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Alzheimers Disease

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A memory loss disease that starts with minor forgetfulness, but progresses to ... Eat spinach and strawberries, and take a Vitamin E pill. Facts and Figures ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alzheimers Disease


1
Alzheimers Disease
Ronald Reagan February 6, 1911-June 5, 2004
2
What is it?
  • A memory loss disease that starts with minor
    forgetfulness, but progresses to serious memory
    loss, confusion, depression, restlessness,
    hallucinations, delusions, sleeplessness, and
    loss of appetite.

3
Causes and Risk Factors
  • Scientists cant identify a single reason to why
    cells fail.
  • Age
  • Greatest risk factor
  • Occasionally strikes under age 40, but it affects
    5 of people over 65 and it doubles after that
    every five years. It affects almost 50 of the
    people over 85.
  • Family history and genetics (heredity)
  • Also influenced by head injury and heart-head
    connection.

4
Symptoms
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty performing normal tasks
  • Problems with language
  • Disorientation to time and place
  • Poor or decreased judgment
  • Problems with abstract thinking
  • Misplacing things
  • Changes in mood or behavior
  • Changes in Personality
  • Loss of initiative

5
Patients with Alzheimers
  • They have better procedural than declarative
    memory.
  • They learn new hand skills but then are surprised
    by their good performance on what they consider
    an unfamiliar task.
  • A golfer with Alzheimers will remember golf
    jargon and the rules but wont remember how many
    strokes he took on any hole plus he will keep
    thinking its his first shot.

6
Brain Atrophy
  • Amyloid beta protein 42 the amyloid precursor
    protein is cleaved mostly to a slightly longer
    protein, having 42 amino acids, which accumulates
    in the brain and impairs the functions of neurons
    and glia cells.
  • These amyloid deposits produce widespread atrophy
    of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and other
    areas.
  • Tau protein can also accumulate abnormally
    causing brain atrophy.

7
Result of Brain Atrophy
  • Two abnormal structures called plaques and
    tangles are prime suspects in damaging and
    killing nerve cells. Plaques and tangles were
    among the abnormalities that Dr. Alois Alzheimer
    saw in the brain of Auguste D., although he
    called them different names.
  • Plaques build up between nerve cells. They
    contain deposits of a protein fragment called
    beta-amyloid.
  • Tangles twisted fibers of another protein called
    tau. They form inside dying cells. Though most
    people develop some plaques and tangles as they
    age, those with Alzheimers tend to develop far
    more.
  • The plaques and tangles tend to form in a
    predictable pattern, beginning in areas important
    in learning and memory and then spreading to
    other regions. Scientists are not absolutely sure
    what role plaques and tangles play in Alzheimers
    disease. Most experts believe they somehow block
    communication among nerve cells and disrupt
    activities that cells need to survive.

8
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9
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10
Young onset and Late onset
  • Young onset or early stage is the early part of
    Alzheimers disease when problems with memory,
    thinking and concentration may begin to appear in
    a doctors interview or medical tests.
  • Individuals in the early-stage typically need
    minimal assistance with simple daily routines.?
  • The term young-onset refers to Alzheimer's that
    occurs in a person under age 65.
  • Young-onset individuals may be employed or have
    children still living at home. Issues facing
    families include ensuring financial security,
    obtaining benefits and helping children cope with
    the disease.
  • People who have young-onset dementia may be in
    any stage of dementia early, middle or late.
  • Experts estimate that some 500,000 people in
    their 30s, 40s and 50s have Alzheimer's disease
    or a related dementia, a general term for the
    loss of memory and other intellectual abilities
    serious enough to interfere with daily life.
  • Late onset occurs later in a persons lifetime
    due to aging.

11
Treatments
  • Currently, there is no cure.
  • They noticed elevating patients glucose and
    insulin levels enhanced their memory because of
    its nutrition.
  • Another possibility is to give drugs that
    stimulate acetylcholine receptors for arousal and
    brain activity.
  • Researchers are evaluating new ways to block AB42
    production and stimulate surviving cells to
    become more active.
  • Eat spinach and strawberries, and take a Vitamin
    E pill.

12
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13
Facts and Figures
  • As many as 5.2 million people in the United
    States are living with Alzheimers.
  • 10 million baby boomers will develop Alzheimer's
    in their lifetime.
  • Every 71 seconds, someone develops Alzheimers.
  • Alzheimer's is the seventh-leading cause of
    death.
  • The direct and indirect costs of Alzheimer's and
    other dementias to Medicare, Medicaid, and
    businesses amount to more than 148 billion each
    year.

14
Bibliography
  • Alzheimer's Association. What is Alzheimers.
    Alzheimers Disease. 15 April 2008. 13 May 2008.
    heimers.asp
  • Kalat, James W. Biological Psychology. 7th ed.
    Canada Wadsworth, 2001.
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