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Part IV: Regional Applications

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Title: Part IV: Regional Applications


1
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Chap. 11 Russia and the Near Abroad
  • Chap. 12 Europe
  • Chap. 13 Asia and the Pacific
  • Chap. 14 The Global South the Americas
  • Chap. 14 The US and . . .

2
Part IV Regional Applications Russia and the
Near Abroad
3
Part IV Regional Applications
  • As I noted earlier in the semester, each one of
    us is influenced by where we are born and raised,
    the societal myths were collectively taught
    growing up, our environments ideology, etc. We
    are taught to fit into ouraccepts the myths,
    cultural, and ideologysocietal slot. Those who
    fail to are ostracized by society. Since states
    are collections of individuals more or less
    socialized on the same myths and culture and as
    such reflect them, understanding international
    politics necessarily requires understanding state
    and/or regional perspectives. It helps us to
    understand why states do the things they do,
    respond to certain external stimuli the way they
    do, and interact with international actors and
    phenomena the way they do.

4
Part IV Regional Applications
  • More accurately, it is important to understand
    that states do not actually do anything. Rather,
    they are somewhat inanimate, arbitrarily drawn
    objects on maps. States, or the governments
    that represent them in international politics,
    are reflections of that states societal
    worldviews. For our purposes, we call it ethos.
    In pluralistic societies they presumably
    represent the views from the bottom upthe
    cultural views and mythologies that have evolved
    over time. In dictatorship, they presumably
    enforce the views from the top down. In either
    case, societal views are reflected in
    governmental (state) behavior. A states
    decisionmaking elite engender societal views of
    the state itself, how it views other states and
    so forth.

5
Part IV Regional Applications
  • To be sure, countless international interactions
    originate quite apart from a particular
    government without its knowledge or permission.
    Nonetheless, many of these interactions create
    stimuli to which governments may eventually have
    to respond. We have seen how policymakers and
    analysts use theories and analogies to
    understand. But few of us are policymakers or
    analysts. Therefore, national ethos (think of as
    worldview) can be particularly revealing in
    understanding international politics.

6
Part IV Regional ApplicationsOverview
  • In this section the authors consider five
    regional perspectives 1) Russia and the Near
    Abroad 2) Europe 3) Asia-Pacific 3) the South
    Global South or Less Developed Countries
    (LCDs) and 5) the US and Latin America. One
    could argue with their groupings but any
    grouping of statesand one must group states or
    alternatively consider some 193 different
    worldviewsis somewhat capricious.

7
Part IV Regional ApplicationsOverview
  • A few caveats are in order here. While I
    support considering national ethos as a factor in
    understanding international politics, it is not
    without hazards. First, to say there is a US
    worldview is simplistic to say there is a US
    and Latin America worldview is that much more
    simplistic. We shall try to develop some general
    themes that shape ethos. Second, and implied
    above, considering national and/or regional ethos
    reinforces the tendencyprevalent among
    Realismto think that states are the only actors
    in international politics in point of fact, many
    actors exist including states, groups, MNCs, etc.
    Clearly, since 9/11 weve all come to realize
    that non-state actors can be very powerful forces
    in international politics. Third, there is a
    risk in developing a national ethos to
    unwittingly become apologists for state behavior.
    With those warnings in mind, let us turn to
    ethos as an explanatory variable in understanding
    international politics.

8
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Geopolitical Overview
  • Flash Points
  • Nuclear
  • Economic Growth
  • Human Rights
  • Building Democracy
  • Regional Perspective Russian

9
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Regional Perspective Russian
  • Im going to depart from the book a bit here.
    So that a,b and c will be different with
    some different emphases than out authors. I
    shall then pick back up with d. When
    considering Russias ethos, one needs to consider
    two core themes historical Russia nationalism
    and Marxism Leninism
  • The Contemporary Foreign-Policy Debate

10
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Regional Perspective Russian
  • Economic determinism. Dialectic materialism.
    Role of the State in history. Social controls.
    The subjugated peoples eventually, with the
    assistance of enlightened vanguard party, revolt
    (also, capitalists states may go to way with each
    other) Lenin and Imperialismthe highest stage
    of capitalism. The state withers away. It
    yields a new economic system in which no
    contradictions exist.

