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Title: Middle East

Middle East
  • Background
  • location in area of great physical and human
    interaction with diffusion of ideas and peoples
  • importance of outside influences impinging of
    established cultures
  • dominance of Islam and Arabic language except for
    Turkey, Iran, and Israel
  • presence of 2/3s of worlds oil resources
  • rapid economic and geographical changes after WWI

  • impact of the establishment of the state of
    Israel in 1948
  • existence of strategicchoke points like Strait
    of Gibraltar, Dardanelles and Bosporous, Suez
    Canal, and Strait of Hormuz
  • revival of Islamic fundamentalism
  • cohesion of a distinctive physical environment
    dominated by arid conditions
  • most people live on desert margins where water is
    available, ie. Mediterranean coast,
    Nile/Tigris-Ephrates, or highlands of Turkey/Iran

  • North African and Southwest Asian countries
    occupy 11 of worlds land but only 7 of the
    worlds people.
  • one of worlds most strategic areas, cockpit of
    international conflict and political instability
  • five sub-regions (1) North Africa, west of
    Egypt (2) Nile Valley (3) Heartland of Arab
    world from Syria to Oman (4) Israel, Gaza, and
    West Bank (5) Iran and Turkey

  • Islamic Religion and Arabic Language
  • Islam is most basic and influential element of
    the region
  • Islam established by Mohammed in Arabian
    peninsula, spread from Arabia to North Africa and
    Spain in west and Central Asia in east
  • Five pillars of Islam
  • (1) profession of faith, shahada
  • (2) daily prayer
  • (3) giving alms, zakat
  • (4) fasting in the month of Ramadan
  • (5) making the pilgrimage to Mecca, hajj

  • divisions within Islam between Sunni and Shia
    (90 of Iranian population are Shiites)
  • gender inequalities in Muslim countries
  • importance of Arabic language as unifying
    cultural force with regional variations
  • language of Holy Koran
  • Muslim mosques distinctive feature of
  • Berber language in North Africa Persian (Farsi)
    in Iran Turkish language in Turkey Kurdish
    language in parts of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and
    Syria and Hebrew in Israel
  • Islamic art, architecture, and calligraphy

Sacred Mosque at Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Mosque of the Prophet at Medina, Saudi Arabia
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  • Natural Environment
  • dry climate and desert vegetation
  • whole region dominated by arid conditions, high
    evaporation, high temperatures
  • some marginal areas receive more rain like coasts
    of western North Africa, eastern Mediterranean,
    mountains of Turkey and Iran
  • coastal locations and guaranteed sunshine attract
  • advantage of growing citrus fruits, olives,
    grapes and early vegetables for domestic and
    foreign markets

  • scarcity of water
  • water available from melting snows in mountains
    of Maghrib, Turkey, Iran, from underground stores
    (oases), from external sources like equatorial
    rains that feed the Nile
  • growth of oil industry, urbanization, and
    industrialization have major impacts on limited
    water resources
  • desalination plants
  • desertifiction began thousands of years ago-
    North Africa was breadbasket of Roman empire,
    cave paintings reveal a more moist environment

Middle East Climates
  • oil resources
  • discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia and Gulf
    fundamental altered region
  • Saudi Arabia and Gulf contain 2/3s of worlds
    proven reserves of oil
  • rest of region either has no oil or relatively
    little oil. Libya has significant oil resources
    Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria produce limited
    quantities of oil
  • tremendous impact of oil on domestic economies
    and the world economy
  • period of 1973-80 one of high oil prices and
    accumulation of large capital reserves

  • establishment of OPEC in 1960, oil cartel of
    major producers to keep supply and demand
  • use of the oil weapon in 1973 punish West for
    support of Israel in Yom Kipper War
  • fourfold increase in price of oil leading to
    massive oil revenues for OPEC countries
  • major investments in new roads, hospitals,
    government buildings, airports, and military
  • influx of immigrant labor in Saudi Arabia,
    Kuwait, Gulf States
  • impact of falling oil prices in 80s and 90s on
    domestic economies

