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Electromagnetic Compatibility Test for CMS Experiment.

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Title: Electromagnetic Compatibility Test for CMS Experiment.


1
Electromagnetic Compatibility Test for CMS
Experiment.
  • Authors
  • C. Rivetta Fermilab
  • F. Arteche , F. Szoncso, - CERN

2
OUTLINE
  • 1.Introduction
  • 2. Common Impedance
  • LISN.
  • CDNs.
  • 3.Emission Test
  • Harmonics.
  • RF conducted emission test.
  • 4.Immunity Test
  • RF conducted noise immunity test.
  • Slow transients - Surge immunity test.
  • Fast transients - Burst immunity test.
  • Voltage dips and short voltage interruptions
    immunity test
  • 5.Conclusions

3
1.INTRODUCTION
  • EMC phenomena are present in CMS
  • Noise generated by DC-DC converters
  • Common mode Differential mode
  • Transients
  • Over-voltages
  • Induced via magnetic fields
  • Load changes
  • Switching
  • Voltage variations
  • Harmonics
  • It is important to measure control them
  • Goal of these tests
  • Get the levels of emission and immunity
  • Identify possible EMC problems.

4
1.INTRODUCTION
  • Generic, Basic and military Standards Aerospace
    rules.
  • There are a lot of standards
  • For practical reasons we only consider some of
    them
  • Emissions test
  • RF conducted noise (based EN-55011-22 //
    MIL-STD-461// IEEE Std 1515)
  • CM DM ( high and low frequency)
  • Harmonics (based EN- 61000-3)
  • Special for 400 Hz power supply distribution
    system (very low)
  • Immunity test
  • Immunity to RF conducted noise (based
    EN-61000-4-6)
  • Electrical fast transient burst immunity test
    (based EN-61000-4-4).
  • Surge immunity test- Over-voltage (based
    EN-61000-4-5).
  • Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage
    variations immunity test (based EN-61000-4-11).

5
2. COMMON IMPEDANCE LISN CDNs
  • Two kinds of common impedance
  • Line Impedance Stabilisation Network (LISN)
  • Coupling De-coupling Network (CDNs)
  • CDNs
  • Protect auxiliary equipment
  • Values specified by the standards
  • LISN
  • Present stable a well defined impedance
  • Standardise the measurements of test
  • Values estimated from power cables
  • HF - Characteristic Impedance (CM DM )
  • Different from commercial LISN
  • Couple EUT - Measuring equipment.
  • Standardise the measurement to 50 Ohms

6
2. COMMON IMPEDANCE LISN CDNs
  • LISN HCAL Sub-System

Zcm 13 Ohms
Zdm 42 Ohms
7
3.EMISION TEST - Harmonics
  • Effects by pulling the current from power main
    for only a part of the cycle
  • Typically rectifiers ( we have 400 Hz power
    distribution)
  • Implications
  • Quality power distribution.
  • Power supply distribution over-design
  • Power transformers over-stress
  • Equipment overheat
  • Oriented to the 400 Hz PS distribution
  • AC-Dc converters
  • Transformers
  • Limits of harmonics based on international
    standards studies.

Power supply unit
8
3.EMISION TEST - RF conducted noise
  • Goal of test control the conducted emission level
  • Power Supplies FEE
  • Frequency Range 9 kHz - 50 MHz
  • Conducted emissions Propagation
  • Common Mode
  • Group of conductors and ground or other
    conductors.
  • Differential Mode
  • Conductor pairs (Negative-Positive or
    Phase-Neutral)
  • Abundant energy exchange between modes CM - DM
    conversion
  • System topology as close as possible to final one
  • Common impedance LISN
  • Equipment used
  • Current probes Spectrum Analyser

9
3.EMISION TEST - RF conducted noise
  • Power Supply
  • FEE

10
4.EMISION TEST - RF conducted noise
EN-55022
  • Test Results Power Supplies
  • Input
  • Results refereed to 50 Ohm to compare them with
    the standards
  • We used EN - 55022 B
  • Output
  • There is no standards so we need to generate them
  • From this values and the values from Immunity
    test
  • FEE
  • Input
  • Results refereed to 50 Ohm to compare them with
    the standards

11
4.IMMUNITY TEST- RF conducted noise
  • Electromagnetic immunity is the ability,of a
    device equipment or system to perform without
    degradation in presence of electromagnetic
    disturbances
  • Goal of these tests
  • Immunity level of FEE and PS to conducted
    disturbances.
  • Injection of conducted noise to the FEE
  • Common impedance - LISN
  • The idea is inject signal and measure pedestal
  • Identify frequency areas where the pedestal is
    not valid
  • This test will define sensible areas of the FEE
  • Injection via current probes
  • It is recommended to Voltage Current