11
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Regional Perspective Russian
  • The Near Abroad
  • The Contemporary Foreign-Policy Debate
  • Regional Architecture
  • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
  • NATO and the OSCE
  • Case Study Chechnya

12
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Regional Perspective Russian
  • The Near Abroad
  • The Contemporary Foreign-Policy Debate
  • Regional Architecture
  • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
  • NATO and the OSCE
  • Case Study Chechnya

13
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Geopolitical Overview

14
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Geopolitical Overview (continued)
  • They importantly note that the entire geography
    that we consider here once lay inside the formal
    boundaries of the former Soviet Union USSR).
    With the demise of the USSR, fifteen new states
    came into the international system, eventually
    joining the UN. Russias relations with all its
    former republics predate the USSR.

15
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Geopolitical Overview (continued)
  • During Tsarist times, Russia frequently sought to
    extend its geographical bordersfor defensive
    purposes, in search for warm-water ports, etc.
    Under the Bolsheviks, the USSR maintained and
    attempted to extend them just as had the Tsars.
    Russia continues to struggle today with its
    bordersthe case study at the end of the chapter
    will illustrate

16
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Geopolitical Overview (continued)
  • The point is that Russia and Russians view the
    Near Abroad (NA) as an area of special providence
    with Russia being the benefactor for said states.
    Put simply, Russian ethos and that of its former
    republics are integrally linked and have been for
    generations. The authors pose two questions
    concerning Russias geopolitical overview that
    are important in international terms 1) will
    Russias ethos cause Russia to seek to return to
    its former grandeur of superpower or will it be
    satisfied to remain a regional power? 2) how
    will Russia define and manage its relations with
    the states of the NA?

17
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Flashpoints
  • Nuclear
  • Economic Growth
  • Human Rights
  • Building Democracy
  • Regional Perspective Russian

18
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Im going to depart from the book a bit here.
    So that a,b and c will be different with
    some different emphases than out authors. I
    shall then pick back up with d. When
    considering Russias ethos, one needs to consider
    two core themes historical Russia nationalism
    and Marxism Leninism. Though the authors address
    both later in the chapter, I want to make them a
    particular focus of Russias ethos.

19
Part IV Regional Applications
  • The Contemporary Foreign-Policy Debate
  • The Near Abroad. From the Baltic States to the
    Ukraine to Kazakhstan, these states occupy the
    gray area between Russias domestic and foreign
    policy
  • Regional Architecture. The authors note there is
    no regional architecture per se. We have
    discussed the rather unique relationship Russia
    has with its Near Abroad and how said
    relationship is something between a domestic and
    foreign-policy issue for Russians

20
Part IV Regional Applications
21
Part IV Regional Applications
22
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Case Study Chechnya
  • November, 1991 leaders in Chechnyageographicall
    y inside Russiaand Ingushetia declared
    independence from Russia
  • Russia moved in to overturn any such separatist
    thinking or actionssome brutal fighting occurred
    on both sides and the separatist movement was
    temporarily turned back, resulting in
    negotiations
  • In 1994 conflict erupted again even while
    negotiations were underway Russia had earlier
    seized control of Chechnyas capital, Groznyy,
    and the insurgents headed for the hills

23
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Case Study Chechnya
  • August 1999, a new round of particularly fierce
    fighting erupted as guerillas launched attacks in
    Dagestan, declaring it an Islamic state
  • Continued low-level insurgency (with eruptions
    from time to time) that both Yeltsin and Putin
    have promised to resolve accusations and
    evidence of gross violations of human rights on
    both sides often other adjacent regions with
    peoples of similar aspirations have been pulled
    into the conflict outsiders such as al Qaeda
    have become involved and sent jihadists to
    region.
  • Though partners with US in war on terror, the
    2003 State Department HR report, released
    February, 26 2004, still lambastes Russia and
    China

24
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Chapter 12 Europe.
  • Introduction

25
Part IV Regional Applications
26
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Flash Points
  • Deadly Quarrels and Contagious Wars
  • Refugees
  • Communist Transformation
  • Integration Growing Pains
  • Regional Perspective
  • Britain As Historical balancer
  • France
  • Germany

