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Genocide in Darfur

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Darfur, Sudan. Sudan is the largest country by area in Africa. Darfur is a region in western Sudan, approximately the size of Texas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genocide in Darfur


1
Genocide in Darfur
Presented by UChicago STAND A Student Anti-
Genocide Coalition
2
Darfur, Sudan
  • Sudan is the largest country by area in Africa
  • Darfur is a region in western Sudan,
    approximately the size of Texas
  • 6 million people used to live in Darfur

3
Genocide In Darfur
  • 450,000 dead (from violence, famine, and disease)
  • 2.5 million refugees and internally displaced
    persons
  • 150,000 - 300,000 refugees in neighboring Chad

4
What is Genocide?
  • United Nations Convention on the Prevention
    and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948)
  • Genocide means any of the following acts
    committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in
    part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious
    group, as such
  • (a) Killing members of the group
  • (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to
    members of the group
  • (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group
    conditions of life calculated to bring about its
    physical destruction in whole or in part
  • (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births
    within the group
  • (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group
    to another group.

5
History of Conflict in Sudan
  • Sudans borders encompass many ethnic and
    religious groups
  • North Arab, Muslim
  • South African, Christian
  • Darfur African, Muslim, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa
    tribes
  • Northern Sudan was constructed without ties
    to Southern Sudan, and the Darfur region wasnt
    annexed as a province of Sudan until 1916, almost
    50 years after the North and South were unified.

6
History of Conflict in Sudan
  • 1956 Sudan gains independence from British rule
  • Civil war between North and South from 1955-1972
    and again from 1983-2002
  • South Sudanese not represented in Khartoum
    government
  • While oil was discovered in Southern Sudan in the
    1970s, the Khartoum government demanded all of
    the oil revenues be funneled to the national
    government
  • Peace agreement in 2003

7
Beginning of Darfur Conflict
  • In 2003, two rebel groups from Darfur rise up
    against the Sudanese government
  • Sudanese Liberation Movement (pictured)
  • Justice and Equality Movement

The political aim of the rebel groups is to
compel to Sudanese government to address
underdevelopment and political marginalization of
the region .
8
Government Response
  • Sudanese government arms Janjaweed militia,
    comprised mostly of members of Arab nomadic
    tribes who have been in conflict with settled
    farmers in Darfur. Janjaweed kill and expel
    Darfurians
  • Janjaweed has been translated as devil on a
    horse in Arabic

Janjaweed in military fatigues in Geneina.
9
Government Response
  • The government provides helicopters to bomb
    villages.

A helicopter strafing the village of Labado.
10
Janjaweed Tactics
  • In addition to killing and expelling members
    of a village, the Janjaweed burn their food
    stores so that the survivors cannot return.

A government soldier burning the food storage of
the villagers in Marla.
11
Janjaweed Tactics
  • After attacking and looting, Janjaweed begin to
    burn the village of Um Zeifa

12
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Refugees
  • 2.5 million refugees and IDPs in Sudan and
    neighboring Chad.

Three generations of farmers, formerly
self-sufficient, now forced to live in a camp.
13
IDPs and Refugees
  • Thousands die each month from the effects of
    inadequate food, water, health care, and shelter
    in a harsh desert environment. Pictured are
    graves outside and IDP camp.

14
Women in Refugee Camps
Women collecting wood in Kassab camp.
15
Rape as a Weapon
  • Rape and gang-rape continually used as a weapon,
    with motivation of diluting the gene pool.
  • They grabbed my donkey and my straw and
    said, Black girl, you are too dark. You are like
    a dog. We want to make a light baby, said
    Sawela Suliman, 22, showing slashes from where a
    whip had struck her thighs. They said, 'You get
    out of this area and leave the child when it's
    made.
  • http//www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A160
    01-2004Jun29.html
  • Rape is used to humiliate both men and women, as
    there exists a stigma against rape in Darfurian
    Muslim culture

16
Racial Motivation of the Genocide
  • Reports state the African Arab Janjaweed
    shout racial slurs as they destroy the villages,
    claiming that they will kill all non-Arab
    Africans or Blacks. While both the Janjaweed
    and Darfurians have black skin, the Janjaweed
    persecute the Darfurians because they are
    non-Arabs.
  • One refugee told New York Times columnist
    Nicholas Kristof that the Arabs want to get
    rid of anyone with black skin. . . . There are
    no blacks left in the area I fled.

17
International Response and Challenges
  • In July 2004, Congress declared the crisis in
    Darfur to be a genocide. In September 2004, on
    behalf of the U.S. government, Secretary of State
    Colin Powell followed suit.
  • First time a genocide declared as such while in
    progress
  • In February 2005, the U.S. led the U.N. to pass
    the first resolution to send a peacekeeping
    mission to Darfur.
  • September 2006 U.N. resolution authorizing the
    deployment of 17,000 peacekeepers with a Chapter
    VII mandate to protect.
  • But only with the consent of the Sudanese
    government.
  • Sudanese government adamantly refuses to consent,
    as they are sponsoring the genocide.

18
International Response and Challenges
  • Currently 7,000 African Union troops on the
    ground. This is the size of the police force of
    Dallas in a region the size of Texas
  • Insufficient mandate to actively protect
    civilians
  • Under-funded
  • Lacking training and technology
  • Lacking manpower overstretched

19
International Response and Challenges
  • China, Russia, Malaysia and Indias investments
    in Sudanese oil fund the Khartoum governments
    perpetuation of genocide.
  • China and Russia are also on the United Nations
    security council

20
International Response and Challenges
  • The US Congress has passed significant pieces of
    legislation on Darfur. These include funding for
    peacekeepers in Darfur and reauthorization of
    economic sanctions against Sudan.
  • Connection with Sudan in war on terror

21
What can be done to stop the genocide?
  • Divestment strategies (personal and
    institutional)
  • See sudandivestment.org
  • Lobby government representatives
  • Call or write your member of Congress
  • Donate to relief organizations and the AU
  • Demand further media attention
  • Plan or attend a rally or vigil
  • Tell your friends and spread the word in your
    community
  • Visit www.standnow.org for more information.
  • Email alizashira_at_uchicago.edu to get involved.

22
Dont stand by. STAND UP.
standnow.org
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