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Should Colleges of Education COE have a Knowledge Base for Closing the Gap What does one look like H


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Title: Should Colleges of Education COE have a Knowledge Base for Closing the Gap What does one look like H

Should Colleges of Education (COE) have a
Knowledge Base for Closing the Gap?What does one
look like? How can we get one?
  • Pedro Portes, Ph.D
  • UGA

  • Before we go into a knowledge base (KB)
    discussion, first lets provide some context and

  • The consideration of the general question
    regarding whether education has or lacks the best
    possible knowledge base to guide policy and
    practice is a complex undertaking.
  • However, from the sociocultural framework in
    which this analysis of the question is centered,
    the KB here refers directly to knowledge that is
    strategic in closing the achievement gap in terms
    of moving towards greater equity in outcomes.

  • This gap is defined by the gross disproportion in
    rates of failure perpetrated in large part by the
    educational systems schools on some low income
    ethnic groups children.
  • Aside from the undocumented groups, the rate of
    poverty and school failure is disproportional
    between some minority groups and the majority
  • Show slide 1

NAEP Reading Ethnicity Poverty, 2002
Overview of The Knowledge Base KB
  • The Problem What is Necessary vs.. What is
  • We have a KB that may be necessary but is not
    sufficient to close the gap or narrow group based
    inequality (GBI) in the achievement of grade
    level minimum standards.
  • The KB across departments in COEs is fragmented
    with respect to the problem of closing the gap.
  • Few know that the gap is about proportionality,
    massive differentials in learning and teaching
    outcomes produced by the current system.
  • Each silo has its usual suspects early
    education, reading, language ed., ed. Psych.,
    leadership, curriculum etc

Key KB Elements
  • What do we know works and needs to be part of the
    education of all degree holders in education at
    this point in time regarding
  • English Language Learners (ELL) and other low
    literacy /poor, not ELPs?
  • Knowing the top predictors of school success and
  • Parent SES Involvement, social capital and how
    schooling needs to adjust for lack thereof
  • ALT in relation to Special Ed, ASPs, CSR, Year
    round schools, bilingual education versus other
    means, mediated activity and development, caste
    like system

No Excellence without Equity in Basic Group
Learning Outcomes
  • Equity is not possible with just celebrations of
    groups diversity, MCE nor current accommodations
    in learning and testing.
  • KB Organizing Principle 1
  • Equity as a means to Excellence in the System.
  • Lets do the Math What happens to American
    Civilization when closing the gap is not a
    priority Do we really want a caste like society
    via GBI?
  • 2 The Latino Baby boom- (Tienda) and what
    population booms can do socially, economically,
    politically etc.-
  • 3 Special Education for whom? The rule of the
    least restrictive environment for ELs

KB Gap Construction In and Out of School
  • The problem is that apparently the same treatment
    produces different results depending on the group
    of students involved.
  • This is even true within a variety of immigrant
    student groups who have erroneously been lumped
    into a general voluntary immigrant category
    (Ogbu, 1992).
  • How homogeneous are ELs in terms of effort
    optimism, frame of reference and overall
    adaptation to school relative to involuntary
    minority students, NHWs?

  • Another KB element- It is also about
    understanding context and mediated learning
    experiences Applied Learning Developmental
  • Although for children of immigrants 15 of the
    variance in school achievement could be explained
    by ethnicity of immigrant students (Portes,
    1999), most of it is due to English language
    proficiency (EPI), SES and sociopsychological
    factors concerning adaptation and the context of
  • KB -- Within the Latino population, key
    significant differences prevail.

KB - CLASE Acculturation Model
  • The variance in achievement accounted for by 1.5
    ethnics is a function of four interacting factors
    (Portes, 1999)
  • a) the cultural history and traits of the
    immigrant group,
  • b) the degree to which the latter are compatible
    with or conducive toward adaptation into either
    domestic minorities' cycle of poverty, or
    compatible with the mainstream
  • c) the host/mainstream's reception to the
    immigrant group, inclusive of its reaction to
    ethnic markers (phenotypic and cultural) in a
    particular historical moment, and
  • d) the political and social capital developed by
    the immigrant group in the host culture that
    supports its members' agency in the community.