27
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Regional Architecture. Weve have already
    discussed the three institutions-regimes that
    form Europes regional architecture the
    ever-growing EU NATO and its future and the
    OCSE. Thus this brief summary will be somewhat
    redundant.
  • Case Study Crisis Management, the Balkans

28
Part IV Regional Applications
29
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Yugoslavia was created out of the ashes of WW I,
    from Slavic parts of the old Austro-Hungarian
    Empire (Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia joined Serbia
    and Montenegro)
  • After WW II it was held together by the reign of
    Marshal Tito, a somewhat independent (of Moscow)
    Communist
  • In 1991 a series of separatists (irredentists)
    movements resulted quickly in the
    Serbia-Slovenia, the Serbia-Croatia,
    Serbia-Bosnia and more recently the Serbia-Kosovo
    wars
  • Ultimately, NATO, EU, and the UN intervened
  • Peacekeepers remain in parts today

30
Part IV Regional Applications
  • Conclusion. The authors seem to predict the
    emergence of the EU as an effective counterweight
    to US influence. And over the long term they may
    well be correct. Has 9/11 changed said
    prediction? How?

31
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Introduction
  • Regional Perspective
  • Flash Points
  • Regional Architecture
  • Case Study Intl Trade Finance
  • Conclusion

32
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Introduction. Let us consider the authors own
    admission that defining Asia-Pacific as they do
    raises some issues. The authors note that the
    Asia-Pacific region is an ill-defined region.
    Should one include the Pacific Rim, for instance?
    If so, one must examine the US, Mexico, Chile,
    etc. They note that both the US and APEC
    members. However one defines the region, it is
    a region of great diversity along a number of
    dimensions (p. 384). They discuss the regions
    colonial past reflecting very different colonial
    legacies

33
Chap. 13 Asia and the Pacific
34
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Continued. The British in India-Pakistan, the
    French in French Indochina, the Portuguese in
    Macao, and Thailand having never been ruled as a
    colonial possessionsomething of which many Thais
    are proud. Economically, they illustrate
    diversity by discussing at least six different
    economic identities. The first group is
    developed states (Australia, Japan, New Zealand).
    The second is newly Industrialized countries
    (NICs) such as South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore.
    A third group is resource rich, developing
    nations such as Indonesia, the Philippines, and
    Malaysia. A fourth group is command economiesas
    we discussed while discussing Soviet Russiathe
    authors citing North Korea. Fifth is a group
    that has mixed economies, China and Viet Nam.
    Finally, are those states that are undeveloped
    states, the authors citing Papua New Guinea.
    There is diversity in power as well. Depending
    how one defines the region, it either has a
    single dominant power (China), three or four
    powers (China, Russia, the US Japan). Beyond
    these indicators of diversity, the authors note
    that one must account from Pakistan and India on
    the fringes of the region (the subcontinent).

35
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Continued. Finally, they mention three notable
    post-Cold War trends (p. 386). They are 1) the
    decline of Russias and Americas naval presence
    the US is arguable since 9/11 2) the general
    decline of superpower military bases again
    arguable since 9/11 and 3) the steady
    modernization of East Asia militaries, though
    this trend has been somewhat retarded since the
    currency crises in the late 1990s in Southeast
    Asia in East Asia (China, Japan) it is
    prominent.

36
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
37
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • Japan too has a unique history with respect to
    the West. Feudal-shogun period (1603-1868)
    isolationism Commodore Perry steams into
    Japanese harbor to inform Japan it is now open to
    Western trade cannons on ships trumped shogun
    system Japan operates under duress but quickly
    sees the wisdom of trade and naval power during
    the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) Japan follows
    the pattern set by the US Further, once opened,
    industrial revolution affects Japan Japan
    becomes a great industrial-military power goes
    to war with China (1890s) and quickly proves its
    mettle goes to war with Russia (c. 1904) and is
    quickly winning in both cases West (and US in
    particular) steps in, precluding Japanese total
    victory