  • Gulf War 1991 fought to prevent Saddam Hussein
    from controlling vast petroleum reserves of
  • ecological consequences of the war, retreating
    Iraqi soldiers set 700 oil wells on fire, impact
    of fires on air pollution, and pollution of
    Persian Gulf
  • threat of continuing instability in the region
  • American intervention and occupation of Iraq
  • Rise of militant Islam
  • Prospects for stability very uncertain

North Africa Physical Map
North AfricaPhysical Map
  • Background
  • composed of Algeria, Libya, Morocco (Western
    Sahara), and Tunisia
  • region also known as the Maghrib
  • westernmost sector of the Arab world
  • diverse historical influences- Phoenicians,
    Romans, Vandals, Ottomans, and French
  • Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia retain close ties
    with France
  • strong link to markets in Europe for selling
    products, buying goods,

  • share an adherence to Islam as the dominant
    religion and Arabic as the official language
    (educated classes still speak French)
  • link with other Muslim Arab countries
    strengthened when Arab League headquarters from
    Cairo (Egypt) to Tunis.
  • countries exist in a harsh, largely arid
    environment that restricts agriculture
  • most human settlement confined to a small
    percentage of their territory,
  • increasing problems of water supply as the
    population continues to increase rapidly

  • Algeria, Libya, and, to a smaller extent, Tunisia
    are now oil producers with income from this
    source has been invested in broadening the
    economic base into manufacturing.
  • the four countries of North Africa have
    population around 28 million
  • Libya and Tunisia have natural environments that
    include cultivated coastal areas in the north,
    desert interiors, and the high Atlas Mountain
    ranges with their interior plateaus
  • Algeria and Libya have 80 of territory in the
  • northern parts of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia
    dominated by Atlas Mountains

  • Algeria and Libya are major oil and gas producers
  • Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia mine and export
    phosphate for fertilizer
  • Algeria is one of the most prosperous countries
    in the African continent, but has a tumultuous
    recent history
  • bloody war of independence with France until 1962
  • experienced democratic and military rule
  • curtailment of elections by the army in 1992 led
    to a civil war with the dispossessed Islamic

  • terrorist activity is now devastating Algeria's
    economy and people.
  • Morocco has political stability under its
    moderate king, King Hassan II who gained
    international Muslim credibility following his
    mediating role in Arab issues and the
    construction of a massive new mosque in
  • Tunisia is modernizing under democratic rule.
    President Bourguiba replaced by Ben Ali in 1987
  • Libya remains under the strong direction of
    Colonel al Gadhafi who seized power in 1969 and
    runs the country as a military republic.
  • The former Spanish Sahara was annexed by Morocco
    in 1976, leading to an internal war with the
    Polasario Front

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  • Population and Culture
  • populations of all the North African countries
    continue to grow rapidly,
  • lower population growth in Tunisia because of
    several governmental policies, i.e. forbidding of
    polygamy, minimum age for marriage, and
    instituting a successful family planning program.
  • Morocco has set up a program to empower women,
    including family planning, maternal, and child
  • despite the reduction of fertility in the most
    populous countries, the total population of these
    five countries rose from just under 50 million in
    1980 to almost 70 million in 1993, and could be
    over 110 million by A.D. 2025.

  • growth of population in North African countries
    occurs in urban areas, which now contain over
    half the total population
  • largest cities include Algiers (Algeria, nearly 4
    million), Casablanca (Morocco, 3.5 million),
    Tripoli (Libya, around 3 million), and Tunis
    (Tunisia, just over 2 million)
  • rapid population growth creates problems for the
    education systems and employment prospects
  • shortages of skilled labor continue despite the
    effect of intensive education programs
  • growing university educated group in each
    country, but they find few employment
    opportunities in their home country.