  • These above factors may serve to account for
    various patterns of acculturation (e.g.,
    additive, subtractive, dissonant, consonant,
    alternating) that influence identity formation
    and school adaptation.

  • Example skip
  • Unlike Middle class Latinos some in private
    school who have compatibility with the mainstream
    ("b" factor), are not as at risk and count on the
    protective factors inherent in their "d" factor
    relative to other contexts outside cities such as
  • The reaction by the host culture to the new
    English language learners here has been
    relatively less benevolent.
  • This is due, in part, to less compatibility with
    a variety of markers which facilitate adaptation
    and support for bilingual literacy, family
    literacy, etc.
  • Mexican and Haitian immigrants face a double risk
    because of their "b" factor compatibility with
    disparaged domestic minorities and the prevailing
    negative reaction by the dominant majority
    (factor c). Their enclaves' social and
    political capital ("d" factor) is not yet
    developed sufficiently enough to protect their
    members in relative terms except in a case like
    Gwinnett somewhat.

KB - Social Inequality
  • The main obstacles to excellence and equity in
    education depend, in great part, on grasping the
    complex nature of how educational inequality is
    socially engineered and sustained nationally and
  • For most African, Latin, and Native American
    children, the proportion of those living in
    poverty is over three times that of poor,
    majority children (45 vs. 14) and more in many
    schools. Do our students and educators know how
    poverty makes the mind not just diverse? Hart
    Risley 1995.
  • These statistics underestimate the massive
    inequality actually in place as poor Latino
    immigrants (both documented and not) are lumped
    with middle class native born Spanish surnames,
    regardless of language or SES.

KB DispositionThe Error of Blaming the School
or Native Cultures
  • Blame the kids culture-
  • Rothstein and the new Cultural Deficit
    misinterpretation of Hart and Risley (1995)
  • What happens when educators or a superintendent
    believes the gap is mostly due to x or y?
  • The KB is then like a vaccine against
    misinformation that operates at policy and daily
    practice levels and
  • that translates into gap making decisions like
    pull out programs, school uniforms, Success for
    All programs etc.
  • How we push in practices without solid data

MORE KB -skip
  • The cycle of poverty is unjust because it takes
    perfectly competent children, our nation's most
    valuable resource, and under-develops their
    potential by organizing and maintaining a series
    of barriers that are well beyond most families'
    and teachers ability to overcome.
  • Some of the problems concern the devaluing,
    deculturalization processes (Spring) found in
    schools that often are blamed on poor teacher
    education, ethnocentrism and limitations in
    pedagogical knowledge.
  • I will not learn from you (Kozol), student
    resistance, behavior disorders, cultural
    mismatch, low expectations, and acting White.
  • Cognitive development- How many educators realize
    adolescence is the last chance for many SPARs to
    construct formal operational, higher level
    functions/skills? Do they know how?

  • Blaming the educational system or teachers, from
    a cultural historical view, is a superficial
    analysis of a much deeper historical and economic
    problem in human development.
  • Critical pedagogy/Multicultural ed as necessary
    but not sufficient means to close gap.
  • Outside school, other social forces are at play
    that deter SPARs school achievement and success
    directly and indirectly from finance to the
    organization and allocation of academic learning

KB - The Political Economy of Education Inequity
at the Gates
  • The function of public schools in many districts
    is to maintain the bottom half or SPAR groups
    below grade level.
  • Many schools function as custodial institutions
    for those left behind earlier
  • For some students - learning from teachers is not
    the primary activity most days.
  • An example of Silos below - Teachers vs. P-C
    ideology and KB

