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A Panel of Discussion on Implementing Interventions that have Worked to Improve Gender Equality in E


37% of boys and 43% of girls who enrolled into primary school do not complete their schooling. ... of women in the party structure. intrigues. male conspiracy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Panel of Discussion on Implementing Interventions that have Worked to Improve Gender Equality in E

A Panel of Discussion on Implementing
Interventions that have Worked to Improve Gender
Equality in Education
  • At
  • Organized by World Bank in Washington DC
  • 2-3 October 2007
  • Nigerias Experience
  • Presented by
  • Felicia Onibon
  • National Moderator
  • Civil Society Action Coalition on Education for
  • Nigeria

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  • Education is a human right that should be
    accorded to all human beings.
  • Nigeria signatory to EFA and MDGs
  • Policies in place to back implementation
  • UBEC Act of 2004 signed into Law in 2005
  • Gender policy in Education now in place
  • Gender Policy sponsored by Federal Ministry of
    Women Affairs now in place
  • Child Right Act now passed into law at National
  • EFA Unit set up in the Federal Ministry of
  • Debt Relief Gains set aside for the attainment of

  • With a population of 135,031,164 (Jan. 2007
    est.) 50.5male (68,257,579), 49.5 female
  • Most populated country in Africa.
  • Of the population aged 15 and over, 57.1 percent
    can read and write
  • A multi ethnic country operating under a federal
    system of governance.
  • Made up of 36 States and the Federal Capital
    Territory grouped into six geo-political zones.
  • There are 774 Local Government Areas.

  • characterized by
  • both urban and rural poverty
  • inadequate infrastructure
  • ill managed environment
  • 90 dependence on revenue from crude oil for
    national development
  • high dependence on subsistence farming for
    livelihood. These have huge gender implications.

Gender Implications
  • There is low women participation in high income
    economic activities and more women are prone to
    health hazards due to
  • their reproductive role
  • poor condition of service in the health sector.
  • Though women are recorded to constitute the
    larger number of voters, they are not adequately
    represented at decision making levels.
  • There is a dearth of female role models for young
    girls to emulate particularly in rural Nigeria.
  • More Boys are in schools than girls

  • there are serious gender inequalities in
    educational attainment
  • diverse factors are responsible for the
    discrimination against womens access to
  • Similarly, in the South Eastern part of Nigeria,
    due to economic reasons, lots of young boys have
    abandoned school to trade.

Current Status
  • Literacy rate for adult men is 57, while for
    adult women it is 43.
  • - Of children between the ages of 6 and 15 who
    should be in school, only 63.4 of boys
  • - Between 1991 and 2001, primary school enrolment
    rate for boys was 61 while that of girls was
  • - 37 of boys and 43 of girls who enrolled into
    primary school do not complete their schooling.
  • - Female enrolment in JSS in Nigeria declined
    from 47 in 1995 to 44 in 2002. The North East
    and North West Zones recorded 20 enrolment rate
    for girls, lower than sub-Saharan Africa average
    of 26.
  • - Secondary school completion rate of girls is
    44, while that of boys is 75. The gaps are
    wider in rural areas where the dropout rate for
    boys is 39.3 and that of girls 61.7.
  • - The gender gaps are wider in science and
    technology education.

barriers to girls education in Nigeria
  • Poverty
  • early marriage
  • low value placed on girls education
  • distance from school
  • Culture of Seclusion among the muslims Purdah
  • lack of toilet facilities in school
  • lack of drinking water
  • a general unfriendly school environment
  • a dearth of female teachers as a role models in
    most school communities across the country,
    particularly in the North
  • The increase in orphans due to HIV/AIDS scourge
    is also contributory to the deterrents of girls
    from school
  • Many girls who are orphans stop school to care
    for their younger ones and sometimes including
    their aged grand parents.
  • Many girls take the responsibility of adults from
    a very young age either due to culture, religion,
    abject poverty or sickness/ill-health of adults
    or their younger siblings.

Barriers to leadership Roles
  • poverty
  • effects of cultural and traditional practices and
  • rough and masculine model of politics Late night
    meetings Violent actions
  • self limiting model by women
  • high cost of financing political campaigns
  • poor representation of women in the party
  • intrigues
  • male conspiracy
  • blackmail and manipulation
  • low self esteem
  • lack of party support
  • prevalence of double standard.

