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Human Cloning

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4. After a few division in culture, implant in surrogate mother. How to Clone (2) ... Jurassic Park. Cloning and Medicine. Therapeutic Cloning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Cloning


1
HUMAN CLONING
The Good
The Bad
Eliot Grigg Dartmouth College March 25, 2003
The Bizarre
2
Medieval Medicine
  • Experiment without understanding mechanisms
  • Assumption that all cells in body have same
    genetic information
  • Turning back the developmental clock on a cell
    reprogramming process not understood

3
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4
History of Cloning
  • 1960s and 70s Nuclear transfer in frogs
    John Gurdon
  • 1996 Megan and Morag lambs created from
    aborted fetus cells
  • 1997 Dolly First mammal cloned from an adult
    cell Dr. Ian Wilmut

5
Recent Cloning Events
  • Dolly dies young in February short telomeres
  • Shorten when cell divides (except cancer cells)
  • Italian fertility doctor Severino Antinori
  • Chinese cloning program
  • Clonaid - announced first clone baby born on
    December 26, 2002 thought to be a hoax by
    Raelian movement

6
How to Clone
  • Nuclear Transfer
  • 1. Extract DNA from oocyte (egg)
  • 2. Extract DNA from donor cell in G0 stage of
    cycle
  • 3. Inject DNA into empty oocyte and fuse with
    electricity
  • 4. After a few division in culture, implant in
    surrogate mother

7
How to Clone (2)
8
Technical Hurdles
  • Complications
  • Dolly result of 277 attempts, dies young
  • 2-3 success rate elsewhere
  • Developmental problems lungs, immune system,
    weight gain
  • Why?
  • Cell cycle coordination
  • Reprogramming process time compression
  • Methylation signals to genes disturbed in
    handling
  • Oct4 gene improperly regulating?

9
Animal Cloning
  • Bucardo, Spanish Mountain Goat
  • Livestock
  • Frozen Zoo
  • Jurassic Park

10
Cloning and Medicine
  • Therapeutic Cloning
  • Cloning allows for specific genetic engineering
    because one modified cell grows into an entire
    organ / organism
  • Reproductive Cloning
  • Cloning makes new people from an adult cell

11
Xenotransplantation
  • Transplanting organs from other species
  • Goldie the pig lacks gene alpha-1-galactosyltransf
    erase codes for sugar on cell surface that is
    identified by human antibodies
  • Randall Prather
  • Retrovirus in pig DNA transferred to humans?

12
Therapeutic Cloning
  • Therapeutic Cloning
  • 1. Extract DNA from adult cells
  • 2. Create cloned embryos
  • 3. Extract embryonic stem cells
  • 4. Destroy embryo
  • Spare Parts
  • Direct tissue engineering of spare parts on
    demand begin with one cell, modify it, and grow
    into organ
  • Genetically identical to recipient no rejection

13
Therapeutic Cloning (2)
  • Grow whole organs alleviate organ shortage
  • Grow non-regenerating cells
  • Brain cells for Parkinsons
  • Pancreatic islet cells for Diabetes
  • Note we do not yet have command of stem cells

14
Reproductive Cloning
  • Cloning entire people
  • Infertility
  • Genetically related offspring for infertile,
    gay/lesbian couples
  • Offspring for families with inheritable genetic
    disorders
  • Add genetic engineering for designer babies
  • Raise the dead see handout

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16
The Legal Landscape
  • Distinction between Reproductive and Therapeutic
    Cloning
  • In USA
  • Total cloning ban passed the
  • House but awaits Senate
  • President Bush support
  • Federally funded institutions
  • must only use existing stem cell lines
  • UN Talks suspended for global cloning ban
  • Human cloning illegal in South Korea, legal in
    China
  • If we ban it here, it will happen somewhere else

17
Ethics Patents
  • Patents do not cover things found in nature but
    do cover things discovered or made by man
  • Patent on a gene
  • Patent on technique and sometimes its product
  • i.e. drug, novel organism
  • Patent on transgenic organism containing human
    genes
  • Patent on a human clone?

18
Ethical Objections
  • Theological
  • Playing God, Taking life
  • Technical
  • Failures and deformities unsafe (for now)
  • Creepy Applications
  • Parent from beyond the grave
  • Headless organ donors
  • Identity
  • Is clone a distinct person from DNA donor?

19
Clones vs. Twins vs. Carbon Copies
  • Donor DNA
  • Telomere shortening
  • Epigenetics turning off one copy of every gene
    (from mom or dad)
  • Surrogate mother
  • Conditions in the uterus
  • Oocyte doing reprogramming
  • Mitochondrial DNA
  • Nurture unique upbringing environment
  • Buttercup

20
Old and New Ethical Dilemmas
  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Accepted by society
  • Abortion
  • Legal, if contested
  • Coming soon Face / Head Transplants
  • Similar identity crisis dates back to Descartes
    (at least)

21
Designer Babies and Genetic Determinism
  • Preventive Genetic Engineering ? Enhancing
    Genetic Engineering
  • In the not-too-distant future, it will
  • be looked at as foolhardy to have a
  • child by normal conception.
  • Dr. Gregory Stock of UCLA
  • The Genetic Divide
  • Eugenics an advantage for future
  • goals, not a guarantee

22
Conclusion
  • Apocalyptic Scenarios
  • Headless organ donors
  • Genetic Divide
  • Society without men
  • Medical tool Art Form?
  • Educate lawmakers / society
  • If we had cured Beethovens depression, would we
    still have his music?
  • What is the nature of human nature?

23
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