present will be associated severe
    underlying injury (ie pulmonary contusion)
  • Respiratory volume reduced and respiratory effort
    increased

52
Treatment Flail Chest
  • Place patient on the injured side (may not be
    possible to do this in the field based on
    mechanism of injury)
  • High flow oxygen nonrebreather mask
  • Monitor for need to assist ventilations via BVM
    to deliver positive pressure ventilations
  • Evidence of underlying pulmonary injury
  • Effort and fatigue
  • Pulse oximetry
  • EKG monitoring
  • Tremendous amount of force is delivered to the
    chest wall and cardiac injury is highly likely as
    a result

53
Pericardial Tamponade Category I Trauma
  • Blood or other fluid fills the pericardial sac
    restricting cardiac filling contractility
  • Most often related to penetrating trauma
  • Venous return to the heart is restricted
  • Decreased cardiac output
  • Pressure on the coronary arteries restricts blood
    flow to the myocardium

54
Pericardial Tamponade Signs Symptoms
  • Usually history of penetrating trauma
  • Agitated patient
  • Diminished strength of pulses (weak and thready)
    with tachycardia
  • Narrowing pulse pressure
  • Diastolic systolic numbers moving closer
    together
  • Distended neck veins (JVD)
  • Diaphoretic and pale
  • Muffled, distant heart tones
  • Hypotension

55
Treatment Pericardial Tamponade
  • Treatment in the field is limited to being
    supportive
  • Patient requires high index of suspicion and/or
    rapid identification with rapid transport
  • In ED will perform needle thoracentesis and then
    transfer the patient to the OR for open heart
    surgery

56
General Assessment Pearls
  • Restlessness and agitation
  • You must consider ?hypoxia, ?shock, ?influence of
    alcohol and/or drugs
  • This is one time you need to assess for all
    reasons of restlessness and not just stop when
    you discovered one cause there may be more than
    one pathology going on at a time

57
Evaluation Pearls Low SaO2
  • SaO2 reading may be inaccurate in the presence
    of
  • Hemorrhagic shock with delayed capillary refill
  • Hypothermia
  • Lung damage
  • Evaluate all parameters together to get the best
    overall picture in ventilated patient
  • What does the ETCO2 indicate?
  • Are you able to ventilate the patient?
  • Are there extenuating circumstances where the
    circulation is affected and would affect the
    pulse ox reading like those listed above?

58
More Case Studies
59
Case Study 3
  • Your 34 year-old patient received a GSW to the
    right upper abdomen.
  • They are conscious and alert B/P 90/62 HR 120
    RR 28 bleeding is minimal
  • Category trauma?
  • What are your interventions?

60
Case Study 3 Category I Trauma
  • Make sure the scene is secured
  • Consider need for spinal immobilization
  • During assessment of wound, consider thoracic
    injury in addition to abdominal injury depending
    on the angle of the GSW.
  • Examine for an exit wound
  • Check the back and the axilla
  • Prepare for the worst assume the patient will
    deteriorate before ED arrival
  • Repeat VS B/P 80/ HR 140 RR 32, remains
    conscious and in pain
  • Transport to the highest level Trauma Center
    within 25 minutes

61
Case Study 3 - Treatment
  • Routine trauma care
  • Question is this an isolated abdominal wound or
    is it a combination abdominal/ chest wound?
  • Need to treat patient for potential injuries of
    both body cavities
  • EMS cannot determine in the field the angle of
    the trajectory
  • Cover the wound and watch for evisceration
  • Fluid resuscitation keep B/P at low levels the
    higher the B/P the faster the patient bleeds out

62
Case Study 3 - Documentation
  • If patient states anything, put it in quotes
  • If information available, add angle patient shot
    from (ie above, below) and distance from weapon
  • If known, list type of weapon used
  • Include results of inspection, auscultation,
    palpation
  • Location of entrance and exit wound
  • Size of wound(s)
  • Assessment of the general area (ie contusions,
    bleeding, swelling/distention, pain, powder
    marks)
  • Preserve evidence as much as possible

63
Case Study 4
  • Your 10 year-old patient has
    a penetrating injury to
    the right leg above the
    knee while playing in
    his backyard
  • Initial VS B/P 90/70 HR
    130 RR 32 no active
    bleeding
  • Category trauma? Field interventions?

