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Hinduism

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Hinduism. Dharma. Means 'to hold or support' Relates to sacred duty or moral responsibility ... Hinduism. Karma ... Hinduism. Samsara ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hinduism


1
Hinduism
  • World History and Geography

2
Ancient History
  • The Aryans
  • 2000 BCE Indo-Europeans speakers created a new
    society in India
  • Sacred language Sanskrit
  • Created Vedas collections of songs, prayers,
    hymns honoring gods (veda wisdom or knowledge)
  • Political power held by tribal chieftains called
    raja prince and maharaja great prince

3
The Caste System
  • Developed social structure to maintain power over
    indigenous people (the Dravidians), called the
    caste system which is part of Hinduism (the
    religion developed by the Aryans).

4
The Caste System
  • Brahmins priests and intellectuals
  •  
  • Brahmins in the holy
  • Ganges River.

5
Brahmins (Brahmanas)
  • The brahmanas provide education and spiritual
    leadership. They determine the vision and values
    of any society. Traditionally their basic needs
    were fulfilled so that they could dedicate
    themselves to their spiritual tasks.They are
    expected to live very frugally.
  • To study and teach the Vedas.
  • To perform sacrifice and religious ceremonies,
    and teach others how to perform such rituals.

6
Brahmins
  • To accept alms and also give in charity.
  • To offer guidance, especially to the kshatriyas.
  • To provide medical care and general advice free
    of charge.
  • To know Brahman (spirit, the self, God).
  • To never accept paid employment.
  • To develop all ideal qualities, especially
    honesty, integrity, cleanliness, purity,
    austerity, knowledge and wisdom

7
Caste System
  • Kshatriyas the nobility and warriors

8
Kshatriyas
  • Kshatriyas nobility and warriors
  • Though permitted a number of privileges, they are
    expected to display considerable strength of body
    and character.
  • To protect the citizens from harm, especially
    women, children, cows, brahmanas, and the
    elderly.
  • To ensure that the citizens perform their
    prescribed duties and advance spiritually.
  • To be the first into battle and never to flee the
    battlefield.

9
Kshatriyas
  • Continued
  • To never refuse a challenge.
  • To be true to their royal word
  • To develop noble qualities such as power,
    chivalry, and generosity.
  • To levy taxes (from the vaishyas only) and to
    never accept charity under any circumstances.
  • To take counsel, especially from the brahmanas.

10
Kshatriyas
  • Continued
  • To know the scriptures, especially the
    artha-shastras.
  • To deal uncompromisingly with crime and
    lawlessness.
  • To take responsibility for shortcomings in their
    kingdom.
  • To conquer their own minds and senses and to
    enjoy only according to scriptural injunction.
  • To beget an heir.

11
Caste System
  • Vaisyas farmers, merchants, business people

12
Vaisyas (Vaishyas)
  • The vaishyas are the productive class. They and
    the two varnas below are called twice-born,
    indicating that they accept the sacred thread
    (symbolising spiritual initiation) and must
    perform certain rituals and rites of passage.
  • To protect animals (especially cows), and the
    land.
  • To create wealth and prosperity.
  • To maintain workers with abundant food, clothes,
    etc.

13
Vaisyas (Vaishyas)
  • Continued
  • To trade ethically.
  • To give taxes to the kshatriyas (ruling class).

14
Caste System
  • Sudras (Shudras) artisans, workers, peasants
    (people with limited rights)

15
Sudras (Shudras)
  • The shudras are the only section of society
    allowed to accept another's employment other
    varnas are occupationally and financially
    self-sufficient.
  • To render service to others.
  • To take pride in their work and to be loyal.
  • To follow general moral principles, (e.g. not to
    steal).
  • To marry (the only compulsory rite of passage).

