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Hawks of Kentucky

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Title: Hawks of Kentucky


1
Hawks of Kentucky
  • Diurnal
  • Raptors

2
Osprey
3
  • Osprey Pandion haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758
  • BREEDING Along rivers, lakes, and coasts. 1
    brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Courting pair in swift pursuit flight,
    soar, circle, dodge with rapid turns and quick
    swoops.

4
  • NEST In deciduous or conifer tree (dead or
    alive), near or over water, also atop pole. Of
    sticks, sod, cow dung, seaweed, rubbish, etc.
    Perennial, becoming very large. Both sexes help
    with nest construction.
  • EGGS Whitish/pinkish-white/pinkish cinnamon,
    marked with brown/olive, rarely unmarked. 2.4
    (61mm).

5
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with some
    help from male. Incubation takes 32-43 days.
    Development is semialtrical (immobile, downy,
    eyes open, fed). Young are able to fly after
    48-59 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • Diet Usually hovers at 30 to 100 feet and dives,
    mostly for fish (live or dead) also takes
    rodents, birds, small vertebrates, crustaceans.

6
  • Young fed regurgitant first 10 days. Brood of 3
    requires 6 pounds of fish daily.
  • CONSERVATION Winters south to Chile and north
    Argentina. Species of special concern 1982,
    local concern in 1986, introduced to Kentucky in
    1988. Population crashed in 1950s-1970s from
    exposure to DDT, encroachment onto breeding
    grounds and shooting.

7
  • Costal populations now recovered aided by DDT ban
    and conservation programs including successful
    use of artificial nesting platforms.
  • Female fed entirely by mate from pair formation
    through egg laying courtship feeding may ensure
    mate fidelity.
  • Male occasionally does up to 30 of incubation.

8
  • Male delivers food to female at nest she then
    feeds young.
  • Female does most of the brooding.
  • Young hatch asynchronously.
  • Subject to piracy by Bald Eagle and frigatebird.
  • Only raptor whose front talons turn backward.

9
Mississippi Kite
10
Ictinia mississippiensis
  • BREEDING Trees usually near waterway, open
    woodland, semiarid rangeland. Mating system is
    monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS already paired upon arrival in spring
    little courtship.

11
  • NEST On upper branches, small forks, or
    occasionally horizontal limbs bulky but flat, of
    coarse sticks and twigs. Lined with green
    leaves, Spanish moss. Perennial. Both sexes
    help with nest construction.
  • EGGS whitish/bluish-white, unmarked or faintly
    spotted, often nest-stained. 1.6 (41mm).

12
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Both sexes incubate.
    Incubation takes 31-32 days. Development is
    semialtricial. Young are able to fly after 34
    days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Mostly large insects, few bats, amphibians,
    lizards. Flocks up to 20 follow livestock for
    flushed insects.

13
  • CONSERVATION Winter south to central South
    America increasing since 1950s, breeding range
    expanding west, possibly due to tree planting for
    erosion control.
  • Nest in loose colonies.
  • Congregate at communal perches and foraging
    areas often soar communally while hunting for
    insects.
  • Quiet
  • Reproductive success not related to nesting
    density.

14
Bald Eagle
15
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  • BREEDING Coasts, rivers and large lakes in open
    areas. 1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Spectacular aerial courtship, including
    locking talons and descending in series of
    somersaults.

16
  • NEST often in fork of tall tree of large
    sticks, vegetation, etc., deeply lined with fine
    materials. Cliff nests range from minimal sticks
    to massive structure. Occasionally more than 1
    nest. Perennial, known to use more than 35 years.
    Both sexes help with nest construction.
  • EGGS Bluish-white, often nest-stained. 3.0
    (76mm).

17
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Both sexes incubate.
    Incubation takes 34-36 days. Development is
    semialtricial. Young are able to fly after 70-98
    days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Especially salmon, up to 15 pounds (often
    dead or dying) also small mammals (especially
    rabbits), waterfowl and seabirds, carrion, rarely
    other vertebrates.

18
  • CONSERVATION Winters south to coastal Baja.

