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Intercultural Development Inventory


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Title: Intercultural Development Inventory

Intercultural Development Inventory
  • Dr. John Brenner
  • Southwest Virginia Community
  • College

BIE-China Presentation April 25, 2009
Background Information
  • Teach Sociology and am Global Education
    Coordinator at Southwest Virginia Community
  • Include the global perspective in the Principles
    of Sociology and Social Problems courses

Background Information
  • Associates degree from Parkland College
  • Undergraduate degree in Education from University
    of Illinois
  • Masters of Asian Studies from University of
    Illinois with concentration in 20th China
  • Doctorate from ETSU in Educational Leadership

Travel Information
  • 1977Fulbright Group Grant to India for 3 months
    to study art and religion of India
  • 1978Office of Education Group grant to West
    Africa to study drought, desertification and
    USAID assistance to drought victimsvisited
    Senegal, Mali, Borkina Fasso and Ivory Coast

Travel Information
  • 1981Englandtwo weeks
  • 1987Japan for two weeks with Honda Corporation
  • 1998China for two weeksBeijing, Xian, Nanjing
    and Shanghai with the Friendship Force
  • 2001Faculty Exchange to England for two

Travel Information
  • 2002-2004Three trips to Russia as Grant
    Evaluator for SWCCs New Independent States Grant
    with Ivanovo State Power University, Ivanovo,
  • 2005Faculty Exchange with Stevenson College in
    Edinburgh, Scotland
  • 2006Visited colleges in Copenhagen, Denmark
    Tunis,Tunisia and Recife, Brazil

Travel Information
  • Since 2006---I video conference with the school
    in Recife, Brazil on work, society, culture and
    current events
  • I have also made several trips to Canada and
    Mexico in the past

Culture - Definition
  • A comfortable term to people
  • We all know it and feel we understand it
  • It is the way of life of a people (Ting-Toomey,
  • It is the way people deal with their environment

  • Ferrante (2008 p. 60) states that culture
  • Human-created strategies for adjusting to the
  • It has clear boundaries
  • We tend to think in differences among people
  • We identify certain people within a culture
  • It exists within a society

  • Trask and Hamon (2007-p. 4) state that culture
    has to be viewed in the context of family through
    a dynamic process passed from generation to
  • Culture is a learned behavior that revolves
    around beliefs, practices, behaviors, symbols,
    attitudes of a particular group of people

Culture - Features
  • Brislin (1993 p, 23) offers an extensive
    checklist of features of culture that include
  • Ideals, values, and assumptions about life
  • Transmitted ideas that come from parents,
    teachers, religious leaders and respected elders
    of a society
  • Involves childhood experiences
  • Aspects rarely discussed by adults because it is
    the accepted and shared concepts

Culture - Features
  • Brislin continuedculture
  • Becomes clearest when there are clashes between
  • Allows people to explain events
  • Cultural values are seen as a constant
  • It allows for emotional reactions
  • There can be rebellions---as in the youth
  • Changes require time and can be difficult

Culture Competency
  • Defined as the ability learn from and relate
    respectfully to people of your own culture as
    well as people from other cultures (Trask and
    Hamon, 2007 p. 128)

Cultural Competency
  • Intercultural competence is a key goal of
    internationalization because it indicates an
    awareness and understanding of culturally diverse
    others and situations, as well as the presence of
    behaviors that promote productive and effective
    communication among and across cultures (Emert
    and Pearson, 2007 p. 68)

Cultural Competency
  • Global education programs that provide
    intercultural competence and knowledge, promote
    continued learning through both informal and
    formal means, and provide contested knowledge
    about the fate of a global perspective will
    enhance students ability to be both productive
    and responsible citizens of the world
    (Zeszotarski, 2001 p. 76)

Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI)
  • 60 question survey taken online
  • Developed by Hammer and Bennett that measures
    intercultural sensitivity
  • Based on Bennetts Developmental Model of
    Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS)
  • Understands the fundamental cognitive structures
    that act as orientations to cultural difference

Intercultural Development Inventory
  • Assumes an individuals world view goes from a
    scale of ethnocentric to ethnorelative
  • The underlying assumption of the model is that
    as ones experience of cultural difference
    becomes more complex and sophisticated, ones
    potential competence in intercultural relations
    increases (Hammer, Bennett, Wiseman, 2003. p.