  • Do educators know what Haberman means when he
  • the (gap) is not an aberration of American
    society nor is it an unintended consequence.
  • Or that the GAP
  • reflects the will of the overwhelming majority of
    Americans who believe that education is a
    personal not a common good and that the highest
    quality education is a scarce resource.
  • Schooling is the means we use to produce winners
    and losers.
  • Who gets into the prestigious colleges is the
    critical question at the top achievers level.
  • Who goes to other colleges or to post secondary
    institutions reflects the competition at the next
    level down.
  • Who gets training for a decent job or any job at
    all is the next level and so on.
  • When we get to the poor and diverse children in
    many schools the lofty mission of knowledge,
    citizenship and self-actualization we want for
    our children has been narrowed down to get a job
    and stay out of jail.
  • At this lowest level of the bottom half there is
    no longer any competition for a future of any
    substantial value. (Haberman, 2002, p. 1)

  • MORE KB and wrap up for discussion..
  • A 3-1 differential in poverty translates into
    the poor falling four grade levels behind to a
    middle school education, enough to handicap them
    economically and culturally for life.
  • The educational system is not able to teach
    students from some groups that are predominantly
    low income and Spanish speakers particularly in
    the 1.5 generation.
  • The latter carry a double burden that of schools
    not knowing how to teach low income students at
    grade level and schools not being willing/able to
    instruct using language effectively.

  • Given the demographic boom of Latino children
    that is just beginning to knock at the doors of
    our K-12 schools, it might not be a bad idea to
    have a second language or language education
    requirement for educators as they become
    certified beyond the obligatory multicultural
  • This KB component is strategic in narrowing the
    existing gap today as would also be the case if
    we intentionally began to prepare more bilingual
    educators intentionally.
  • Bridging the cultural divide by having more
    personnel master more than one language is just
    one macro level policy feature COEs and
    professional standards boards could consider in
    narrowing the gap.

  • The above aspects help define the achievement gap
    in education as the primary mediator of
    disproportional rates of success in education
    that sustain GBI in poverty rates.
  • This concept helps define the goal and nature of
    the KB we may need in COEs.
  • So, what I am going to focus the talk on are some
    of the other components of a new KB that COEs
    need to have to begin primary and secondary
    prevention efforts across silos.

  • One premise is that knowing how the gap is
    constructed and more KB details about best
    practices can begin dismantling GBI.
  • But,
  • the KB in COEs is just part of one of 4
    components in the framework that is necessary but
    not totally sufficient to produce a population
    level effect.

Why Reorganizing Education is Needed
  • The premise is that as in the fields of
    medicine, engineering and other fields, we need
    to have a knowledge base, a technology for
    travel, research, cure, etc..
  • for us- a KB to educate all or 90-95 of
    students at grade level as the top priority,
    without lowering standards.
  • The issue is not only that it takes some
    linguistically and culturally different children
    longer to achieve at grade level,
  • A few SPARs perform above level but most do not
    achieve the 12th grade standards of proficient

  • The knowledge base for Colleges of Education
    rests on a tripod foundation in the preparation
    of three general types of educators
  • SPAR
  • Principal CounselorThe triadic
    collaboration that shares a common KB bearing on
    closing the achievement gap from preschool to
    college is essential in the Higher Education
    Component of the Model.

Some key features
  • a. School Climate for learning, affective
    relations, collaboration among all educators with
    common purpose - Activity setting design for
    Spars (Goldenberg and Gallimore)
  • b. Instructional leaders to persist
    doggedly/passionately on organizing conditions
    that allow more ALT in meaningful, student
    centered pedagogy for SPARs

More Features (Contd.)
  • c. Shared leadership among educators and a common
    preparation regarding what works in educating low
    income groups from culturally and linguistic
    diverse backgrounds (CLD).
  • For example counselors can take new roles in not
    only advocating for those behind grade level but
    help mediate mentoring programs and resources
    from the community to provide extra assistance
    after school, monitor student data, etc.