16
Caste System
  • Untouchables slave class, outsiders, perform
    only the most menial of tasks (5 of population)

17
The Family in Ancient India
  • Ideal was an extended family (with three
    generations) all living under the same roof
  • Patriarchal, the oldest male held legal authority
    over the entire family unit

18
  • The superiority of males was evident in a number
    of ways
  • Women could not serve as priest
  • The male head of family was the only who carried
    on family rituals
  • In high class families, young men began their
    education with a guru (teacher)
  • Some then went on to higher studies in a major
    city
  • They were not to marry until they had twelve
    years of study

19
  • Superiority of males, continued...
  • Only males could inherit property
  • According to law, woman was always considered a
    minor
  • Divorce not allowed, unless woman was abandoned
    by her husband
  • Husbands could take on a second wife if the first
    was unable to bear children
  • Child marriage, common for young girls, probably
    because daughters were seen as an economic drain
    on their parents.

20
  • Superiority of males, continued
  • Parents had to provide a dowry (gift of money or
    goods) to get a husband for their daughter.
  • After marriage, the girl joins the family of her
    husband

21
  • Superiority of males, continued
  • Perhaps the most vivid symbol of womens
    subjugation to men was the ritual of sati
  • This required a wife to throw herself on her dead
    husbands flaming funeral pyre

22
The Ritual of Sati
23
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24
Religious Concepts of Hinduism
  • Brahman
  • Name for Hinduisms supreme god or spirit.
  • Creates, maintains, destroys, and re-creates the
    universe in a never-ending cycle.
  • Everything in the world, including each human
    soul (atman) is a part of Brahma.

25
The Concept of Brahman
  • Just like a single drop of water in a great
    ocean, the atman is both separate from and one
    with Brahman (god).
  • A Hindus spiritual goal is to unite his or her
    soul with Brahman.

26
Multiple Gods (Polytheism)
  • Hindus worship many gods and goddesses
  • They believe the gods and goddess represent the
    countless different qualities and powers of
    Brahma
  • Some gods have humanlike personalities
  • Others represent such things as success, good
    luck, and war
  • Each Hindu person or family may be especially
    devoted to a particular god or goddess

27
Multiple Gods (Polytheism)
  • Three of the most important are Vishnu, Shiva,
    and Brahma (not to be confused with Brahman)
  • Brahma the creator
  • Vishnu the preserver
  • Shiva the Destroyer

28
Brahma
  • Brahma
  • Engraving of Brahma
  • On a Hindu Temple

29
Brahma
  • Brahma

30
Vishnu
31
Shiva
32
Hinduism
  • Dharma
  • Means to hold or support
  • Relates to sacred duty or moral responsibility
  • The system of rules and values Hindus follow in
    daily life the right thing to do in any
    situation
  • Also believe in individual dharma which can be
    determined by personality, age, gender, and
    inherited social class.
  • Believe that when people follow their dharma,
    they contribute to the harmony and balance of
    society and the universe

33
Dharma
  • What types of jobs are
  • shown? How is the figure
  • in center different? Why
  • do you think in shape of
  • flower?

34
Hinduism
  • Karma
  • The sum of good and bad actions a human soul
    (atman) carries with it from life to life
  • Believe that when people die the soul leaves the
    body and is reborn into another body.
  • Thus your karma determines whether a soul is
    reborn as human or an animal, into a rich family
    or a poor one, and into what social class.

35
Karma effects Re-birth
36
Hinduism
  • Samsara
  • Continuous cycle of birth, death, and rebirth
    (sometimes referred to as reincarnation)
  • Goal is to be released from samsara and be united
    with Brahman, this is called moksha
  • To achieve moksha, one must follow the path of
    dharma, balance their karma, worship the gods
    faithfully, and have a direct and personal
    experience of god by following certain practices

37
Samsara
38
Hinduism and Yoga
39
Hinduism and Yoga
  • Developed the practice of yoga, a method of
    training designed to lead to union with Brahman.
  • Because people are different, Hindus developed
    four types of yoga to meet different needs

40
Types of Yoga
  • Path of Knowledge
  • Path of Love
  • Path of Work
  • Path of Meditation
  • In this path, the follow seeks to still the mind
    and achieve oneness with god.
  • As one Hindu writing states, When all the senses
    are stilled, when the mind is at rest, that, say
    the wise, is the highest state.

41
  • History of India (500-1500 C.E.)
  • Hindu rulers had control in South India
  • Muslim sultans (kings) ruled in Northern India
    (conquered when Hindu rulers in that area
    weakened)
  • Conflict between Hindus Muslims (very different
    religious ideas)
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