64
Case Study 4 Category III
  • Next VS B/P 92/64 HR 110 RR 20.
  • Stabilize foreign body in place
  • Obtain distal neurovascular status
  • Distal pulses
  • Movement can you wiggle your toes?
  • Sensation close your eyes and tell me which
    toe I am touching
  • Document distal neurovascular status and describe
    how the foreign object is stabilized in place

65
Case Study 5
  • Your 62 year-old patient had abdominal surgery 1
    week ago. Today at home he sneezed hard and felt
    a tearing
    sensation in his
    abdomen and
    called EMS.
  • VS B/P 100/60
    HR 110 RR 24
  • No active
    bleeding
  • What
    interventions
    are appropriate?

66
Case Study 5 - Interventions
  • Immediately cover the wound
  • Need to minimize contamination
  • Need to prevent more organs from protruding
  • Need to prevent loss of fluids
  • Place a saline moistened dressing over the
    exposed tissue
  • Place dry gauze over the saline dressings
  • Can place light manual control over the organs to
    prevent further evisceration especially during
    movement, coughing, sneezing, deep breaths

67
Case Study 6
  • 21 year-old drove into a metal fence. Upon EMS
    arrival, there is obvious external chest injury
    with bleeding. Coming closer to the patient, EMS
    can hear a sucking sound from the chest wound.
  • Patient is alert, in pain, severe dyspnea
  • VS B/P 90/62 HR 130 RR 34 GCS 15
  • Breath sounds L gt R
  • Look at the injury what is your impression and
    what interventions are necessary?

68
MVC Into Metal Fencing
69
Case Study 6 Category I
  • An adequate dressing will be difficult to achieve
    with such an extensive wound
  • A gloved hand just wont be enough to get started
  • This patient may be a candidate for conscious
    sedation and intubation to provide positive
    pressure ventilation
  • Reassessment VS B/P 80/56 HR 140 RR 36 GCS
    remains 15
  • Transport is to highest level trauma center
    within 25 minutes

70
Case Study 6 - Treatment
  • Open chest wounds need to be covered ASAP with a
    non-occlusive dressing
  • Carefully monitor if the treatment of the open
    chest wound converts the injury into a tension
    pneumothorax
  • Carefully monitor the patient for the need for
    more aggressive airway control (ie supportive
    ventilation via BVM or intubation)
  • Initially can start O2 therapy with a
    non-rebreather mask

71
Case Study 6 - Documentation
  • What cause of the injury (penetration, MVC,
    pedestrian, etc)
  • When the injury occurred
  • Where by body location
  • quadrant refers to the abdomen
  • Chest injuries uses reference such as anterior/
    posterior, nipple line, upper/lower chest wall
  • How the injury occurred
  • Expand and give detail description of the injury,
    treatment rendered, pt response

72
Case Study 7
  • Your 45 year-old patient is a construction worker
    who was accidentally shot in the head with a nail
    gun
  • Upon arrival, the patient is awake, alert,
    talking (GCS 15)
  • VS B/P 132/78 HR 96 RR 20 complains of a
    minor headache minimal bleeding at a few
    puncture wounds noted on the occipital area of
    the scalp (patient has thick hair).

73
X-ray from EDNo deficitsnoted
74
Case Study 7 - Treatment
  • Consider any injury above the level of the
    clavicles to include a c-spine injury until
    proven otherwise and immobilize the patient
  • Control bleeding
  • The face and scalp have such a rich blood supply
    small wounds tend to bleed heavily
  • Protect from further contamination
  • The open wound may be in direct contact with the
    brain
  • Document neurological evaluation to establish
    baseline for comparison (AVPU, GCS, movement)

75
Case Study 8
  • You are called to the scene for a 10 year-old
    female who has been run over by a bus
  • As patient exited bus, she bent down to tie her
    shoe and was caught under the wheels of the bus
  • Upon your arrival, you note a large amount of
    avulsed tissue with bleeding from the left hip,
    left buttock, and left upper thigh area
  • The patient is screaming in pain
  • VS B/P 110/70 HR 110 RR 26 GCS 15
  • What is your impression?
  • What is your treatment plan?