More features
  • a. All three groups may strive to reduce class
    sizes, organize after school tutoring or provide
    conditions where diagnostic assessment and
    assistance is conducted regularly.
  • b. Small schools, uniforms, same gender classes,
    charter schools, effective to high performing
    schools basics from a learning and activity based
    conceptual understanding.
  • c. or Year round schools for SPARs

How to weave more ALT for SPARs
  • d. or discuss Issues with current reform
    programs SFAs, HS, Reading recovery,
    phonics/whole language, assessment basics,
    Bilingual Education and bilingualism,
  • e. Language and linguistics
  • f. Learning, instruction and motivation basics
  • g. Etc

Single-Barrel Approaches Dont Close the Gap
  • Head Start - Early Education/Care
  • Class Size Reduction
  • Year Round Schools
  • Family Literacy/Parent Education
  • Mentoring Peer Tutoring After School Programs
  • Lifeskills / School to Work /Family Economic
  • Success for All, Gear Up, AVID other programs
  • Technology oriented approaches
  • Leadership Training/Principal Counselor
  • Etc.,
  • Multiculturalism/Diversity Pedagogy in Teacher
  • Teacher Exams Content Expertise
  • Raising teacher salaries
  • Resegregation
  • Gender Segregation
  • Block Scheduling
  • Untracking
  • Vouchers
  • Charter schools
  • Small Schools
  • School Uniforms
  • Nongradedness

KB in Preservice Core
  • a. Cognitive Development to understand how
    concepts are constructed and facilitated ZPD
  • b. Socioemotional development to understand
    context of students growth, not just stages
  • c. Second language more educators need to be
    bicultural master sign or other languages
  • d. Group work, interpersonal skills

Least Restrictive Rule for Spars/ELs
  • But educators also need to know the
    overcompensation required - they must organize
    better conditions with community support for a
    new type of special needs student today.
  • ...those who could learn at grade level if the
    system was better designed (i.e., all those
    behind grade level to come first until
    proportionality is established and ethnic group
    differences in grade level achievement are

  • The knowledge base needs to include how to link
    vigorous early age interventions with sheltered
    and supplementary activities for SPARs in
    elementary to prevent groups differences in
    learning at grade level (LAGL).
  • Also essential to this KB
  • The very concept and goal of schools becoming
    committed to ensuring grade level teaching and
    learning for all students, so that there is
    increasingly less disproportional outcomes in

  • At present, NCLB is deceptive and actually
    organizes GBI for there is no catching up in
    terms of equity in terms of minimum levels of
  • So why have standards if only 40 in one group
    cannot achieve them under present conditions.
  • While the majority 85 of non Culturally
    Linguistically Diverse learners perform at or
    above grade level

  • This does not mean that the KB in Higher
    Education is sufficient without the other model
  • In this talk, we are just outlining some of the
    KB college student SLOs in terms of what COEs
    need to know in restructuring current program
    around the organizing principle of closing the
    achievement gap (as defined by GLL).
  • Grade Level Learning becomes a childrens right
    to be prioritized.

  • But I have taken you the long inductive way to
    the most critical part of the KB and that is
    based on two ideas

  • 1. The educational system needs to be transformed
    in order to influence cultural change that allows
    equity to be the primary means toward educational
    excellence and social justice as a byproduct.
  • 2. Closing the achievement gap, as presently
    defined (LAGL proficiency) and understood,
    becomes the organizing principle behind
    educational programs that prepare educators to
    dismantle GBI.