19
Northern Harrier
20
Circus cyaneus
  • BREEDING Prairie, savanna, slough. Wet meadows,
    marsh. 1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Courting male performs series of dives
    from near stall, including barrel-rolls in
    multiple U-shaped loops.

21
  • NEST Flimsy-on slightly elevated ground or in
    thick vegetation of sticks, grass, etc., loosely
    lined with fine materials. Female builds nest
    with some help from male.
  • EGGS Bluish-white, usually unmarked, but 10
    spotted with browns. 1.8 (47mm).
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates. Incubation
    takes 31-32 days. Development is semialtricial.
    Young are able to fly after 30-35 days. Both
    sexes tend young.

22
  • Diet Especially voles, also birds, snakes,
    frogs, insects (especially grasshoppers),
    carrion.
  • CONSERVATION Winters south to north Colombia,
    north Venezuela, and Barbados. Declining from
    loss of habitat and effects of pesticides 20 of
    eggs showed shell thinning in 1970.
  • Like owls, has curved, sound filtering facial
    ruff which, with characteristic low (less than 7
    feet) flight, enables location of prey by sound.

23
  • Female feeds and broods young.
  • Females aggressively exclude males from preferred
    feeding areas in non-breeding season.
  • Outside of breeding season, roost communally on
    ground.
  • Formerly known as Marsh Hawk

24
Sharp-shinned Hawk
25
Accipiter striatus
  • BREEDING Northern woodland, mountainous
    coniferous/deciduous forest. 1 brood. Mating
    system monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Courting pair circle, land in tree, and
    call courtship often near nest

26
  • NEST BY trunk broad and flat, of sticks, twigs.
    Lined with finer twigs, outer bark strips,
    grass, conifer needles. Occasionally use old
    crow/squirrel nests, adding fresh materials.
  • EGGS White/bluish-white, marked with brown,
    wreathed. Occasionally unmarked some clutches
    mixed. 1.5 (3mm).
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates. Incubation
    takes 32-35 days.

27
  • Development is semialtricial. Young are able to
    fly after 24-27 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Among accipiters, takes grestest proportion
    of birds as prey only rarely takes small
    mammals, frogs, lizards, insects.
  • CONSERVATION Winters south through central
    America to central Panama, Greater Antilles.

28
  • Dramatic decline in eastern US in early 1970s
    8 to 13 of eggs showed shell thinning.
  • Juveniles may comprise up to 60 of breeding
    females in some populations.
  • Male does virtually all of the hunting from
    incubation to early nestling stage.
  • Young dependent on adults for 21-28 days
    post-fledging.
  • Often migrates in large numbers.

29
Coopers Hawk
30
Accipiter cooperii
  • BREEDING Usually deciduous, occasionally
    coniferous, forest, woodland, especially
    riparian. 1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Courtship flight with wings describing
    deep arc.

31
  • NEST Broad and flat or narrow and deep, of
    sticks, twigs, in crotch of cinifer, by trunk in
    deciduous tree rarely on ground. Lined with
    chips, outer bark strips, occasionally green
    conifer needles, down ( often added during and
    after laying). Occasionally use old crow nest.
    Males selects site. Male builds nest with some
    help from female.
  • EGGS Bluish-white/greenish-white, usually nest
    stained, spotted with browns. 1.5 (39mm).

32
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with some
    help from male. Incubation takes 32-36 days.
    Development is semialtricial. Young are able to
    fly after 27-34 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • Diet Small mammals, also few reptiles,
    amphibians. Hunts with low dash through woods

33
  • CONSERVATION Winter south through Mexico to
    Guatemala and Honduras.
  • Serious decline began reversal in east after 1972
    ban on DDT.
  • Juvenile females occasionally comprise up to 20
    of breeding population.
  • Male does most of hunting from incubation to
    early nestling stage.
  • Young hatch nearly synchronously but size
    difference apparent dependent on adults for
    30-40 days post-fledging.

34
Red-shouldered Hawk
35
Buteo lineatus
  • BREEDING Riparian forest, wooded swamp. 1 brood.
    Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS 1-4 birds soar, flap, swoop and dive
    while calling over territories. May rise in wide
    spirals 1,500 to 2,000 feet over nest, flap,
    dive, descend to original spot in series of dives
    and sideslips.