76
10 y/o run over by bus
77
Case Study 8 Category I or II?
  • General impression
  • Category II minimally pedestrian run-over
  • Category I trauma if unstable pelvis or 2 or
    more long bones (proximal bones) fractured and
    vital signs unstable
  • Potential problems to consider address
  • Massive hemorrhage control of hemorrhage
  • Spinal injury
  • Additional injuries
  • Airway control
  • Equipment to fit a 10 year-old
  • Further wound contamination

78
1 year F/U with skin grafts
79
Glasgow Coma Scale - GSC
  • Tool used to evaluate and monitor a patients
    condition
  • Evaluates
  • Best eye opening
  • Best verbal response
  • Best motor response
  • Serves as an indicator/predictor of survival
  • To be performed on all EMS patients

80
GCS
  • Possible total score 3 (lowest) 15 (highest)
  • Minor head injury patient scores 13 15
  • Moderate head injury patient scores 9 12
  • Severe head injury patient scores lt8
  • Significant mortality risk

81
GCS Pearls
  • The change in the GCS is more important than the
    absolute score
  • Check for associated injuries
  • Manage a head injury as a multiple injured
    patient until other injuries ruled out
  • Stabilize the neck for any head injury
  • Dont assume the level of consciousness is
    altered just because of ETOH and/or drugs
  • Is there an occult (hidden) injury present?
  • Provide accurate, clear, detailed documentation

82
GCS Eye Opening 1-4 Points
  • Spontaneous (4) eyes open may or may not focus
  • To voice (3) prior to touching the patient,
    eyes will open to sounds around them or EMS
    calling/yelling to them to open eyes
  • Often difficult to accurately assess due to EMS
    gaining immediate c-spine control so difficult at
    times to determine if patient responded to voice
    or touch (pain)
  • To pain (2) doesnt necessarily imply you must
    apply painful stimulus, could be just to touch
  • Flutter of eyelids is scored as 2
  • None (1) eyes remain closed with no eyelid
    flutter or other eye movement eyes do not open

83
GCS Verbal Response 1-5 Points
  • Oriented (5)
  • Confused (4)
  • Words may be appropriate to situation but pt does
    not respond to questions
  • Inappropriate words (3)
  • Words are spoken and understood but nonsensical
    to the situation (over there)
  • Incomprehensible words (2)
  • Includes mumbling, unintelligible speech, moaning
  • None (1)

84
GCS Motor Response 1-6 Points
  • Obeys command (6)
  • Localizes pain (5)
  • Patient who pulls equipment off pushes your
    hands away purposeful movement
  • This patient knows where the obnoxious stimuli is
    contacting his body
  • Withdraws to pain (4)
  • Pt cannot isolate where they feel the noxious
    stimuli so just pulls back/withdraws
  • Flexion (3) arms bent towards midline when
    stimulated
  • Extension (2) arms extended when stimulated
  • None (1) remains flaccid

85
GCS Pearls
  • Give the patient the best score possible
  • If the patient moves the right side of their body
    but no movement on their left, score them for the
    movement they currently exhibit on the right
  • If patient deteriorates, easier to see the drop
    or change in the GCS score
  • When testing for responses, watch even for
    minimal activity like eyelid flutter or a grimace

86
GCS Pearls
  • Acceptable noxious stimuli
  • Armpit pinch or nailbed pressure
  • Sternal rub, pinching web space between fingers,
    pinching shoulder muscle (trapezius)
  • Earlobe pinch is out of favor
  • Can cause movement of head neck in response to
    the pain

87
(No Transcript)
88
RTS Scoring 0 12 points
89
GCS RTS Practice 1
  • Patient eyes are open and they watch you during
    the examination
  • The patient is confused they dont remember how
    they got hurt and cant remember the day of the
    week
  • When you ask the patient to show me 2 fingers,
    they respond but are slow to do so
  • VS B/P 120/70 HR 88 RR 18
  • Total GCS?
  • Total RTS?

90
GCS RTS Practice 2
  • The patient does not open their eyes
  • The patient groans when pinched or an injured
    body part is touched
  • The patient does not follow commands and will
    push your hands away when you touch them
  • VS B/P 96/68 HR 102 RR 22
  • Total GCS?
  • Total RTS?

91
GCS RTS Practice 3
  • The patients eyes are open
  • When asked what month is this?, the patient
    responds, he, umm, hemy jacket. I dont ..
  • If touched or pinched, the patient pulls away
    from the contact
  • VS B/P 132/72 HR 96 RR 16
  • Total GCS?
  • Total RTS?

92
GCS RTS Practice 4
  • Your patients eyes are closed but they open wide
    if the patients injury is touched
  • The patient yells dont or stop when there
    are pinched but does not answer questions or
    speak in sentences
  • The patient will push your hands away when you
    touch them
  • VS B/P 108/64 HR 102 RR 18
  • Total GCS?
  • Total RTS?