38
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • Japan too has a unique history with respect to
    the West. Feudal-shogun period (1603-1868)
    isolationism Commodore Perry steams into
    Japanese harbor to inform Japan it is now open to
    Western trade cannons on ships trumped shogun
    system Japan operates under duress but quickly
    sees the wisdom of trade and naval power during
    the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) Japan follows
    the pattern set by the US Further, once opened,
    industrial revolution affects Japan Japan
    becomes a great industrial-military power goes
    to war with China (1890s) and quickly proves its
    mettle goes to war with Russia (c. 1904) and is
    quickly winning in both cases West (and US in
    particular) steps in, precluding Japanese total
    victory

39
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • Japan, Continued. US eventually wins but not
    before demanding unconditional surrender Japan
    asks only to keep its symbolic Emperor US says
    no August 1945 US uses to atomic bombs on
    Japanthe only time nukes have been used on a
    people Japan surrenders unconditionally US
    occupation with military ships and bases in
    Japan US military officers write Japans
    constitution for it (limiting what percent of its
    GDP may be spent on military) Vietnam War, Nixon
    shocks, other indignities 1980s, a time of Japan
    bashing in US.

40
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • B. The Korean Peninsula. Some basic historical
    context is necessary before discussing the Flash
    Points. End of WW II the victors divided up
    various regions in both the European and Pacific
    theaters. In the latter, above the 38th parallel
    Korea would be temporarily administered by China
    (and Russia) below the 38th, the US would be the
    principal administrator June 1950 socialist N.
    Korea poured over the 38th parallel in a
    blitzkrieg that caught S. Korea and the US by
    surprise, quickly pushing the latter two to the
    bottom of the peninsula

41
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
42
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
43
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • B. The Korean Peninsula. June 1950 Trumans
    Admin-istration was able to get a resolution
    passed in the UN security Council giving the US
    the cover it needed to intervene in a major
    military counter offensive the allies (viz. the
    US) drove the invaders back northward quickly
    driving N. Korean troops all the way back up the
    peninsula, to the China border November, 1950
    Chinese troops crossed the Korea-China border
    driving the allies back southward again
    1950-1953 stalemate Spring 1953 Eisenhowers
    Administrationelected partly on a promise to
    resolve Koreawith its South Korean ally signs an
    armistice, that is a ceasefire with no end to
    the war

44
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • The Korean Peninsula. 1953-2004 technically
    still at war, simply operating under a ceasefire
    1960s to present several instances of flair ups
    along the DMZ (countless N. Korean incursions, by
    cave, by submarine, etc.) and provocative moves
    (USS Pueblo, EC 121, Polar Tree, etc)
  • China-Taiwan. From around 200 B.C the Han
    Dynasty, China jungwo wherein China was unified
    and a strong central government became equated
    with a prosperous China many achievements
    including an accurate calendar, mathematics, gun
    powder ministry of barbarian affairs (kowtow),
    etc.

45
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
46
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives
  • China-Taiwan. Jungwo

47
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • China-Taiwan. European explorers seeking overland
    (Marco Polo) sea routes to China for spices, and
    exotic goods 1830s after years of trying to
    open China to trade, Britain finally discovers it
    can use opium to create a captive customer base
    Opium Wars where U.K subdues China with formers
    gunships (ironically, U.K. uses gunpowder) China
    forced to sign a series of unfair treaties,
    ceding territories to Western powers

48
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • China-Taiwan. 1830s-1940s known as the Century
    of Humiliation Chinese currency in English (one
    side) colonial areas for Westernersparks with
    signs reading No dogs or Chinese allowed as
    trade follows the flag, so too does religion as
    the West imposed its religious ideals on the
    Chinese 1860s, Taiping Rebellion where Chinese
    Christians fought non Christians resulting in
    some 20 million deaths early 20th Century, the
    Boxers (society of harmonious fists) encouraged
    by Empress Dowager Boxers subdued by Westerners
    now US, Germany, and others all exploiting China
    under Open Door policy

