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Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology

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... Hb structure) and muscular dystrophy (muscle tissue does not function properly ... Gender differences - women live longer than men 78 vs 81 years may be due to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology


1
Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology
  • Chapter 2

2
Cellular Adaptation
Physiologic vs. pathogenic Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyp
erplasia Metaplasia Dysplasia
3
Cellular Adaptation
4
Cellular Adaptation
5
Cellular Injury
  • Reversible
  • Irreversible

6
Cellular Injury Mechanisms
  • Hypoxic injury
  • Ischemia cut off of blood flow circulation
  • Anoxia insufficient oxygen can be due to
    lowered Hb, respiration effects, respiratory
    poisons
  • Cellular responses
  • Decrease in ATP, causing failure of
    sodium-potassium pump and sodium-calcium exchange
  • Cellular swelling
  • Reperfusion injury

7
Cellular Injury Mechanisms
  • Free radicals and reactive oxygen species
  • Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms
    having an unpaired electron
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Alteration of proteins
  • Alteration of DNA
  • Mechanisms for the inactivation of free radicals

8
Cellular Injury Mechanisms
  • Chemical injury
  • Lead CNS toxin interferes with
    neurotransmitters causing hyperactivity. Lead
    paints and children anemia lead toxicity
  • Carbon monoxide binds irreversibly to Hb
  • Ethanol cellular toxin kills cells liver
    toxin- interrupts protein transport pickles
    cells can cause fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Mercury neurotoxin can cause bone deformities
  • Social or street drugs

9
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries
  • Blunt force injuries
  • Application of mechanical energy to the body
    resulting in the tearing, shearing, or crushing
    of tissues
  • Contusion vs. hematoma bleeding in skin
    underlying layers
  • Abrasion removal of superficial skin layers
  • Laceration rip, year or puncture of skin layers
  • Fractures broken bones

10
Contusions and Hematomas
11
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries
  • Sharp force injuries
  • Incised wounds
  • Stab wounds
  • Puncture wounds
  • Chopping wounds

12
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries
13
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries
  • Gunshot wounds
  • Entrance wounds
  • Contact range entrance wound
  • Intermediate range entrance wound
  • Tattooing and stippling
  • Indeterminate range entrance wound
  • Exit wounds
  • Shored exit wound

14
Gunshot Wounds
15
Unintentional and Intentional Injuries
  • Asphyxial injuries
  • Caused by a failure of cells to receive or use
    oxygen
  • Suffocation
  • Strangulation
  • Hanging, ligature, and manual strangulation
  • Chemical asphyxiants- carbon monoxide, cyanide
  • Drowning

16
Infectious Injury
  • Pathogenicity of a microorganism gram neg or
    positive will determine which antibiotics will
    work best anti viral agents for viral
    infections
  • Virulence of a microorganism some strains are
    more dangerous than others
  • Disease-producing potential
  • Invasion and destruction
  • Toxin production
  • Production of hypersensitivity reactions

17
Immunologic and Inflammatory Injury
  • Phagocytic cells immune cells that engulf and
    destroy invading microbes and toxins
  • Immune and inflammatory substances
  • Histamine (chemical released by injured or
    infected cells that cause local vasodilation),
    antibodies (endogenous proteins that combat and
    identify invading cells and toxins), lymphokines
    (chemical produced by imune cells), complement,
    and enzymes
  • Membrane alterations leakage of cell contents
    due to the presence of antibodies and histamines

18
Injurious Genetic Factors
  • Nuclear alterations mutations and damage to DNA
  • Alterations in the plasma membrane structure,
    shape, receptors, or transport mechanisms
  • Examples of genetic diseases
  • Sickle cell anemia (substitution of one amino
    acid in Hb structure) and muscular dystrophy
    (muscle tissue does not function properly

19
Injurious Nutritional Imbalances
  • Essential nutrients are required for cells to
    function normally inadequate proteins,
    carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals
  • Deficient intake starvation and improper diets
    protein deficiency kwashiokor most common,
    Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to pernicious
    anemia
  • Excessive intake - obesity

20
Temperature Extremes
  • Hypothermic injury
  • Slows cellular metabolic processes
  • Ice crystal formation and frostbite
  • Hyperthermic injury
  • Heat cramps
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heatstroke
  • Protein denaturation

21
Atmospheric Pressure Changes
  • Sudden increases or decreases in atmospheric
    pressure
  • Blast injury
  • Nitrogen Narcosis or rapture of the deep
    Nitrogen gas has a narcotic effect (laughing gas)
  • Decompression sickness or caisson disease
  • The bends

22
Ionizing Radiation
  • Any form of radiation capable of removing orbital
    electrons from atoms
  • X-rays, gamma rays, alpha and beta particles
  • Amount of exposure measured in RADS. People who
    work with X-rays must wear badge that measures
    dosees of exposure over time
  • Mechanism of damage ionization of chemicals and
    breakage of chemical bonds
  • Effects of ionizing radiation

