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THE CONFLICT IN DARFUR

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Nature of security situation differs in three states of Darfur: ... Darfur Peace Agreement signed on 05 May 2006 by the GoS and SLM Minni Minawi faction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE CONFLICT IN DARFUR


1
THE CONFLICT IN DARFUR
  • Department of Foreign Affairs
  • 10 September 2007

2
BACKGROUND TO THE CONFLICT
  • Outbreak of the conflict in February 2003
  • Justice and Equity Movement(JEM) and Sudan
    Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) oppose
    Government of Sudan (GoS)
  • Cause Economic and political marginalisation

3
SECURITY SITUATION
  • Since outbreak of conflict it is estimated that
    over 200 000 have been killed, over 4.5 million
    IDPs and over 200 000 refugees in Chad.
  • .

4
SECURITY SITUATION (Continued)
  • Nature of security situation differs in three
    states of Darfur
  • Western Darfur cross-border tensions between
    Chad and Sudan
  • Northern Darfur conflict between Government and
    Darfur Peace Agreement non-signatory factions
  • Southern Darfur ethnic conflict

5
SECURITY SITUATION (Continued)
  • Ethnic Conflict on the rise
  • Between Zaghawa and Maaliyah
  • Recently among Arab ethnic groups, namely,
    Rezeiget and Torjein for scarce resource and land
    as is nomadic migration season
  • Conflict spreading to neighbouring Kordofan
    region
  • Attack by JEM and SLM of the Wad Banda government
    base, which resulted in the death of 41 people
    including Sudan Security Forces
  • Reason claim base is used by GoS as the logistic
    and supply centre for ongoing aerial attacks on
    South Darfur

6
GEO-POLITICAL DIMENSION OF DARFUR CRISIS
  • Spill-over effect to Chad and Central African
    Republic
  • Refugees and cross-border attacks
  • EU proposing to deploying troops on the border of
    the three countries viz. Darfur, Chad and CAR
  • Above strained relations between Sudan and Chad,
    and thus the signing of agreements to mend
    relations

7
HUMANITARIAN SITUATION
  • Ethnic clashes led to further displacement of
    people
  • Malnutrition on the rise beyond the emergency
    threshold of 15 to over 17
  • Situation exacerbated by continued attacks
    against aid workers, car hijackings and looting
    of aid convoys, which has increased by 150.

8
PEACE PROCESS
  • Darfur Peace Agreement signed on 05 May 2006 by
    the GoS and SLM Minni Minawi faction
  • Minni Minawi appointed Senior Assistant to the
    President
  • Challenges
  • Fragmentation of Darfur armed groups. Over 17
    groups in existence.
  • Several peace initiatives, Libya, Egypt, Saudi
    Arabia, SPLM, UN, AU recently France.

9
PEACE PROCESS (Continued)
  • Efforts by UN and AU
  • Joint AU-UN Road Map for Darfur Political
    Process
  • Phase I convergence of all peace initiatives and
    consultations on the political process and
    parties positions
  • Phase II Pre-negotiation phase, which includes
    extensive consultations with the Government and
    Darfur armed groups
  • Phase III Negotiation phase

10
PEACE PROCESS (Continued)
  • Progress on implementation of Road Map
  • Phase I
  • UN and AU efforts
  • French initiative
  • Phase II
  • Arusha consultations held on 4-5 August 2007
  • Purpose creating an enabling environment for the
    non-signatories to meet and consult among
    themselves, and with other participants.
  • Outcome Adopted a common position in preparation
    for the forthcoming talks with the GoS

11
PEACE PROCESS (Continued)
  • AbdelWahid Al Nur failed to attend the Arusha
    consultations commands wide support of the Fur,
    which is the majority ethnic group in Darfur and
    popular among IDPs.
  • Reason demands the deployment of an
    international peacekeeping force
  • UN Secretary General visited Sudan on 4-5
    September 2007, seen as an effort to tie the GoS
    commitment to ensure speedy deployment of UNAMID.