  • problems of employment led many North Africans to
    migrate to France and other European countries
  • remittances of money sent home are important
    additions to local income.
  • Economic Development
  • problems facing North African countries stem from
    the type of economy established in colonial times
    with its built-in dependence on Europe.
  • land appropriation for settlers who farmed
    commercially and used irrigation water for
    intensive farming that was tied to markets in
  • Manufacturing and oil exploration were not

  • export crops, such as citrus and olive oil,
    continue to be produced on large holdings of over
    124 acres
  • North African countries still need to import up
    to half their food needs
  • only Morocco has as much as half of its
    population still dependent on agriculture
  • Morocco is contesting the management of fishing
    grounds off Western Africa with the European
    Union and, particularly, Spain. The main fish
    caught are squid (for export to Japan), tuna, and
  • Morocco continues to export cork from the bark of
    oak trees in the northern area of the country.
  • Oil and natural gas dominate the economies and
    exports of Algeria and Libya.

  • Libya, with its small population, suddenly gained
    great riches that were nationalized after an
    initial phase of development by multinational oil
    companies Algeria and Libya are major world
    producers with refining and petrochemical
  • Pipelines bring the oil and natural gas from
    interior locations to coastal ports and
    refineries (Figure 3.15).
  • Manufacturing is growing in all countries and now
    contributes 20 (Morocco) to 30 (Algeria) of
  • In Morocco and Tunisia, tourism is a major source
    of income, based on their sunshine, coastal
    locations, historic and cultural features,
    shopping opportunities and stable political
  • Tunisia has a thriving film industry due to good
    location and spectacular scenery (Star
    Wars/English Patient)

  • In the 1990s, North African countries are
    attempting to privatize large sections of their
  • Tunisia is farther ahead and even has its own
    sock exchange Morocco is following with
    unparalleled sales of state holdings
  • populations of all the North African countries
    continue to grow rapidly,
  • despite the reduction of fertility in the most
    populous countries, the total population of these
    five countries rose from just under 50 million in
    1980 to almost 70 million in 1993, and could be
    over 110 million by AD. 2025.
  • growth of population in North African countries
    occurs in urban areas, which now contain over
    half the total population

Map of Fez, Morocco
Fez, Morocco
  • Nile Valley-Egypt and Sudan
  • flow of water from Nile crucial to Egypt and
  • 1959 Nile Waters Agreement shared water between
    Egypt and Sudan with Sudan getting 30 of total
  • Egypt largest population of any Arab country with
    65 million people
  • Egypt has great power and influence in the Arab
    world, strategic location with Suez canal
  • Sudan the largest country in area but only has
    half the population of Egypt and is the poorest
    country of the region

  • Gamal Abdul Nassers coup in 1952, establishment
    of socialism and non-alignment in world affairs
  • nationalization of Suez canal in 1956, Suez
    Crisis 1956, Six-Day War with Israel in 1967 and
    turn toward Russia
  • Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser stored three times
    amount of annual water for agriculture and
    hydroelectric power
  • Egypts shift to more pro-West , pro-US and
    accommodationist policy vis-à-vis Israel in
    1970s and its consequences in the Arab World
  • Sudan plagued by problems of drought, political
    instability, and refugees problems from Ethiopia

  • Population
  • both Egypt and Sudan have rapidly expanding
  • Egypt making some progress to reduce growth rates
    with help of US and UN aid
  • progress to reduce fertility may depend on
    raising the status of women and some progress
    being made here
  • Cairos population expanded to 13 million with
    huge transportation, sanitation and housing
  • Alexandrias population at 4 million
  • Khartoum, capital of Sudan has 2.5 million and
    population is growing faster than the government
    can provide services

  • Economic Development
  • Egypt has moved from economy dominated by cotton
    production for export to one emphasizing food
    production, i.e.. sugar, rice, vegetables, and
  • still not self sufficient in food production, but
    investment has boosted production
  • Agricultural Reform Act of 1952 designed to limit
    landholding redistribution to peasants
  • industrialization potential based on power
    generated by the Aswan dam has not fully
  • some industrialization based on iron and steel
    industries, chemicals, assembly of cars, food
    processing, tire manufacturing, etc.