36
  • NEST Usually by trunk, occasionally in conifers
    in w of sticks, twigs, inner bark strips, dry
    leaves, moss, lichen, conifer needles. Lined
    with fine materials, green leaves (replenished
    from incubation on). Perennial. Both sexes help
    with nest construction.
  • EGGS White/bluish-white, often nest-stained,
    marked with brown. 2.1 (53mm).

37
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Both sexes incubate.
    Incubation takes 28 days. Development is
    semialtricial. Young are able to fly after 39-45
    days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Reptiles, Amphibians and birds. Includes
    rodents, snakes, lizards, insects, also
    occasionally snails. Old nest often becomes
    eating platform.

38
  • CONSERVATION Winter in US. Declining or now
    stabilized at low numbers known to accumulate
    organochlorines pesticides and PCBs, but habitat
    loss is the major threat.
  • Pair or kin may use same territory for many
    years.
  • Usually first breed at two years.
  • Can tolerate human disturbance if mature
    trees/high canopy mainatined.

39
  • Young hatch asynchronously, differ in size.
  • Hunt in forest edge and open woodland near
    meadows and fields.

40
Broad-winged Hawk
41
Buteo platypterus
  • BREEDING Dense deciduous and mixed forest
    occasionally in open woodland, often near water.
    1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Aerial courtship pair flap, soar in
    circles, darting at and passing close to each
    other.

42
  • NEST Usually in crotch of deciduous tree,
    occasionally in conifer by trunk. Relatively
    small, loose, of sticks, twigs, dead leaves.
    Lined with inner bark strips, lichen, few outer
    bark chips, evergreen sprigs, green leaves.
    Usually annual. Built in 3-5 weeks female does
    all or most of lining. Occasionally use old nest
    of crow, squirrel, hawk.
  • EGGS white/bluish-white, marked with brown,
    wreathed occasionally unmarked. 1.9 (49mm).

43
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with help
    from male. Incubation takes 28-35 days.
    Development is semialtrical. Young are able to
    fly after 35 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Birds, reptiles and insects.
    Opportunistic, also takes nestlings. Sedentary
    hunter usually cannot catch adult birds.
    Occasionally hawks insects.

44
  • CONSERVATION Winters south from Guatemala
    through Central America to eastern Peru, Bolivia,
    and south Brazil.
  • Pair bond occasionally last more than 1 year.
  • Only female has brood patch male provides food
    for incubating mate.
  • Young hatch asynchronously, chick size differs.

45
  • Female broods begins hunting when nestlings 1-2
    weeks old.
  • Often migrate in large flocks.

46
Red-tailed Hawk
47
Buteo jamaicensis
  • BREEDING Woodland and open country with
    scattered trees, desert. 1? brood. Mating system
    is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Aerial display pair spiral, recross,
    male usually circling behind and above female.
    Male may stoop at female, feet touching or
    interlocking as female rolls over. Courtship
    feeding.

48
  • NEST In crotch of large tree with commanding
    view bulky, of sticks and twigs, lined with
    inner bark strips, evergreen sprigs, green
    leaves greens renewed. May use old raptor nest
    as base. Alternately uses several perennial
    nests. Both sexes help with nest construction.
  • EGGS White/bluish-white, spotted with brown or
    unmarked. 2.4 (60mm).

49
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with some
    help from male. Incubation takes 30-35 days.
    Development is semialtricial. Young are able to
    fly after 45-46 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Mostly (85) rodents also amphibians,
    crayfish, fish, reptiles, insects and offal.

50
  • CONSERVATION Winter south to Panama. Much
    reduced in east by early bounty continued steady
    decline from human persecution and habitat loss,
    also some eggshell thinning.
  • Most common and wide spread Buteo.
  • Interspecifically territorial with Swainsons
    hawk.
  • Female often returns to previous nesting
    territory.

51
  • Young hatch asynchronously.
  • Harlans Hawk, formerly considered separate
    species, now considered form of red-tail.

52
Golden Eagle
53
Aquila chrysaetos
  • BREEDING Open habitats, especially in mountains
    and hills. 1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Upward spiral then nose-dive, wings
    half open, gliding up then diving and calling,
    usually alone, occasionally in pairs.