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Any improvement since 2000
  • Yes
  • Increase in enrolment
  • The Emir of Kano leads the annual enrolment
    exercise conducted by UBEC for boys and girls
    into primary schools.
  • Increased awareness of the essence of western
    education due to power play in politics
  • More development programmes targeted towards
    girls education
  • Employment of 4000 teachers to work rural schools
    with preference for female teachers by the
    Federal Government.

  • More integrated programmes being introduced to
    school curriculum Health Education
  • General awareness on state of education
  • Home Grown School Feeding Programme in 12 States
    driven by the Federal Government
  • Girls education initiatives receiving attention
    from donor communities
  • Girls Education Project GEP in six Northern
    States Scale up being planned for six more
    States UNICEF FME
  • Construction of child friendly schools
  • Regular training opportunities for teachers in
    GEP schools
  • More girls enrolled into such schools
  • Enhanced participation of parents/community
  • Retention rate of girls in GEP schools is higher
    than in non GEP schools
  • Integrating Basic Eduction into Koranic Schools

Enhancing Girls Basic Education in Northern
Nigeria EGBINN Action Aid Nigeria
  • Sponsored by Oxfam Novib
  • Project in Sokoto, Zamfara and Kebbi States
    Three core Northern States where Sharia Law is
  • Recorded appreciable increase in girls enrolment
    due to several incentives given to all girls that
    attend school.
  • Hijabs distributed
  • Books supplied

  • Increased community participation
  • Formation of womens committees and training of
    women facilitators
  • Community engagement with local government
    authority enhanced.
  • Sultan of Sokoto and other Emirs in the three
    States as Girls Education Policy Champions

  • UNGEI/NGEI process led by Civil Society with
    focus on Good Practice in partnership with
    Government and IDPs UNICEF on the lead
  • American Ambassadors Scholarship Scheme for
    Girls in Basic Education
  • Increased advocacy by civil society
  • Government partnership with civil society and
    Faith Based Organizations
  • Increased monitoring of EFA and MDG related
  • Increased media engagement

  • Integration of basic education into Islamiya in
    Northern Nigeria
  • Women demanding for adult learning centres in
    their communities.
  • Universal Basic Education Commision-compulsory
    for both girls and boys of school age to be in
  • Led to high increase in enrolment
  • Global EFA week/ Global Week of Action
  • EFA Score card as a monitoring strategy
  • Appreciable progress towards MDG due to funds
    from the Debt Relief Gains

  • Nigeria still has over 7million out of school
  • ECCD still require full government intervention
  • Child rights bill signed to law but not in all
    States in Nigeria only in 11 States including
    only one Northern State Kwara
  • Federal Ministry of Education-5 Ministers with
    different focus in 6 years
  • Successful girls education initiatives are pilot
    projects and donor funded therefore
    sustainability is questionable
  • UBEC did not prepare for the explosion in
    transition to Junior secondary schools many boys
    and girls absorbed due to lack of space-
    particularly in urban schools in most States in
  • CSACEFA Education Watch Report 2006

  • Adult and non formal education not funded
  • Quality Education attainment still a major
    challenge with lack of adequate qualified
  • IDPS not responsive to the their promises to poor
    countries on funding good and costed plans
    Nigerias Plan is ready
  • Implementation strategies do not match the
    policies that are in place.

Opportunities for the future
  • Increased Community participation through School
    Based Management Committees SBMCs Civil society
    is currently working on a project that targets
    the women in SBMCs across the country for
    management and participation training / Gender
    training for all members of the committee.
  • Increased Civil Society engagement with policy
    makers at all levels on implementation and
    judicious use of funds
  • An integrated approach to monitoring and
    evaluation with relevant sanctions for non

  • Attaining the EFA and MDGs is possible if all
    actors work with sincerity of purpose
  • Traditional and Religious leaders are still very
    relevant in influencing sensitive policies,
    they should be encouraged to lead the advocacy on
    girls education
  • Quality functional education is the most
    attractive means of getting more girls to school,
    children will continue to withdraw either through
    parental consent or theirs if they get nothing
    from schooling.
  • Capacity of all government officials working in
    education delivery built in gender appreciation
    and development as an integrated module..
  • Similar training will be required for civil
    society actors alike as most work with rural
  • Thank you


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