  • ecological problems caused by Aswan Dam- silting,
    salinization, schistosomiasis
  • double/triple cropping in most areas with
  • cotton, alfalfa, wheat, maize, rice are main
  • nationalized industries overregulated
  • remittances from Egyptian workers in Saudi Arabia
    and Gulf benefited the economy in 80s
  • Gulf War in 1991 led to many workers returning
  • end of Cold War may lead to less US aid (10
  • tourism capable of generating large foreign
    exchange earning (2 billion in 92), but Islamic
    terrorism since the 1990 has hurt this sector
    beach resorts at Sharm el-Sheikh at southern tip
    of Sinai popular

  • Suez canal revenues static but not growing much
  • incomes from Upper Egypt south of Cairo are about
    half the incomes from the Delta to Cairo
  • Sudans economy very poor with little prospect of
    outside help from US or other Western countries
  • cotton provided 50 of Sudans exports in good
  • civil war, drought, pressures from refugees from
    Ethiopia produced difficult conditions in Sudan
  • decreasing world prices for cotton and sugar have
    hurt both Egyptian and Sudanese economies
  • restiveness of Egyptians

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Arab Southwest
  • Background
  • heart of Arab world consists of Arabian Peninsula
    and fertile crescent from Tigris-Euphrates to the
    Lebanese coast
  • includes countries of Iraq with 23 million
    people Saudi Arabia with 21 million Syria with
    17 million, Yemen with 18 million, and Gulf
    states with a total of 6 million
  • center of the Islamic religion and focus of
    Muslim pilgrimage at Mecca (Mekkah)

  • focus of oil industry on eastern shore of Persian
  • oil-rich countries have built internal
    infrastructure, built up military strength, and
    provided full welfare services for the population
  • cost of Gulf War in 1991 and drop in world oil
    prices have had an adverse effect on the
    economies of the region
  • presence of Israel in midst of Arab heartland has
    been thorny political issue
  • US foreign policy of unconditional support for
    Israel has created problems for the US in the

  • Countries of Arab Southwest
  • Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman,
    Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates
    and Yemen
  • Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar and
    Oman produce oil but have little water
  • Lebanon and Jordan have some water but no oil
  • Syria and Iraq have both oil and water
  • Yemen has no oil and little water

  • some efforts to share oil wealth before Gulf War
    in 1991 with poorer states but falling prices and
    political conflicts between Arab states has
    lessened contributions
  • tensions between donor countries (Gulf states)
    and debtor nations (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and
  • lack of skilled labor has led to massive
    importation of foreign workers from Arab world,
    Indian subcontinent, Korea, and Philippines
  • tension over Tigris-Euphrates between Turkey and

  • Sunni majorities in most Gulf countries, but
    tensions between Sunnis and Shiites have
    complicated relations in the region
  • border disputes between Saudi Arabia and Yemen
    and between Iraq and Kuwait which led to Gulf War
  • Population
  • rapid population growth in region
  • large population of youths
  • life expectancies vary from 65 years of age in
    Gulf to 46 years in Yemen
  • migrations still way of life for Bedouins

  • high urbanized population in most states
  • largest cities include Bagdad, Iraq (4 million)
    Amman, Jordan (1.5 million) Beirut, Lebanon
    (1.5 million) Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2 million)
    Damascus, Syria (5 million) Jeddah, Saudi
    Arabia, (1.5 million) Aleppo, Syria (1.5 million)
  • Economic Development
  • great contrast between countries with high oil
    revenue and countries with no oil
  • Persian Gulf countries sitting on huge oil
    reserves with relatively small populations

  • Iraqi economy virtually destroyed as consequence
    of the Gulf War, sanctions prevent exports and
    imports though a limited amount of medicine and
    food are permitted
  • before oil discovery, Gulf states engaged in low
    intensity farming where water was available or
    nomadic herding where water was scarce
  • crops like dates and citrus exported
  • crude oil make up 85-90 of exports
  • challenge to move to a more diversified
    manufacturing base