This KB is but one sub-component needed
  • That is, principals become interdisciplinary in
    understanding not only administration and
    organizational theory, finance and leadership
    literatures, but they share with teachers and
    counselors a common experience of working
    effectively with those most left behind and with
    practices in program designs that work reliably.
  • Teachers also become interdisciplinary in
    understanding primary prevention and other group
    skills from counselors and principals, as so do
    counselors learn from the other two types of
    educators (e.g. Special and Adult Education)

  • It should not only be some higher education
    educators nor just some principals in some areas
    who know that the effect sizes reported by
    Success For All and drill programs do not close
    the gap nor make much difference in actual
  • It should not be only some teachers who know
    about some best practices for some students, etc.
  • Instead, there needs to be a common understanding
    AMONG EDUCATORS of how the gap is socially
    organized and co-constructed for new cohorts in
    and out of schools.
  • In understanding how poverty and low levels of
    family literacy in English delay development,
    more strategic means can be organized for all
    learners and particularly those underrepresented
    in terms of LAGL.

  • In sum, I close with the argument that a KB is
    already available but not very well organized and
    disseminated around a foundational goal
  • what it takes to educate all children at grade
    level, particularly those canaries in the mine
    from growing CLD populations.
  • Once enough educators are on the same page to
    form a critical mass in our schools, then THIS
    MAY increase the probability of sustaining and
    developing what is now being referred to as high
    performing schools.

Chasing Rainbows -skip
  • Those are the white crows according to Tharp
  • (The exception to the norm of low performing
    schools for CLD low SES groups, is called the
    white crow or the albino in the field) ..
  • We fall into a nominal fallacy of calling such a
    High Performing School HPS if we knew how it
  • We dont, not yet, not under the present system.
  • And it is not only because of resource hoarding
    by one group tracking or under educating the
  • It is also because, perhaps, we dont have the KB
    in the hands of a critical mass of personnel, who
    like in medicine, eventually can eradicate a
    sickness for all groups.

Primary prevention
  • In any case, one valuable aspect of this KB
    concerns Primary prevention and the role that
    education and knowledge play is mediating human
    development, preventing violence, disease and
    improving quality of life.
  • Although some understandably remain dubious about
    this last one, let me say that education holds
    within its reach the potential of impacting the
    most important factor that influences academic
    success besides poverty and that is a different
    type of social capital, it is parent involvement.

  • I argue that even if we cannot activate this
    factor (Primary prevention for Family literacy)
    due to the constraints imposed by the clock
    /K-12 race/ the higher stakes/accountability
    zeitgeist like bilingual schools, a ZOPED can be
  • Today, there is no time nor consensus for
    preparing future parents with a strong life
    skills curriculum that counters the poverty of
    cultural and social adaptation knowledge.
  • Yet, this idea is important because historically
    culturally, such knowledge for SPARS might help
    activate the parent involvement factor the key
    foundation behind school success.
  • Down the line , from a historical,
    intergenerational lens, activity around higher
    level thinking for adolescents who will only have
    the chances organized by school to think ahead,
    is a worthwhile consideration in the KB.

Mentoring and Tutoring Pipeline of Assistance for
  • Another critical KB item is the importance of
    acttivating additional Academic Learning Time
    (ALT) for SPARs regularly thru college students
    and other mentors (Other talk)
  • Understanding how the different components create
    a synergy for closing the gap as a cultural
    change process is thus important to define as a
    learning goal for COEs.

KB Socio-Educational Policy
  • Primary prevention involves impacting on a
    likely problem early before it becomes an actual
  • In this KB for COEs component, it is about
    impacting on future educators consciousness,
    their critical thinking and human development
  • In the mentoring component, future influential
    citizens now in college can begin tutoring poor
    kids and learn directly about context and culture
    as part of their degree program.
  • These are examples of mediated learning, of
    promoting sociogenesis or cultural change.

  • We argue knowledge is power and a KB beyond that
    dictated by tests can trump much of economic
  • Poverty, like social injustice, is generally
    sustained by maintaining a poverty of information
    for some or of low levels of assisted
    performance (Tharp Gallimore, 1988) for
    perfectly capable children who need it most to
    come from schools.
  • Why, because that is what poverty doesit takes
    out assisted performance and capable peers, etc.
    from the home environment.

