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Activating Background Knowledge

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Activating Background Knowledge. By: Tifanie, Kim, Emily, Heather. Prereading Plan (PReP) ... Used to activate prior knowledge of a topic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Activating Background Knowledge


1
Activating Background Knowledge
  • By Tifanie, Kim, Emily, Heather

2
Prereading Plan (PReP)
3
PReP J. Langer (1981)
  • Used to activate prior knowledge of a topic
  • Begin PReP lesson by looking over the text before
    it is read
  • Look for key words, phrases, and illustrations

4
  • Assess prior knowledge by
  • Having the key words written down and the
    students write what they know about that word
  • Score the prior knowledge

5
Scoring
  • Ranking ranging from 0-3
  • 0 neither prior knowledge nor response to
    the item
  • 1 Little prior knowledge
  • 2 Some prior knowledge
  • 3 Much prior knowledge

6
  • 3 Distinct Phases
  • Association
  • Reflections on Association
  • Organizing knowledge

7
  • Useful for helping students elaborate on what
    they know about a topic before reading it.
  • PreP helps improve comprehension

8
K-W-L Step K What I Know
  • Accessing Prior Knowledge
  • Brainstorming
  • Categorizing (organizing information)

9
Step W What Do I Want to Learn?
  • Students have the option of choosing what they
    would like to learn from the categorized
    information.
  • Forming questions to be answered

10
Step L What I Learned
  • After reading students will write down what they
    learned.
  • Answers to the questions formed
  • Summary
  • Sharing with the entire class

11
Summary of K-W-L
  • K-W-L
  • Improves comprehension
  • Prior Knowledge
  • Active thinking
  • Organizing thoughts

12
Generating Reciprocal Inferences Procedure (GRIP)
  • The ability to make inferences.
  • Two stages
  • Inferences made by reading
  • Highlighted key words or clue words

13
Steps to GRIP
  • First paragraph
  • Teacher will
  • Makes inferences using highlighted words
  • Justifies the inferences with text
  • Supports the inferences

14
Second Paragraph
  • Teacher reads four more paragraphs
  • Second paragraph
  • Words are highlighted
  • Children make inferences
  • Teacher justifies inferences

15
Third Paragraph
  • Third paragraph
  • Children highlight words
  • Teacher makes inferences
  • Children justify inferences

16
Fourth Paragraph
  • Fourth paragraph is read
  • Children highlight words
  • Children make inferences
  • Children justify inferences

17
After Students Understand Inferences
  • Students are able to write their own paragraphs
  • List five or more key words, and write a
    paragraph
  • Exchange paragraphs with pairs
  • Mark key words, make inferences, justify
    inferences

18
Monitoring Comprehension and Fix-Up Strategies
  • Metacognition
  • The ability to
  • plan,
  • check,
  • monitor,
  • revise,
  • evaluate

19
Click or Clunk
  • The ability to monitor their own comprehension
    processes.
  • Reflection
  • "clicks"
  • "clunk".

20
Repair Strategies
  • Ignore the problem continue reading.
  • Suspend judgement for now continue reading.
  • Form a tentative hypothesis, using text
    information, continue reading.
  • Look back or reread the previous sentence.

21
Repair Strategies Continued
  • Stop think about the previously read context,
    reread if necessary.
  • Seek help from the environment, reference
    materials, or other knowledgeable individuals.

22
Repair Strategies
  • Think-aloud modeling procedure
  • Teacher reads text aloud, as they proceed
    comment on their thinking.
  • Processes used to comprehend text
  • Display the strategies

23
Think-Aloud Lessons
  • Additional help
  • Taught the strategies of metacognition through
  • definition,
  • description,
  • examples
  • Importance for steps

24
Think-Aloud Lessons Continued
  • Sequence of instruction using
  • A. Verbal Explanation
  • B. Teacher Modeling
  • C. Guided Practice
  • D. Independent Practice

25
Think-Aloud Lessons Continued
  • Centered on the following topics.
  • Self-questioning
  • Sources of information
  • Think-aloud modeling introduction
  • Think-aloud review extension
  • Predicting, reading, verifying

26
Think-Aloud Lessons Continued
  • Understanding unstated information
  • Retelling the story
  • Rereading reading on
  • Think-aloud/comprehension-monitoring application

27
Bibliography
  • http//www.depts.washington.edu/centerme/recipro.h
    tm
  • http//www.virtual.parkland.cc.il.us/studyskills/R
    eadingStudySystems/PRePI.PreviewQuestions.htm
  • http//153.90.193.71/ceres/html/58orbitskwl.htm

28
Bibliography
  • Walker, Barbara J. Diagnostic Teaching of
    Reading. OhioPrentice Hall. 1946
  • Reutzel, D. Ray, Robert B. Cooter Jr. Teaching
    Children to Read.New JerseyPrentice Hall.1992
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