12
PEACE PROCESS
  • Post Arusha Challenges
  • Representation of all armed groups not only
    Arusha participants
  • Inclusion of forces beyond armed groups

13
PEACE PROCESS
  • Phase II
  • Chad proposed to host preparatory talks
  • SPLM Leadership led by Vice President of the
    GOSS, Dr Riek Machr Teny to hold talks with
    AbdelWahid Al Nur
  • Phase III
  • Venue Libya
  • Date 27 October

14
PEACEKEEPING
  • 28 May 2004 Addis Ababa agreement on
    establishment of a peacekeeping mission
  • African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) first
    deployed in 2004.
  • Challenges
  • Lack of financial and logistical support (heavy
    reliance on donor funding)
  • 7 000 not sufficient to cover the whole of Darfur
  • Suffered casualties
  • Due to above, calls for UNMIS to reinforce AU
    Mission (UNSC Resolution 1590).

15
PEACEKEEPING (Continued)
  • 15 March 2006 AU PSC Communiqué - end mandate of
    AMIS by 30 September 2006 and rehat AMIS
  • UNSC Resolution 1679 of 16 May 2006 tasked UNSG
    to submit recommendations to UNSC on rehatting
  • UNSC Resolution 1706 of 31 August 2006 expanded
    mandate of UNMIS to support the implementation of
    DPA and tasked UNSG to consult with the AU and
    GoS on rehatting
  • 28 September 2006 UNSG recommendations and UN
    Support Package to AMIS
  • 16 November 2006 Addis Ababa High Level
    Consultative meeting detailed basic elements of
    UN Support Package

16
PEACEKEEPING (Continued)
  • 30 November 2006 AU PSC endorsed the Three-phase
    UN Support Package
  • Phase I light support package
  • Phase II heavy support package
  • Phase III AU-UN Hybrid Force
  • Resistance by GoS

17
PEACEKEEPING (Continued)
  • Currently 5 900 of 7 000 AMIS on the ground
  • Mandate of AMIS expires in December 2007
  • On 31 July 2007, UN Security Council passed
    Resolution 1769 authorising the deployment of a
    UN-AU Hybrid Force in Sudan (UNAMID)
  • 19 555 military personnel and 6 432 civilian
    police to be deployed

18
PEACEKEEPING (Continued)
  • African countries that have pledged include
    Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Malawi,
    Mauritania, Nigeria (700 troops), Rwanda (800
    troops), Senegal.
  • South Africa has been requested to deploy

19
PEACEKEEPING (Continued)
  • Other countries that have pledged include
    Australia, Bangladesh, China, Denmark, France,
    India, Indonesia (150 civilian police), Nepal,
    Pakistan.
  • However, AU Chairperson, Alpha Konare indicated
    that there is no need for troop contribution by
    non-African countries as there are sufficient
    troops within Africa to carry out the mandate of
    UN Security Council in Darfur
  • Challenge logistics, equipment

20
SANCTIONS
  • UN Security Council divided on matter UK and
    France have resumed the threat of sanctions,
    while China argues that dialogue and not threats
    of sanctions will help resolve Darfur conflict
  • US has imposed sanctions on Sudan
  • US has characterised the crisis as genocide

21
HUMANITARIAN LAW
  • ICC issued warrants of arrests for Ahmed Haroun
    (former Minister of Interior and now State
    Minister of Humanitarian Affairs) and Ali
    Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman (militia leader).
  • Accused of 51 counts of violation of Humanitarian
    Law in Darfur.

22
HUMANITARIAN LAW (Continued)
  • Khartoum appointed Ahmed Haroura to chair
    committee established by NCP and SPLM to monitor
    the security situation in Darfur
  • President Al Bashir handed over the Darfur
    Dossier to Dr Nafi Ali Nafi, his close assistant
    and Deputy Chairperson on NCP

23
  • THANK YOU
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