  • From a policy stand point, a knowledge base needs
    to include demographic trends so educators can
    anticipate the needs of certain groups of
    students ahead of time. And perhaps a head at a
  • For example, in our current situation, we known
    that in many districts, English learners and
    others not fully proficient in English will
    figure prominently in the student body.
  • Education leaders need to plan strategically for
    this revelation and others.. and they are now to
    some extent.
  • Lets summarize then some programmatic areas for
    future emphases based on demographic trends and
    the educational systems inability to close the

  • 1. A KB about best practices for educating low
    income, not fully ELP students to grade level at
  • - This KB needs to be shared among PTC and
    decision makers pre and post service.
  • 2. With the increasing growth of ELs and
    subtractive bilingualism, additive rather than
    subtractive conditions needs to be organized in
    schooling. For example
  • A. More bilingual / transcultural educators
  • B. More educators knowledgeable about language
    education in relation to culture.the gap inside
    and outside schools
  • Group work, peer mentors, Steps to College

Strategic Plan for Equity Excellence (Contd.)
  • 3 . An increase of bilingual schools leading to
    an IB and college in high performance schools
    serving diverse learners.
  • Such schools are only in the planning stages in
    the Southeast and are already offering a viable
    alternative in other parts of the country.
  • R D is needed in this area in COEs
  • Educators proficient in a second language and/or
    language education to be prioritized in the
    region, rewarded/valued in the field.

  • 4. Counselor, teacher and principal preparation
    around a common spiral curriculum and set of
    experiences focused on closing the gap.
  • In target schools, extra assistance for those now
    falling behind can begin to be organized
    systematically around programs that extend ALT
    academic learning time thru
  • after school mentoring programs,
  • year round schools and smaller class sizesetc.

  • Once such restructuring begins with more savvy
    educators, a more powerful school culture can be
    created more often in more districts.
  • Along with their new common KB and set of skills,
    an interaction among new mediated activity
    components can begin to close the 4 grade level
    gap now in place for SPARS.
  • We can begin to develop the capacity to meet the
    tsunami of children of immigrants (and other
    SPARS) by organizing learning ops in the life
    cycle pre-K-16.
  • The 1k mile journey begins with the first Step
    (Lao Tse Tung)

In sum,
  • This KB aims toward taking a proactive stance in
    face of a major demographic population trend.
  • The model aims to reorganize poverty producing
    structures present today in the educational
    system by not allowing the co-construction of the
    gap in
  • basic learning-teaching processes related to
    grade level proficiency outcomes.
  • We know how it is doneso.. We need to know how
    to undo it.
  • We need to teach it
  • And we are the only unit on campus that CAN!

Promoting Excellence thru Equity
  • Once we restructure a system to prioritize a
    grade level education for the ones with the least
    social and economic capital
  • we take a bite out of GBI, we close the gap at
    the population level 1/3 -3/4 of a std.
  • We halt the uneven, unjust distribution of
    poverty by undereducation for children from
    historically low SES groups
  • We help schools make continuous progress etc.

Children's Right to Learn
  • We can think of this KB not only as information
    and skills regarding learning, teaching, culture,
    language etc., but
  • as clues to a crime scene.
  • Unless this KB becomes the norm and the meta
    standard of high standards, teaching for
    excellence and social justice lose meaning.

  • In conclusion
  • A full understanding of this KB allows educators
    to understand and to articulate how providing
    greater equity in learning at grade level is the
    first step toward educational excellence.
  • End..Discussion, Comments?