93
GCS RTS Practice 5
  • The patients eyes are closed but the eyelids
    flutter when you loudly call out their name
  • The patient does not answer questions but will
    groan when touched but not say recognizable words
  • The patient does not follow commands but will
    push away your hands when touched
  • VS B/P 80/52 HR 112 RR 12
  • Total GCS?
  • Total RTS?

94
GSC RTS Practice 6
  • The patients eyes are closed but will open when
    the patient is touched
  • The patient says leave me alone and what are
    you doing? and goes back to sleep. When eyes are
    open they respond I dont know to questions
  • They do not follow command and will push your
    hands away when touched
  • VS B/P 110/68 HR 88 RR 20
  • Total GCS?
  • Total RTS?

95
GCS/RTS Practice Answers
  • 1 GCS 14 (4, 4, 6)
  • RTS 12 (GCS 4 RR 4 B/P 4)
  • 2 GCS 8 (1, 2, 5)
  • RTS 10 (GCS 2 RR 4 B/P 4)
  • 3 GCS 11 (4, 3, 4)
  • RTS 11 (GCS 3 RR 4 B/P 4)
  • 4 GCS 11 (2, 4, 5)
  • RTS 11 (GCS 3 RR 4 B/P 4)
  • 5 GCS 10 (3, 2, 5)
  • RTS 10 (GCS 3 RR 4 B/P 3)
  • 6 GCS 11 (2, 4, 5)
  • RTS 11 (GCS 3 RR 4 B/P 4)

96
Identify Rhythm Strip 1
97
Treatment Symptomatic Bradycardia
  • Bradycardia or Type I Wenckebach
  • Atropine 0.5 mg rapid IVP
  • May repeat every 3-5 minutes to total of 3mg
  • If ineffective, begin pacing
  • Type II or 3rd degree heart block
  • Begin TCP
  • Valium 2 mg slow IVP for discomfort
  • May repeat 2 mg IVP every 2 minutes to max 10 mg
  • TCP set at rate 80/minute and start at lowest mA
  • Watch for capture
  • If TCP not effective, give Atropine 0.5 mg rapid
    IVP
  • May repeat Atropine 0.5 mg every 3-5 minutes max
    3mg

98
Identify Rhythm Strip 2 6
second strip
99
Treatment Sinus Rhythm
  • No treatment necessary for the rhythm
  • Treat the patients complaint
  • IF ACS, then
  • Aspirin 324 mg chewed (faster absorption)
  • Nitroglycerin 0.4 mg sl
  • May repeat in 5 minutes watch B/P
  • Morphine if 2nd NTG dose not effective
  • 2 mg slow IVP
  • May repeat every 2 minutes to max 10 mg
  • Screen for recent Viagra type drug usage

100
Identify Rhythm Strip 3 6 second
strip
101
Treatment Rapid Atrial Fibrillation
  • Stable patient with B/P gt100 mmHg
  • Verapamil 5mg SLOW IVP over 2 minutes
  • If no response in 15 minutes B/P stable, repeat
    5mg SLOW IVP over 2 minutes
  • Unstable patient with B/P lt100 mmHg
  • Contact Medical Control for direction
  • Afib patients at increased risk for atrial clots
    dislodging and migrating to the brain and the
    patient having an ischemic stroke

102
Rhythm Strip Identification
  • Strip 1 Second degree Type I -
  • Wenckebach (drops one)
  • Strip 2 Normal sinus rhythm
  • Strip 3 Atrial fibrillation - controlled

103
1 Identify ST Elevation
104
2 Identify ST elevation
105
3 Identify ST Elevation
106
ST Elevation Answer Key
  • EKG 1 Leads V 1 - 4
  • EKG 2 Leads V 2 - 5
  • EKG 3 Leads II, III, aVF

107
Bibliography
  • Bledsoe, B., Porter, R., Cherry, R. Paramedic
  • Care Principles Practices 2nd Edition
    Brady.
  • 2006.
  • ITLS Bulletin. Case Study ITLS Patient ETCO2.
  • June 2008.
  • Region X SOPs Eff date March 1, 2007 Revised
    January
  • 2008.
  • www.chems.alaska.gov/ems/document/GCS
  • www.merck.com
  • www.swsahs.nsw.gov.au/
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