  • Kuwait attempting to restore production of oil
    wells, wiped out in Iraqi invasion and setting of
    fires by retreating Iraqi soldiers
  • Kuwait overseas assets fell from 100 billion to
    35 billion
  • new industrial cities of Jubail on Gulf and Yanbu
    on Red sea in Saudi Arabia major centers of new
    petrochemical plants and manufacturing industries
  • gasoline, electricity, water and telephone highly
  • creation of a new university system in Saudi
    Arabia and Gulf states to turn out skilled labor

  • Iraq could have been a major leader in the region
    but instead chose to make war on Iran and Kuwait,
    neglected agricultural resources, and spent huge
    sums on military equipment
  • economic progress in non-oil producing countries
    like Jordan and Yemen very slow
  • loss of West Bank to Israel in 1967 hurt
    Jordanian economy and led to significant problems
    with Palestinian refugees
  • Beirut, the Paris of the Middle East, virtually
    destroyed in 1975 civil war, now experiencing a
    commercial building explosion, money returning

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Background
  • kingdom divided among various clans in 19th C
  • crucial role of Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, founder of
    modern Saudi Arabian state
  • consolidated tribal and regional units into Saudi
    kingdom before discovery of oil
  • very poor desert kingdom prior to WW II
  • discovery of oil near Dammam in 1938, no large
    scale production until after WW II
  • oil production developed by ARAMCO (Arabian
    American Oil Co) owned by 4 large multinational
    oil companies

  • Physical Character and Climate
  • Saudi Arabia occupies greater part of Arabian
  • interior is an arid plateau formed on west by
    steep mountains that rise from Red Sea
  • plateau 2,000-4,000 feet in elevation
  • Rub al Khali (Empty Quarter) in southeast part of
  • Syrian desert extends into northern part of area
  • coastal plain along Red Sea
  • low-lying area known as Al Asa along Persian
    Gulf where most of the oil can be found

Saudi Arabia Physical Map
  • Climate
  • extreme heat and aridity throughout the country
  • winter temperatures between 45 to 70 degrees F
  • summer temperatures between 80 to 107 degrees F
  • temperatures in desert often reach over 120
    degrees F
  • precipitation sparse
  • Riyadh averages 3.2 inches per year
  • Jiddah receives only 2.4 inches per year
  • no permanent rivers or lakes
  • wadis (watercourses) punctuate the interior

  • Population
  • population of Saudi Arabia estimated to be 21
  • 82 of the population composed of Arabs whose
    ancestors lived in region for centuries
  • 13 Yemenis and other Arabs who migrated to Saudi
    Arabia in the 50s in search of jobs
  • Nomads are declining percentage of population
  • 80 of the people live in cities today
  • largest cities are Riyadh (2.5 million)
    Jeddah (1.6 million Mecca (1.5
    million) Medina (.5 million)
    and Dammam (.2 million)
  • Industrial centers of Jubail on Persian Gulf and
    Yanbu on the Red Sea

  • Petroleum
  • founded in 1938 by the Arabian-American Oil
    Company (ARAMCO)
  • Saudi government acquired controlling interest in
    ARAMCO in 1974
  • Saudis have 1/4 of known world oil reserves
    largest producer of oil with 3 billion barrels
    produced each year
  • sizable quantities of natural gas
  • Trans-Arabian pipeline carries oil from eastern
    fields to Sidon in Lebanon oil facilities at
    Yanbu on Red Sea and from Ras Tanura in Persian
  • considerable influence in OPEC decisions
  • future of Iraqi reserves and US policy

  • Economic Development
  • ambitious five year development plans calling for
    150 billion in investment
  • priority to industrial sector, particularly
    petrochemical industry, liquefied natural gas,
    steel and cement plants, light industry
  • build up of defense, social services, education
    and training
  • agriculture promoted with dairy projects, poultry
    raising, irrigated lands from deep wells
  • now grow wheat, tomatoes, melons, onions,
    citrus, grapes, and other crops