54
  • NEST Sticks interwoven with brush, leaves, etc.
    Lined with fine materials. Often 2-3
    (occasionally more) nests used alternately
    perennial, becoming very large. Both sexes help
    with nest construction.
  • EGGS White/cream-buff, marked with brown 1 egg
    usually unmarked. 2.9 (75mm).

55
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with some
    help from male. Incubation takes 43-45 days.
    Development is semialtricial. Young are able to
    fly after 66-75 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Mammals, birds, reptiles, insects.
    Especially jackrabbits other prey (including
    carrion) when mammals scarce.

56
  • CONSERVATION Winters south to northern Mexico
    highlands. Protected since 1962 after more than
    20,000 destroyed in 10 years mostly by sheep
    ranchers in spite of little evidence of livestock
    depredation now stable or increasing. Also
    subject to powerline electrocution, poison
    intended for coyotes etc.
  • Long tern pair bond.

57
  • Male captures more food than female during
    incubation and chick rearing male feeds female
    on nest, rarely feeds young directly or broods.
  • Male incubates small amount only in day.
  • Often use aromatic leaves in nest to deter insect
    pests.
  • Larger sibling often kills smaller.
  • In most of west, territories occupied year-round.

58
  • Subadult birds occasionally breed.
  • Hunt solo or in pairs.
  • Occasionally roost communally in winter when prey
    densities high.

59
American Kestrel
60
Falco sparverius
  • BREEDING open or partly open habitats with
    scattered trees, also cultivated and urban areas.
    1 brood, 2 in south and when small mammal prey
    very abundant. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Male flies rapidly in wide circles
    above perch, bends quivering wingtips down,
    calls, occasionally joined by female before
    realighting on perch. Pair bow, female constantly
    calling. Desert populations incorporate courtship
    feeding.

61
  • NEST Little, if any nesting material. Nest boxes
    or tree cavity.
  • EGGS White/pinkish-white, marked with browns,
    occasionally lavender, occasionally unmarked.
    1.4 (35mm)
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with help
    from male. Incubation takes 29-31 days.
    Development is semialtricial. Young are able to
    fly after 30-31 days. Both sexes tend young.

62
  • DIET Insects, small vertebrates and mammals.
    Also occasionally birds. In desert, young eat
    only insects for first week, later also mice.
    Occasionally aerially forage for insects.
  • CONSERVATION Winters south to Panama. Readily
    uses nest box.
  • Often uses same nest for second brood male feeds
    fledglings of first brood and incubating female.

63
  • Caches vertebrates, usually in grass clumps.
  • Competes with other hole-nesters for nest sites.
  • Promiscuous matings occasionally occurs before
    monogamous bonds form.
  • In winter, individuals defend territories
    females prefer habitat that is open and sparsely
    vegetated, males prefer denser vegetation.
  • Formerly known as Sparrow Hawk.

64
Peregrine Falcon
65
Falco peregrinus
  • BREEDING Open habitats from tundra, savanna, and
    seacoast to high mountains also open forest,
    tall buildings. 1 brood. Mating system
    monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Aerial displays, courtship feeding, all
    with calls.

66
  • NEST Well-rounded scrape in accumulated debris
    on ledge, occasionally lined with grass. Rarely
    uses old tree nest or cavity. Cliff sites used
    traditionally for many years. Female builds nest.
  • EGGS White/pinkish-cream, occasionally marked
    brown/red. 2.1 (53mm)
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with help
    from male. Incubation takes 29-32 days.
    Development is semialtricial. Young able to fly
    after 35-42 days. Both sexes tend young.

67
  • DIET Stoops or flies fast and low after wide
    variety of birds, especially doves and pigeons,
    also shorebirds, waterfowl, and passerines.
  • CONSERVATION Winters south through Central
    America and West Indies to Tierra del Fuego.
    Serious decline since 1940s result of eggshell
    thinning from pesticides and PCB poisoning. Now
    being reintroduced to parts of former range.

68
  • Worldwide range more extensive than any other
    bird.
  • Initially male does most of hunting, female
    broods and feeds chicks.
  • Pairs roost together, hunt cooperatively.
  • As in other falcons, female larger than male
    eats first, dives first when hunting in pairs,
    takes larger prey.