Intercultural Development Inventory
  • The first three dimensions of the DMIS are
    ethnocentric, meaning ones culture is
    experienced as central to reality.
  • Denial ones own culture is the only real
    oneothers are seen as foreign or different
  • Defense ones own culture is the only viable
    one-thus they are more threatened by
    differenceus against them attitude. Another form
    of this is
  • Reversal the other culture is seen as superior
    to ones is still us vs them but the
    culture is not a threat

Intercultural Development Inventory
  • Minimization the view that ones own cultural
    experience and that of others are similar
  • The idea that all cultures are the same
  • Men are Men! Women are women! Anywhere
  • These people expect people to be similar as in
    the idea of universals
  • They may insist that others correct their
    behavior to match the perceived expectations
  • Act like a man!

Intercultural Development Inventory
  • The next three DMIS orientations are more
    ethno-relative, meaning ones own culture is
    experienced in context with other cultures
  • Acceptance people are seen as different but
    equally importantthey see how culture
    differences operate in human interactionsthey do
    not necessary agree/disagree but understand the

Intercultural Development Inventory
  • Adaptation this orientation means that the
    individual can shift his or her frame of
    reference to the individual culturethe person
    has developed empathy
  • Integration here the orientation is such that
    one can move in and out of different cultural
    worldviewsperhaps held by the global nomads or
    long-term expatriates (Hammer, Bennett and
    Wiseman, 2003. p. 425).

Results of the IDI Profile
IDI Profile for Intercultural Sensitivity
  • Ethnocentrism

IDI Profile for Intercultural Sensitivity
  • Ethnocentrism

  • Finding
  • The larger the gap between the Perceived Score
    (PS) and the Developmental Score (DS), the
    greater the need for the development of
    intercultural sensitivity. Non-Students scores
    have a 24.59 difference

  • The non-students perceived themselves to be at
    124.10 which means they are in the
    acceptance/adaptation mode that has a mid-range
    of 130.
  • Their over all developmental intercultural
    sensitivity score was at 99.51 which is at the
    mid-range of minimization (100).
  • The intercultural development is needed to fill
    in that difference of 24.59.

  • Finding
  • The larger the gap between the Perceived Score
    (PS) and the Developmental Score (DS), the
    greater the need for the development of
    intercultural sensitivity. Students scores have a
    29.28 difference

  • The students perceived themselves to be at
    121.18 which means they are in the
    acceptance/adaptation mode that has a mid-range
    of 130.
  • Their over all developmental intercultural
    sensitivity score was at 91.90 which is at the
    mid-range of minimization (100).
  • The intercultural development is needed to fill
    in that difference of 29.28

Intercultural Sensitivity
  • For both of the groups the numbers indicate a
    difference between the perceived sensitivity and
    actual sensitivity.
  • Both groups are in the Minimization range which
    means they have resolved denial/defense or
    reversal aspects.
  • The IDI would indicate that each group is
    in-transition in the minimization range.

indicating that the person was notably In
Transition in its Minimization worldview.

  • There is no class in the United States
  • All the race that matters is the human race!
  • Customs differ, of course, but when you really
    get to know them theyre pretty much like us.
  • I have this intuitive sense of other people, no
    matter what their culture.
  • If people are really honest, theyll recognize
    that some values are universal.
  • Technology is bringing cultural uniformity to
    the developed world.
  • Its a small world, after all.
  • Bennett, J.M. Bennett, M. J. 2004 Developing
    Intercultural Competence A Reader.

  • Findings
  • M Scale Group Profile
  • A profile in the unresolved third of the scale
    indicates that the group members experience of
    other cultures is heavily oriented toward
    underlying commonality.
  • The profile suggests
  • 1. you may have a strong commitment to the
    idea that people from other cultures are
    basically like us or that people of other
    cultures should share the same set of universal
    values you have
  • 2. you may have difficulties in identifying
    important cultural differences that influence
    intercultural relations
  • 3. you need to resolve these issues before you
    can exercise your greatest potential of
    intercultural competence (Bennett Bennett, 2002)

  • American Cultural Patterns Matt Christensen, 2008
  • Americans feeling of dominance
  • Feeling superior to other countries and cultures
  • Wanting to be the best
  • We will help other nations whether they want it
    or not
  • Individuallydominate others/teams/politics
  • This can be seen as arrogance

  • Values Americans Live By L. Robert Kohls
  • He lists 13 valueshe notes that Americans
    believe they have only been slightly influence by
    family, church and schools
  • They assume they have personally chosen their own
    values to live by
  • The values of Americans would be sharply
    different than those of people from other
    countries and we are only 5 of the World.