  • Political stability
  • Saudi Arabian monarchy and US concerns ability
    the stability of ruling family
  • security concerns focus on Iraq, Iran, and Israel
  • AWACs radar planes sold to Saudi Arabia in 1981
    over objections of Israelis
  • consultative councils to advise King on political
  • concern about human rights of prisoners
  • cruel and unusual punishments (chopping block
  • terrorist incidents troubling for Saudis and US
  • US housing center bombed in 1996, heavy damage
  • Saudi concern about American presence

  • extremists incidents during pilgrimage, 270
    deaths near Mecca
  • demands for social change slow in coming
  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) established among
    Gulf States to discuss security and economic
  • good cooperation among sheikdoms of Persian Gulf
  • Saudi monarchy guardians of two most Holy Places
    in Islam -Mecca and Medina
  • strong concern about status of Jerusalem
  • special interest in Islamic concerns around the
    world, Bosnia, former Soviet Socialist Republics
  • King Abdullah, the new Saudi monarch who
    succeeded to the throne in 2005

King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud
King Abdullah
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  • Israel, Gaza, and West Bank
  • Israel is a major political, economic, religious,
    and cultural anomaly in the region
  • Jewish desire to establish a homeland in
    Palestine prior to WWI culminates in a state by
  • desire to escape persecutions, pogroms, and
    poverty led to creation of the State of Israel
    strong US support in the UN crucial in
    establishing Israel
  • hostility of Palestinian community and
    surrounding Arab states leads to 1948 war
    800,000 Palestinian refugees created by Israeli's
    refusal to allow refugees to return to their homes

Growth of Israel 1917-2001
West Bank Settlements
  • Arab refusal to accept existence of the state of
    Israel and Israel desire to expand borders for
    more security lead to host of wars from 1948
    through 1982
  • establishment of the PLO in 1964 to advance
    Palestinian interests
  • crucial issue of Israeli settlements around
    Jerusalem and all over West Bank complicate the
    search for peace
  • significance of water politics (extension of
    Israeli power in Lebanon, Golan Height, and West
    Bank) designed to obtain scarce supplies of water
  • injustice of Israeli policies on West Bank

  • concern in Israel about population growth rates
    falling except for additions from external
  • today 90 of Israeli population lives in cities
    with Tel Aviv/Jaffa the largest concentration of
  • future of Israel dependent upon relations with
    Palestinians and relations with Arab neighbors
  • heavy defense expenditures, high expectations for
    social services, and high levels of US foreign
    aid (12 billion in recent times) cannot continue
  • Israel needs to trade land for peace, but the
    present government appears to want both

  • economic development
  • Israel economy similar to those of Mediterranean
  • high ownership of consumer goods and high
    standard of living
  • government running large budget deficits and
    depleting currency reserves
  • government needs to speed privatization,
    streamline bureaucracy, and lessen controls over
    the economy
  • economic advantage of a very highly trained and
    skilled work force
  • government attempting to diversify economy with a
    thriving agricultural sector and manufacturing

  • agriculture on kibbutzim declining, only 5 of
    work force in agriculture in Israel
  • manufacture of industrial machinery, military
    equipment, chemicals, and high tech industries
    like telecommunications, electronic printing,
    diagnostic imaging systems in medicine and date
  • service sector also strong with tourism as a
    major industry
  • government desires to break into EU markets and
    markets in Arab world
  • Palestinians highly educated with good prospects
    of development if peace can be established
  • huge infrastructure problems in Gaza, most people
    still live in refugees camps, unemployment over
    50, promised aid not delivered

  • Palestinian land being taken for settlements in
    West Bank which leads to further hostility
  • tensions high on the West Bank
  • extremists among Israeli settlers and radical
    Islamic militants like Hamas complicated search
    for peace
  • issue of Jerusalem
  • Oslo Accords 1992 and their consequences for the
  • cycle of Palestinian terrorism and gross Israeli
    human rights violations
  • Prime Minister Sharon hard line policies toward
    PLO, building wall around occupied territories
  • Transfer of Gaza to Palestinian Authority
  • Prospects for peace uncertain