69
Gyrfalcon
70
Falco rusticolus
  • BREEDING Artic tundra with rock outcrops and
    cliffs, open conifer forest, rocky seacoast. 1
    brood. Mating system monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Aerial courtship display including
    diving.
  • NEST Marked by excrement, food debris, pellets.
    Old stick nest of raven or raptor often used
    lined with accumulated debris. Perennial.

71
  • EGGS White/yellowish-white, spotted with
    cinnamon-brown, occasionally nearly plain. 2.3
    (59mm).
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Female incubates with some
    help from male. Incubation takes 34-36 days.
    Development is semialtricial. Young are able to
    fly after 49-56 days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Small mammals. Especially ptarmigan, also
    grouse, seabirds, waterfowl, shorebirds. Apt to
    perch on rock outcrop while searching for
    movement or fat and low, contour hugging to
    surprise prey.

72
  • CONSERVATION Winter resident but some south
    movement within North America. Rare over entire
    range.
  • Numbers vary with ptarmigan abundance will skip
    breeding when prey scarce.
  • Female 30-40 heavier than male
  • Male provides all food from incubation through
    early nestling period female does all or most of
    brooding.
  • Young dependent on parents for 30 days
    post-fledging.
  • Capable of climbing sharply to rise above flying
    prey.

73
Black Vulture
74
Coragyps atratus
  • BREEDING Open lowland, garbage dumps,
    occasionally highland avoids heavily forested
    regions. 1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Courtship often including trio of males
    posturing at and flying after female. Complex
    aerial display starting with rapid, prolonged
    spiral, usually above cliffs. Pair bills.

75
  • NEST Occasionally in opening amid dense
    vegetation, on or in stump.
  • EGGS Light grayish-green, occasionally
    bluish-white, usually marked with browns,
    lavender, wreathed. Occasionally nearly plain.
    3.0 (76mm).
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Both sexes incubate.
    Incubation takes 37-48 days. Development is
    semialtricial. Young able to fly after 80-94
    days. Both sexes tend young.

76
  • DIET Vertebrates. Occasionally capture young
    birds, small mammals. Depend more on sight for
    finding food than do Turkey Vultures. Young fed
    regurgitant.
  • CONSERVATION Winter resident. Decreased in
    southeast and at northwest edge of range but
    apparently expanding to northeast. Loss of
    suitable tree cavities for nest due to fire
    control, and widespread eggshell thinning from
    pesticides are partly responsible for decrease.

77
  • Most colonial of vultures in both nesting and
    roosting.
  • Family units maintained throughout year
    preferentially associates with other families,
    raising possibility of extended kin associations
    using communal roosts as information centers for
    locating good foraging areas.
  • Roosts larger in winter (up to about 400 birds),
    average about 33 turnover nightly.

78
  • When confronted, regurgitate with power and speed.

79
Turkey Vulture
80
Cathartes aura
  • BREEDING Open habitat in both lowlands and
    mountains. 1 brood. Mating system is monogamous.
  • DISPLAYS Courtship includes following-flights
    with male occasionally diving at female.
  • NEST In cave or in hollow stump with narrow
    entrance. Rarely a minimal nest of raked stones,
    dry leaves, wood chips.

81
  • EGGS white, occasionally marked with brown. 2.8
    (71mm)
  • CHICK DEVELOPMENT Both sexes incubate.
    Incubation takes 38-42 days. Development is
    semialtricial. Young are able to fly after 66-88
    days. Both sexes tend young.
  • DIET Virtually any dead animal down to size of
    tadpole. Young fed regurgitant.

82
  • CONSERVATION Winters south to Bahamas,
    throughout Central America, Greater Antilles and
    South America. Reportedly decreasing in southern
    Great Plains and parts of south. Eggshell
    thinning still a widespread problem.
  • Experimental evidence suggest carrion found by
    sight and scent.
  • In contrast to Black Vulture, does not re-nest if
    clutch destroyed.

83
  • Young brooded continuously for 5 days by both
    parents.
  • Roost communally throughout year.
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