  • 1. Personal control over the environmentnot
    fatalistic and believe all things are achievable
  • 2. Changeseen as a good condition, linked to
    improvement, development and progressmany other
    cultures view it as something to avoid at all
  • 3. Time and its controlit is of the utmost
    importance..language is filled with references to
    time, rude to be late and no one should waste it

  • 4. Equality/egalitarianismmost cherished of
    American values. To 7/8ths of the rest of the
    world status, rank and authority are more
    desirable. We treat high level people with no
    deference and low status people highly
  • 5. Individual and privacythe individual is
    completely marvelous and unique. Privacy does not
    even exist as a word in some languages. Americans
    claim individualism but will almost always vote
    one of the two major political parties

  • 6. Selp-Help Control. Americans get no credit for
    being born into a rich family. We should be born
    poor and rise up on our own. Over 100 words in
    the dictionary described as self as in
    self-reliance, self-denialmany of these words
    are not in other languages
  • 7. Competition and free enterprise..competition
    brings out the best in a person. Peace Corp
    workers find it hard to teach in societies that
    are not competition based in the classrooms

  • 8. Future orientation. a happy present time goes
    unnoticed. We are always focused on a better
    future. For a Moslem talking about the future is
    seen as futile and sinful
  • 9. Action/work orientation. Dont just stand
    there, do something. Action is superior to
    inaction and it is sinful to waste time to
    daydream or sit around doing nothing

  • 10. Informality. Seen as being informal to the
    point of being disrespectful to those in
    authoritythe hi or How are you? Greeting
  • 11. Directness, openness and honesty. If you come
    from a society that uses indirect methods to
    convey bad news then you will be shocked by
    Americans bluntness. Americans consider anything
    not direct as being dishonest and insincere

  • 12. Practicality and efficiency. Americans are
    viewed as extremely practical, realistic and
    efficient while priding themselves in not being
    very philosophically or theoretically
    oriented..if they had any it would be pragmatism
  • 13. Materialism. Foreigners consider Americans
    much more materialistic than they think they
    arewe have material objects and periodically get
    rid of them to get new more efficient ones

Future Study
  • The IDI instrument lends itself to a pre- and
    post-intervention study.
  • The post test will indicate movement or
    non-movement in the cultural sensitivity ranges.
  • Quantitative data would help validate the
    findings using pre/post data.

  • Brislin, R. (1993). Understanding cultures
    influence on behavior. Fort Worth Harcourt
    Brace Jovanovich.
  • Emert, H. A., Pearson, D. L. (2007). Expanding
    the vision of international education
    Collaboration, assessment, and intercultural
    development. New Directions for Community
    Colleges, 138, 67-75.
  • Floyd, D. L., Walker, D. A., Farnsworth, K.
    (2003, Fall). Global education An emerging
    imperative for community colleges. International
    Education, 33(1), 5-21.
  • Green, M. F. (2007). Internationalizing community
    colleges Barriers and strategies. New Directions
    for Community Colleges, 138, 15-24.
  • Hammer, M., Bennett, M. (1998). The
    intercultural development manual. Portland The
    Intercultural Communication Institute.
  • Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., Wiseman, R.
    (2007). Measuring intercultural sensitivity The
    intercultural development inventory.
    International Journal of Intercultural Relations,
    27, 421-443.
  • Raby, R. L. (2007). Internationalizing the
    curriculum On- and off-campus strategies. New
    Directions for Community Colleges, 138, 57-66.
  • Sherif-Trask, B., Hamon, R. R. (2007). Cultural
    diversity and families. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
  • Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating across
    cultures. New York The Guilford Press.
  • Zeszotarski, P. (2001). Eric Review Issues in
    global education initiatives in the community
    college. Community College Review, 29(1), 65-77.

  • Kohls, L. R. The values americans live by. The
    Washington International Center. Washingston,
    D.C. http//
  • Body ritual among the nacirema
  • Christenson, Matt. American Cultural Pattes
    Ezine articles

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  • Review the history of China from Culture Smart
  • Pay close attention to the achievements of the
    Tang Dynasty
  • Note the last dynasty Ching or Manchu which
    ended in 1911

  • Note that China suffered Civil War and major
    attacks from the Japanese in the first half of
    the 20th Century
  • The Civil War was between Chiang Kai-shek of the
    Koumingtang Party (KMT) who was supported by the
  • Mao Zedong lead the peasant movement of the
    Chinese Communist Party (CCP) supported by USSR

  • October 1, 1949 China is declared the Peoples
    Republic of China (PRC)
  • Tremendous growth in China due to peace
  • Mao distributed the land to the peasants based on
    a new analysis of social worth
  • In 1955, he communalized the countryside
    effectively taking away private property