12
4.IMMUNITY TEST - RF conducted noise
  • Three different set-ups
  • DM configuration
  • 9 kHz / 14 kHz up to 100 MHz
  • CM at HF configuration
  • 10 kHz up to 100 MHz
  • CM at LF configuration
  • (A few hertz up to 10 kHz)
  • The value of the amplitude of the signal depends
    on the sensitivity of the FEE.
  • This test is complementary of Conducted emission
    TEST

13
4.IMMUNITY TEST - RF conducted noise - Example
  • CM

I1
ICM
12.05 µA
12 V
14
4.IMMUNITY TEST - RF conducted noise - Example
  • I1
  • CM

0.41mA
IDM
ICM
15
4.IMMUNITY TEST - Surge immunity Test
  • The goal of test - Determinate the equipment
    susceptibility to damage by over-voltage
    generated by
  • Load changes /Short Circuits /Faults to earth
  • Common Impedance LISN CDNs to protect auxiliary
    equipment
  • Coupling network will be used to inject the
    transient
  • 9 µf 10 Ohms or 18 µf - Depends on the Test
  • Pulse Characteristic
  • Voltage O.Circuit 1.2/50 µs.
  • Current S.Circuit 8/20 µs
  • A Zenner / Trans-absorb protect EUT from this
    emission

16
4.IMMUNITY TEST - Surge immunity Test
  • The amplitude of the signal
  • Standards
  • Electrical environment
  • 5 Different Class
  • 0.5 , 1kV , 2 kV, 4 kV
  • For CMS values
  • Counting Room - Detector
  • Class 3 or 4 - (1kV-4 kV)
  • Balconies - Detector
  • Not clear
  • Test simulation for 3 different amplitudes
  • 1 kV , 500 V , 100 V
  • Line - Line

Trans-absorb
Filter
FEE
CDNs
17
4.IMMUNITY TEST - Surge immunity Test
  • It is difficult to find a device to dissipate
    this power and clamp the voltage within maximum
    values valid for the FEE.
  • Level selection
  • High level
  • Increase cost or could not have any technical
    solution
  • Low level
  • Increase risk of failure by over-voltage
  • Final selection based on
  • Preliminary studies
  • Reliability.
  • Cost
  • Risk

83 V
45 V
15 V
17 kW
4.5 kW
0.3 kW
18
4.IMMUNITY TEST - Burst immunity Test
  • The goal of test
  • Fix the susceptibility to damage by over-voltage
    generated by switching transients.
  • Common Impedance LISN CDNs to protect auxiliary
    equipment.
  • Coupling network will be used to inject the fast
    transient - 33 nf.
  • Pulse Characteristic
  • Double exponential 5ns/50 ns.
  • Burst duration 15 ms / 300 ms
  • (1 minute).
  • Spectra content of signal HF.
  • Layout very important.
  • Coupling of burst depends strongly from parasitic
    capacitance.

19
4.IMMUNITY TEST - Burst immunity Test
  • Class is not defined yet.
  • Not very important
  • A simple Capacitor protects to FEE from this
    emission
  • Test simulation
  • 3 different RF capacitors
  • 5nf, 500nf, 1000nf
  • Line - Ground
  • Amplitude
  • Class 3 - 2 KV.

20
4.IMMUNITY TEST - Voltage dips immunity Test
  • Noise source
  • Faults in the networks
  • Sudden large change of load
  • Test on FEE
  • Short interruptions Voltage variations
  • Test on Power Supplies
  • Short interruptions Voltage variations
  • Voltage dips
  • Common impedance LISN
  • Test level
  • Standards
  • Voltage dips
  • ( 0-40-70) V nominal - Voltage variations
  • (0 -40 ) V nominal. -
  • For us under study

21
5. CONCLUSIONS
  • EMC phenomena is present in CMS
  • It is important to measure and control them
  • EMC tests are based on standards and aerospace
    industry .
  • EMC test will be focus on conducted noise
  • Immunity and emissions test
  • Only a few test will be considered due to
    practical reasons
  • Test levels has not fixed yet
  • It has a big influence in the elections of
    filters protections
  • It will depend on
  • Technical studies
  • Reliability
  • Cost
  • Risk
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