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legitimacy and peace Linking U.S. Strategic Objectives with the African Union and Darfur

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with the African Union and Darfur. http://www.ctc.usma.edu. The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not purport to reflect ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: legitimacy and peace Linking U.S. Strategic Objectives with the African Union and Darfur


1
legitimacy and peaceLinking U.S. Strategic
Objectives with the African Union and Darfur
James J.F. Forest Director of Terrorism Studies
The Combating Terrorism Center
at West Point
http//www.ctc.usma.edu
13th Annual International Development Conference,
20 April 2007
2
The views expressed herein are those of the
author and do not purport to reflect the position
of the United States Military Academy, the
Department of the Army, or the Department of
Defense.
http//www.ctc.usma.edu
3
Local Challenges
  • Areas of deep community divisions, animosity
    towards a them
  • Regions of financial/economic desperation
  • Lack of transparency in private and public sector
    finance
  • Significant levels of corruption, bribery
  • Weak civil society / Low level of rule of law
  • Immature democratic institutions and culture
  • Lots of on-the-job training among government
    leaders
  • Tremendous lack of resources to fund
    anti-terrorism and counterterrorism efforts

4
Local and Cross-Border Challenges
  • Conflict zones ( former conflict zones flush
    with weapons)
  • Zones of competing governance/ungoverned spaces
  • Refugees / Spillover effects of Bad Neighbors
  • Porous borders, poorly equipped, underpaid border
    guards
  • Criminal activity drugs trafficking and use
    small arms/light weapons money laundering
    piracy human trafficking
  • Foreign interests (state and non-state) in
    precious resources

5
Implications
  • These challenges can inhibit the advancement of
    human rights, democracy, security and liberty in
    Africa
  • They can also offer an enabling environment for
    transnational terrorist organizations
  • The Big Question Do U.S. foreign policies and
    efforts help mitigate these challenges or make
    things worse?
  • Trust and legitimacy are key to governance and
    human security
  • Are we doing enough to help African states and
    regional organizations in this area?

6
African Union
  • African solutions to Africas problems
  • AU members need
  • Agreement on how to respond to threats
  • Ability to communicate across borders, share
    information
  • Ability and will to conduct joint exercises
  • Regional early warning centers
  • Logistical depots transportation/force
    projection capabilities
  • Professional militaries and police forces
  • Accountability among decision-makers
  • Also need to develop a perception of power and
    capability

7
African Union
  • Positive Developments
  • Convention on the Prevention and Combating of
    Terrorism, adopted July 1999 in Algiers
  • Continent-wide agreement to build institutional
    capacity and strengthen operational capabilities
    of member States combat terrorism particularly
    in the areas of police and border control,
    legislative and judicial measures, suppression of
    the financing of terrorism, exchange of
    information, and coordination at the regional,
    continental and international levels.
  • African Centre for the Study and Research on
    Terrorism

8
Legitimacy and Capacity
  • The AU faces a crisis of legitimacy
  • The AU is being judged on whether it can and will
    respond effectively to situations of armed
    conflict
  • The right of the Union to intervene in a Member
    State pursuant to a decision of the Assembly in
    respect of grave circumstances, namely war
    crimes, genocide and crimes against
    humanity. - Article 4(h), AU Constitutive
    Act.
  • It is also being judged on whether the presence
    of AU or regional peacekeeping forces can resolve
    complex peace support or enforcement operations
  • If the AU aspires to become the leading enabler
    of peace and security on the continent, it must
    be seen as capable of responding to all kinds of
    humanitarian crises

9
initiatives
  • Global Peace Operations Initiative
  • Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program
  • Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership
  • East Africa Counterterrorism Initiative
  • African Coastal Security Program
  • Foreign Military Financing
  • African Union Standby Force
  • Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training
    Center
  • African Contingency Operations Training
    Assistance
  • International Military Education Training
  • Military Personnel Exchange Program
  • Regional Defense CT Fellowship Program
  • National Guard Bureau State Partnership Program

10
initiatives
  • USAID joint strategy with Department of State
  • Global Development Alliances
  • Foreign Aid
  • Millennium Challenge Accounts
  • Africa Education Initiative
  • Initiative to End Hunger in Africa
  • Trade for African Development and Enterprise
    program
  • Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
  • African Growth and Opportunity Act
  • Debt Relief (G-8, other programs)
  • Educational exchanges, fellowships, etc.
  • Help create an environment that will enable AU
    success

11
Conclusion
  • Inadequate response to a crisis in Africa can
    undermine the future of the AU
  • The U.S. and the international community must do
    all we can to enable the success of the African
    Union
  • AFRICOM is a reflection of the continents
    strategic importance to the U.S.
  • Recognition of non-military challenges and needs
  • Will have deputy commander from D/State
  • A strong African Union is a vital partner in the
    GWOT

12
questions
http//ctc.usma.edu
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