A Lifespan Primary Prevention Intergenerational
I. Early Head Start for 100 of SPARs
II. Mentoring SPARs Transforming School
Cultures K-12
IV. Higher Education a. Mentor Supports -Minimum
Service Component for Graduation b. Transforming
Counselor Teacher Ed. Educational Policy and
III. Adolescent Primary Prevention Promotion
New Human Development Curriculum - Essential
Life/Vocational / Child Dev. Skills/Bicultural
High School
  • STEP 1 Organize components 12 0 gap
  • Early Head Start for 100 of SPARs
  • Critical Period Hypothesis
  • Mentoring SPARs Transforming School Cultures
  • After-School Programs (ASPs) and Mentoring all
    SPARs, Class Size Reduction, Year Round Schools
  • Instructional Focus on Spars ALT

A Lifespan Primary Prevention Intergenerational
  • III. Adolescent Primary Prevention Promotion
  • New Human Development Curriculum - Essential
    Family Economics / Vocational / Child Development
    / Health / Other Life skills
  • Promoting Critical / Abstract Thinking 66
  • IV. Higher Education
  • Transforming Counselor Teacher Ed.
    Educational Policy and Practices
  • Mentor a SPAR Programs in University-District
  • Minimum Service Learning Component for Public
    Welfare/Citizenship all college graduates

  • We can discuss if High Performing schools are
    just white crows, anomalies well find by chance
    at the
  • It may be that we are not any closer to finding
    effective, sustainable ways to close the gap now
    than ever before.
  • Yet, when the gap is closed by chance in a
    school, what happens?

Connecting the Dots
  • In sum, a bold strategy is needed that has the
    sufficient effect size to eradicate GBI so it can
    show at the population level.. Condition of
    Education annual reports, etc.
  • Equity for Excellence calls for the end to
    massive discrepancies in learning outcomes rather
    than a Success for All or NCLB discourse that
    helps maintain the status quo.

KB Theoretical Perspective
  • A cultural historical approach calls for
    attending to the root historical causes and the
    ways language and other tools mediate
  • It calls for a developmental plan to maximize the
    mastery of scientific concepts and higher
    thinking processes through the organization of
    learning experiences and activities.
  • By attacking a historical problem simultaneously
    from key strategic points, we can alter
    pre-structured destinies and extend equity.

Equity, Opportunity and Excellence
  • This roadmap for change is not only for SPARs but
    for the national interest, security and welfare
    of all.

Would NASA Tolerate It?
  • It seems to me that the educational system should
    be held to a high standard. Failure to educate
    children at grade level is where the equity line
  • We cannot have an organization that fails 15 or
    45 of the clients (of the time).
  • In closing, a huge ethical problem emerges when
    much of the know-how and resources already exist
    and mainly requires re-organization, rethinking
    and courage.
  • These are just some of the elements of the KB
    needed to begin closing the achievement gap.
  • END

Reading Scores by Ethnicity and Gender
  • Group
  • Variable Mean N SD Mean N SD
    Mean N SD Mean N SD
    Mean N SD
  • Reading
  • Female .075 500 .49 -.081
    16 .51 -.199 295 .61
    .134 101 .55
  • Achievement
  • Male .617 103 .42 .057 409 .57
    -.093 144 .5 -.240 318 .62
    -.00 90 .54
  • Total .067 909 .52 -.086
    309 .5 -.220 613 .62 .068
    191 .55
  • Group
  • Variable Mean N SD Mean N SD
    Mean N SD Mean N SD
    Mean SD
  • Reading
  • Female .384 373 .61 .123 150
    .72 -.230 65 .6 -.600 50 .37
    .073 .62
  • Achievement
  • Male .256 361 .58 -.039 160
    .75 -.381 68 .5 -.466 38 .54
    .038 .64

Components for the Life skills Component in
Secondary School
  • A Spiral Program to Build Strong Bicultural
    identity, Critical Thinking and Parent
  • Adolescence - Career Identity Development
  • The Cultural Origin of Abstract, Formal Critical
  • Activity-based Workshops A New Pedagogy for
  • Study test taking skills
  • Teen Pregnancy Consequences
  • Violence Prevention - Conflict Resolution
  • Eating Disorders, Health Issues
  • Gangs, dealing with peer pressures
  • Child Dev. Skills Neglect, Smothering, and
    Spoiling, Abuse etc.
  • Economic Pressure on Young Couples
  • Drug Abuse
  • Decision-making
  • Stress Management
  • Ethnic Identity and biculturalism
  • Bullying, Self-respect and Esteem
  • How the Media Affects Us
  • Divorce Single-Parents..etc.