Israel Physical Map
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  • Turkey and Iran
  • Similarities
  • Turkey and Iran different from other
    Arab-language states of the Middle East
  • Arabic replaced by Turkish and Persian languages
  • both overwhelming Islamic in religion that Turkey
    is a more secular state
  • both have large populations over 65 million each
  • both powerful forces in the region and have a
    strategic locations- Bosporus and Dardanelles in
    Turkey and Strait of Hormuz at entrance to the
    Persian Gulf

  • both share largely mountainous countries along
    the plate collision between Arabia and Asia
  • both receive precipitation in mountains, much of
    which falls as winter snow. Meltwater feeds
  • both subject to earthquakes
  • both have Kurdish minorities inside country
  • Differences
  • both are long-time rivals for power and influence
    in the region
  • Irans Muslims belong to Shia group while
    Turkeys Muslims are Sunni

  • Iran ruled by leading family under military
    control (Shah of Iran until revolution in 1979
    which ushered in rule by Shiite religious
    mullahs led by Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Turkey became a nationalist secular state under
    Mustafa Kemal Ataturk after WW I and later a
    democratic state and NATO member
  • Turkey has been closely involved with European
    interest and support from the US
  • major US bases in Turkey, monitoring Soviet ships
    through Bosporous
  • Iran very hostile to US interest after the 1979
    Iranian revolution

  • Population
  • Population of Turkey around 65.9 million (2002)
    vs. Irans population of 66.2 million (2002)
  • Iranian population growing much faster so by year
    2025 projections are for 150 million in Iran vs.
    100 million in Turkey
  • varied composition of the Iranian population with
    50 Persian in Iran, 25 Azeris
    (Azerbaijan), 10 Kurds, and others 15
  • Turkish population is 80 Turks and 20 Kurds
  • expanding urban populations in Turkey and Iran as
    people move from the rural areas to cities

  • Tehran, capital and largest city in Iran with 6
    million people Meshed (1.5 million) and Isfahan
    and Tabriz (1 million each)
  • Istanbul, largest city in Turkey with 10 million
    Ankara, the capital of Turkey build in the empty
    interior of country now has 3 million people
    Izmir (2 million)
  • Economic Development
  • Iran and Turkey experienced different types of
    economic development based on oil for Iran and
    water resources for Turkey
  • Iranian oil income used to build urban-industrial
    state with a strong military

  • Iranian revolution in 1979 led to isolation in
    region, devastating war with Iraq in 80s,
    squandering of oil wealth, and less emphasis on
  • Turkey invested heavily in developing water
    resources for agriculture and some industrial
  • major advances in mechanization of agriculture in
    Turkey with use of fertilizers to increase yields
  • increase production of cotton, soybeans, grains,
    fruits, vegetables
  • 20 of exports by value are from agriculture
  • mining of chromite, copper and gold add to
    mineral exports
  • steel made on Black Sea coast near coal and steel
  • international tourism brings in 1 billion per

  • Iranian agriculture less sophisticated and less
  • lack of sufficient investment in agriculture,
    need for more irrigation
  • Iran imports much of its food
  • arid land in south and east of Iran limits
  • oil revenue used to create oil refineries,
    petrochemical plants on Gulf coast, iron and
    steel works at Isfahan
  • pipelines distribute oil and gas
  • small private sector assembles cars, produces
    textiles, leather goods and other light

  • Contemporary Issues
  • Turkeys desire to become part of EU
  • Conflict between Islam and secularism
  • EU concern about militant Islam, democracy and
    human rights
  • Iranian drive for big power status and
    development of a nuclear capability
  • Conflict between reformers and traditionalists

Turkey Physical Map
Anatolian Plateau
Iran Physical Map
Elburz Mts
Zagros Mts
Iranian Plateau
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