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  • In 1959, Mao began the Great Leap Forward, for
    two years the people worked double time to
    increase steel output
  • Poor planning and famine stopped this effectively
    putting Mao into the background of authority in

  • Great Cultural Revolution 1966-1976
  • Mao wanted all parts of society to be equal
  • He did not care that his plan would disrupt
    growth in China
  • He encouraged the youth (Red Guards) to attack
    old ideas, old thoughts and old values
  • This effectively shut down China, most colleges
    were closed

  • There was a great deal of personal suffering of
    people during the Cultural Revolution
  • After Mao died, Deng Xiao Ping becomes the new
    leader in 1977a pragmatist who encouraged market
    incentives, foreign trade and new Open Door
    Policy to put China back into the global market

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  • Since 1979 the Chinese economy has doubled about
    every 7 and half years
  • A set-back was the Tiananmen Square event of June
  • China has made tremendous advancements
  • Olympics of 2008
  • World Trade Organization 2001
  • Support of the US led antiterrorism campaign

Some Current Chinese Issues
  • China and the Internet
  • 290 million users
  • 70 are under the age of 30
  • Chinese spend a great deal of their leisure time
    on the net
  • They have started addiction schools for young
    people who are addicted to the net..probably
    about 13 of the college students spend over 6
    hours on the net
  • In the USA only about 8 of students do that

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Some Current Chinese Issues
  • The most likely addicted are
  • 15-21 year olds
  • They like the games Counterstrike and World of

Some Current Chinese Issues
  • Charter 08
  • A charter modeled after the Czechoslovakias
    Charter 77
  • Calls for Human Rights and more democracy in
  • The Charter has had a lot of names added to it
    when it was posted on the net
  • The government has jailed the creator of it

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Some Current Chinese Issues
  • China re-instated tax rebates for exporters of
    motorcycles, sewing machines, industrial robots
    and others
  • Chinese exports fell 2.2 starting in November
  • Centers of light manufacturing like Ningbo and
    Dongguan have lost 100,000 jobs in 2008

Some Current Chinese Issues
  • A current books states the big stories for 2008
    were Sichuan earthquake, crackdown on riots in
    Tibet and crackdowns on democracy
  • Chinese did not like the French hurting their
    Olympic torchbearer and the French President
    Sarkozy meeting with the Dalai Lama

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Some Current Chinese Issues
  • Another story that has not been widely circulated
    is the re-discovery of Confucius
  • President Hu Jintao is encouraging a harmonious
    society that is an emphasis on social harmony
    and social welfare
  • This has led to an emphasis on Confucius
  • Confucius Institutes have developed and temples
  • The Olympic flame when through Qufu the hometown
    of Confucius

Some Current Chinese Issues
  • December 1978the CCP began the reform and
    opening of China since then
  • Now pragmatism guides the government not ideology
  • Pulled 600 million people out of poverty
  • It has stifled social solidarityCity workers
    make 5 times the country folks and infant
    mortality is 7 times higher among the poor
  • Still 160 million live on a dollar a day

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Some Current Chinese Issues
  • Many enjoy a life of personal choicesnew mobile
    phones or buying a car
  • China can provide everyone with enough to eat and
    clothes now it has to develop the person
  • CCP still has a strong grip on the political
    power of the country

Some Current Chinese Issues
  • Some dates
  • 1978Party reforms and farmers get ownership of
    their product for 1st time.
  • 1980City of Shenzhen is special economic
    zoneflexible market
  • 1990Shanghai Stock Exchange opens
  • 1996the yuan is allowed to be convertible---allow
    s free flow of import/exports
  • 2001China joins World Trade Organization
  • 2002Chinese Communist Party allows entrepreneurs
    to join party
  • 2005China becomes worlds 4th largest economy
  • 2006Foreign currency reserves top 1 trillion
    (worlds biggest)
  • 2008Global financial crisis hits Chinese
    exportsstimulus package needed

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Some Current Chinese Issues
  • Chinese families save about 30 of their income
    due to weak social security netpaying for
    hospitals and childrens education
  • Fewer than 10 of the Chinese borrow money to buy
    a car
  • Government has a stimulus package to build roads
    and infrastructure
  • Chinese are purchasing less due to lack of
    confidence in the economy

Some Current Chinese Issues
  • 6.1 million college grads will flood the market
    this spring
  • Last year 27 of the college grads could not find
  • College education has expanded from 3 of college
    aged in 1980 to 20 today
  • Students used to want 5,000 yuan a month (735)
    now will take 3,000 to 1,700 yuan (440-250) for
    a job in Beijing

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Some Current Chinese Issues
  • More to come!!!