KB Analyze cultural history not MCE stereotypes.
  • Back home most of the Spanish-speaking
    immigrants entering the school systems in Georgia
    and similar states were part of an involuntary
    majority there, poor and poorly schooled who then
    become voluntary minorities in the U.S.??
  • The added risks of delays in attaining first and
    second language literacy and poverty related
    effects multiply risks and pose unwieldy demands
    on all attempting to meet the speed up of higher
    standards today.

KB Essential Questions for Educators
  • How can schooling promote or support additive
    biculturalism? What does the evidence say?
  • How can a seamless support system be organized
    and sustained within and outside schools from
    pre-school to graduation?
  • What would a cost-benefit analysis reveal if a
    successful reorganization of the present system
    occurred for educational and national security

Group-Based Inequality
  • The term GBI (Portes, 1996) as a heuristic
  • It refers to a particular type of inequality
    affecting groups disadvantaged by the effects of
    oppression cumulative interactions between past
    and current practices in our society.
  • GBI forges long-term discontinuities in culture
    it is not an issue of color but culture.
  • Color and stereotypes distract from culture

Group Based Inequalities Two Groups
  • GBIa students from groups that have been
    historically oppressed (caste-like), remain
    over-represented in the culture of poverty and
    less well-suited for school academic success.
  • GBIb defined by class or SES (socio-economic
    status) differences in educational performance
    unrelated to ethnic status.
  • The rate of poverty for students in the U.S.
    20 when GBIa (45) GBIb (14) are aggregated.

Latino SPARs
  • Students Placed At Risk based on GBIa is of
    greatest concern in explaining the disproportion
    of Latinos in many categories or social indices
    like college completion
  • The bi-modal distribution of legal immigration is
    policy driven.
  • The economic structure requires it, has for some

KB Cognitive Socialization Differences
  • Relative to middle-class children, many Latino
    at-risk students have less access to after-school
    assistance in terms of the quantity and quality
    of guided academic activity necessary to thrive
    in school.
  • In school, their ZPD (Vygotsky, 1978) for
    academic success is both qualitatively and
    quantitatively different by class and ethnicity
    in ways are often socio-linguistically and
    economically structured.

School as Transformer or Reproducer?
Graduation??3-5 grade levels behind.
Graduates at grade level
Individual vs.Group-Based Differences KB - The
Ethical Issue
  • There may always be poverty and individual
  • The real problem is that of disproportion at the
    group level.
  • Poverty is not only disproportionably distributed
    by cultural origin.
  • It is reproduced that way to a large extent by an
    educational system that still fails to educate
    students at grade level.
  • Schools sustain the massive group inequality in
    learning outcomes. Huge inequality exists today
    for millions of children because of their group
    of origin.
  • They are doomed to fail or be failed by the very
    ways schooling has been organized as early as
  • A 4 grade level gap remains unabridged since the
    1960s War on Poverty.

The Achievement Gap
  • A two-year grade level gap is generally
    constructed in elementary school for students
    living in poverty.
  • This gap is exacerbated by 2 more grade levels
    as students fall further behind in the
    educational system.
  • The majority of SPARs remain undereducated and
    thus are handicapped in accessing equity
    -oriented opportunities in the current system.

Four year Head Start to College
  • By high school, a 17 year-old African-American or
    Latino student from an at-risk background
    performs at about the same level as 13-year-old
    mainstream middle class student.
  • This gap is more than sufficient to sustain a
    caste-like cycle of poverty.

NAEP Reading Scores, 2002
  • Finally,
  • Current high-stakes reform movements further
    widen the gap by placing higher demands on
    students who are already grade levels behind.
  • A corresponding high level of support needs to
    be organized so NC is LB?
  • This requires a KB as part of a general framework.