23
Ionizing Radiation
24
Cellular Injury
  • Illumination injury
  • Eyestrain, obscured vision, and cataract
    formation
  • Caused by light modulation
  • Mechanical stresses
  • Physical impact or irritation
  • Noise sound can cause tisse and organ trauma
  • Acoustic trauma and noise-induced hearing loss
    tinnitus very common among performing rock band
    members

25
Manifestations of Cellular Injury
  • Cellular accumulations (infiltrations)
  • Water
  • Lipids and carbohydrates
  • Glycogen
  • Proteins

26
Hydropic Degeneration
27
Manifestations of Cellular Injury
  • Cellular accumulations (infiltrations)
  • Pigments
  • Melanin, hemoproteins, bilirubin (aging brown
    spots)
  • Calcium can cause hardening of cells and
    altered membrane permeability
  • Urate example is gout where urate crystals form
    in joints and is very painful

28
Calcium Infiltration
29
Cellular Death
  • Necrosis local cell death by autodigestion
  • Sum of cellular changes after local cell death
    and the process of cellular autodigestion
  • Processes
  • Karyolysis
  • Nuclear dissolution and chromatin lysis
  • Pyknosis
  • Shrinking Clumping of the nucleus
  • Karyorrhexis
  • Fragmentation of the nucleus

30
Cellular Death
31
Necrosis
  • Coagulative necrosis
  • Primarily found in Kidneys, heart, and adrenal
    glands
  • Protein denaturation and increased intracellular
    level of Ca

32
Coagulative Necrosis
33
Necrosis
  • Liquefactive necrosis common after ischemic
    events in CNS (stroke)
  • Neurons and glial cells of the brain die and are
    rich in digestive enzymes
  • Hydrolytic enzymes causes brain tissues to become
    soft and liquefy sometimes walled off and form
    cysts
  • These types of cysts also form after bacterial
    infection due to actions of phagocytic
    neutrophils and fluid in cyst is called pus.

34
Liquefactive Necrosis
35
Necrosis
  • Caseous necrosis
  • Found in Tuberculous pulmonary infection
  • Combination of coagulative and liquefactive
    necrosis
  • Necrotic debris not completely digested thus
    tissues appear granular like clumped cheese

36
Caseous Necrosis
37
Necrosis
  • Fat necrosis
  • Common in Breast, pancreas, and other abdominal
    organs breakdown of fats create soaps and
    referred to as saponification and tissue is
    opaque or white chalky
  • Action of lipases break down fats to FA and
    glycerols

38
Fat Necrosis
39
Necrosis
  • Gangrenous necrosis
  • Clinical term
  • Dry vs. wet gangrene
  • Gas gangrene

40
Gangrenous Necrosis
41
Apoptosis a type of cell death different from
Necrosis in that it is active self destruction of
normal and pathologic tissue
  • Programmed cellular death- found mostly to occur
    during development of embryo
  • Mechanisms- specific signaling chemicals send
    message to cells programmed to die
  • Necrosis vs. apoptosis- while necrosis usually
    effects all cells in an area apoptosis effects
    scattered cells killing the cells shrink quickly
    and disappear neatly while necrotic cells swell
    and lyse

42
Apoptosis
43
Aging and Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology
  • Aging vs. disease tissues all have accumulaion
    of toxic chemicals and mutation damage over time.
    Disease can damage and destroys cells quickly
    due to some pathogenic cause
  • Normal life span - brain cells live as long as
    you do and the neurons in CNS once formed by age
    6 do not divide. RBC live only 120 days
  • Gender differences - women live longer than men
    78 vs 81 years may be due to genetic superiority

44
Theories of Aging
  • Accumulation of injurious events the more
    exposure to dangerous chemicals and pathogens the
    faster you age
  • Genetically controlled program some of us are
    destined to live longer due to the genetic
    program in our cells
  • Theories
  • Genetic and environmental lifestyle factors
  • Alterations of cellular control mechanisms
    decreased protein synthesis as you age
  • Degenerative extracellular changes nutrients
    and free radicals important

45
Theories of Aging
46
Aging
  • Cellular aging all cells can replicate 40 60
    times max and may be why clones do not live as
    long as parents
  • Tissue and systemic aging immune function goes
    down with age and free radicals damage cells
    speeding aging
  • Frailty wastin syndrome of aging due to
    decreased protein synthesis and reduced muscle
    mass and lowered bone density

47
Somatic Death
  • Death of an entire person Somatic death with no
    respiration or circulation
  • Postmortem changes
  • Algor mortis drop in body temp such that in 24
    hrs same as room temp
  • Livor mortis blood settles on lowest tissues due
    to gravity causing discoloration
  • Rigor mortis 6 12 hours post somatic death
    stiffening of body due to muscle protein
    breakdown
  • Postmortem autolysis bloating and swelling of
    body due to autolysis
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