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Chapter 1: United States Aquaculture


Chapter 1: U.S. Aquaculture - Food Fish. Channel Catfish: Most common. More pounds. Mississippi ... has led to very real food shortages in many regions of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: United States Aquaculture

Chapter 1 United States Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
  • The annual per capita consumption of seafood has
    been growing steadily.
  • It reached a record 7.0 kg in 1987.
  • This demand suggests that aquaculture will become
    increasingly important in the U.S.

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
  • Commercial culture of aquatic organisms in the
    U.S. has significantly increased during the past
    20 years.
  • So has the aquaculture research support by the
    government, private companies and universities.

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
  • Today, most of the oysters, crayfish, shrimp,
    catfish, salmon, striped bass and rainbow trout
    consumed are farmed or aqua cultured.
  • Despite these success, with many of the species
    mentioned grown primarily here in the U.S., most
    experts agree that aquaculture in the U.S. has
    not grown as rapidly as it should.

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
  • Why hasnt aquaculture expanded more rapidly in
    the U.S.?
  • Reasons are to a certain extent biological or
    technological in nature. Most of these have
    already or will soon be solved in the research
    and industry laboratories.

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture
  • Most experts believe that the reasons associated
    with the hampered expansion of aquaculture in the
    U.S. in particular as well as other developed
    countries around the world are political, social,
    or economic in nature.
  • When these issues are addressed, there will
    likely be a substantial increase in aquaculture
    production in the U.S.

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Food Fish
  • The overwhelming category for U.S. aquaculture is
    Food Fish and the most important cash crops
    within this category include
  • Channel Catfish
  • Salmon
  • Rainbow Trout
  • Tilapia
  • Striped Bass and its Hybrids

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Food Fish
  • Channel Catfish
  • Most common
  • More pounds
  • Mississippi
  • More fish!

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Food Fish
  • Salmon
  • Government facilities produce as much as 50 of
    the total production
  • Most culture is in the Pacific N.W. with between
    600-700 million salmon released annually

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Food Fish
  • Rainbow Trout
  • This industry ranks third behind channel catfish
    and salmon
  • It is based primarily in Idaho
  • This industry consistently produces over 20,000
    metric tons annually

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Food Fish
  • Striped Bass
  • There are a large number of state hatcheries
    producing striped bass for recreational purposes
  • The commercial industry which began to enjoy
    significant growth in the 1980s is based on

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Mollusks
  • Oysters
  • Are the most commonly grown mollusk in the U.S.
  • Annual production in the U.S. usually exceeds 12
    million metric tons
  • Mollusks are now the second highest category in
    value, behind food-fish

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Crustaceans
  • Crawfish (or crayfish) are the most commonly
    cultured invertebrate and are second only to
    channel catfish in private aquaculture
    production… most farms are in Louisiana
  • Marine shrimp … and
  • Freshwater prawns … round out crustacean culture
    in the U.S.

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Baitfish
  • Another large category in terms of farms and
    value both is the baitfish aquaculture industry
  • Landau estimates that there are over 14,000
    baitfish farms in the U.S.
  • Annual production is worth an estimated 50
    million and over 12 million metric tons of fish

Chapter 1 U.S. Aquaculture - Ornamental Fish
  • Ornamental and/or Tropical fish represents a huge
    portion of Floridas economy with retail values
    annually estimated at over 200 million
  • There are more than 220 tropical fish farms in
    Florida alone

Chapter 1 International Aquaculture
Chapter 1 International or Global Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture production continues to increase.
  • Asia, with China Japan in particular, dominate
    world aquaculture production.
  • Of the top ten aquaculture production countries,
    six come form the Asian region.

Chapter 1 International or Global Aquaculture
  • In Central America aquaculture is dominated by a
    large shrimp industry.
  • In Canada, salmonids are the most frequently
    cultured species.
  • In Europe, the Atlantic salmon, carp, eels,
    trout, oysters, and mussels are cultured in large

Chapter 1 International or Global Aquaculture
  • The U.S., Japan, and Israel are among the most
    technologically advanced aquaculture nations.

Chapter 1 International or Global Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture products tend to be relatively
    expensive for a number of reasons.
  • the technology utilized
  • the need to employ highly skilled labor
  • the energy inputs -As density of animals per unit
    volume increases, there is an increased need for
    energy input to the aquaculture system.

Chapter 1 International or Global Aquaculture
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Chapter 1 International or Global Aquaculture
  • It is generally accepted that capture fisheries
    will plateau at approximately 100 million metric
    tons. The rest must come from aquaculture.
  • The expanding human population has led to very
    real food shortages in many regions of the world.
  • Is this an opportunity for aquaculture?

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • The quality of effluents from aquaculture
    facilities will continue to demand attention.
    Increased efficiencies of production, including
    improved feeds, better control and prevention of
    disease, and improved growth and survival will be
    required to offset the additional expense
    associated with water treatment.

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • Concern over waste/pollution coming from
    aquaculture sites/facilities
  • Concern over bacterial resistance because of the
    use of antibiotics in aquaculture
  • Concern over disease transmission from
    aquacultured organisms to wild stocks
  • Concern over the loss of resources used by
    aquaculture that could be used for other purposes

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • Aquaculture worldwide will continue to expand to
    help meet the worlds need for seafood.
  • Aquaculture in the U.S. will continue to explore
    and develop high quality/high value species.
  • Much of the commercial development and farm sites
    will occur outside of the U.S. but the U.S. will
    continue to be the industry leader in terms of
    technological advances.

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • Aquacultue is a highly applied science that draws
    heavily on the basic sciences. That dependence
    is not going to change in the foreseeable future,
    and will in fact, increase as the potential
    application of basic information to aquatic
    animals becomes apparent.

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • John Manzi, in 1989, reviewed the industry and
    came up with the following list that needed to be
    addressed during the 1990s. He specifically
    identified nutrition, genetics, disease control,
    engineering, marketing and aquaculture ecology.

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • The President of the World Aquaculture Society,
    Dr. Patrick Sorgeloos, examined the challenges
    and opportunities in aquaculture RD and made the
    following statement, All believe that for the
    next decade the real challenge is to get the
    aquaculture industries to introduce effective
    genetic improvement programs using selective

Chapter 1 Aquaculture and the Future
  • Sorgeloos (1999) continued with a formula for the
    genetic improvement of aquaculture species…
  • The first priority is domesticated broodstock
  • The second is selective breeding schemes
  • Use of molecular markers and genetic
    fingerprinting will advance selection rapidly
  • Selection should focus on disease resistance,
    growth rate, FCR, ease of domestication, etc.