49
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • China-Taiwan. In response to humiliation and the
    weakness of central government, a new political
    party, the Nationalist or Kuomintang part (KMT)
    under Dr. Sun Yetsen takes on extant warlords in
    an attempt to reunify China under strong central
    leadership Early 1920s Mao Zedong and other form
    the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) KMT and CCP
    cooperate in some cases compete in others there
    are two United Fronts against Japanese
    invasions after the second, KMT turns on CCP and
    kills 10s of thousands CCP forced to flee
    northward on the famous Long March WWII ends
    with US supporting the KMT and Russia supporting
    (mostly) the CCP

50
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Regional Perspectives.
  • China-Taiwan. Civil war erupts from 1945-1949
  • CCP finally vanquishes KMT to Formosa (Taiwan)!!
  • USand some other Western statesrefuses to
    recognize CCP-controlled China (known as the
    Peoples Republic of China until 1970s Two
    Taiwan Straits crises in 1950sChinese ideology
    Marxism-Leninism-Maoism discuss

51
Chap. 13 Asia and the Pacific
52
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Flash Points.
  • Korean Peninsula. Weve already discussed above.
  • South China Sea. Mostly, there exist multiple
    claims on islands in the South China Sea. Weve
    already considered the sensitivity of the
    China-Taiwan issue. The other big deal is oil.
    The Spratly and Paracel Islands (see Map 13.3)
    have been claimed by Vietnam, Philippines,
    Malaysia, etc. In short, the disputes typically
    involve one of the aforementionedor other Asian
    stateson the one hand and China on the other.

53
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Flash Points.
  • C. Human Rights. Most if not all the leaders of
    the region push cultural relativism when the
    West accuses them of having less-than-stellar
    records on human rights. Many also believe this
    century is going to be the Asian Century, a new
    century where Asian values and their communal
    focus trumps the Western Liberal focus on the
    individual. Many Asians believe that the Wests
    obsession on the individual is self indulgent,
    even decadent.

54
Regional ApplicationsChap. 13 Asia and the
Pacific
  • Geopolitical Architecture. Since the demise of
    the East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, there has
    been no regional architecture equal to the EU for
    economic prosperity issues, NATO for
    national-security issues, or OCSE for human
    rights issues. Instead, Asia-Pacific relies on a
    series of informal dialogues.
  • Association of South East Asian States (ASEAN).
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
  • Shared Values.
  • Case Study International Trade and Finance.
  • Conclusion. note jump to slide 83

55
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Introduction
  • Geopolitical Overview.
  • Africa
  • Middle East
  • South Asia
  • Southeast Asia
  • Flash Points.
  • State Failure
  • AIDS Crisis
  • Radical Islam (Jihadism)
  • Regional Perspective.

56
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Introduction. The authors begin with the old
    three-fold division common during the CW but no
    longer relevant. Namely, the First World was the
    Industrialized Western states (democracies). The
    Second World was the Industrialized East (the
    command economies of the Soviet Union and its
    allies. What was left overan eclectic and
    diverse group of nation stateswas the Third
    World. These states represented tremendous
    diversity as we shall see but shared a desire to
    develop.

57
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Continued. I would prefer that Latin America be
    covered in this chapter since it shares this
    groups general goals how to develop
    economically and politically given the
    international system as it was and is. Note
    with the exclusion of Antarctica, the gray
    states.

58
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
59
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Continued. The GS is comprised of well over 100
    states. Though they are extremely diverse (e.g.
    some resource rich such as Nigeria, others
    resource poor such as Sudan) they have a common
    denominator since emancipation, they have had
    to struggle to develop given their past colonial
    heritages.
  • Africa

60
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Africa. Africa. Depending upon how one
    countse.g., the inclusions of various
    islandsAfrica consists of at least 53 states.
    Africa consists of at least two extremely
    different regions Northern Africa (some of
    which the French called the Maghreb states)
    Islamic states as well as part of the Horn of
    Africa Sub-Saharan Africa states.

61
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Africa. Archeological finds have dated the
    evolution of the human race to some 20 million
    years ago in Africa similarly artifacts of human
    activity date back to the 2nd Century A.D., the
    Aksum empire indicating trade between Arab and
    Africa states.

62
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Africa. The empire of Ghana in the 10th-11th
    Centuries parallels the rise of Islam. However,
    because of geographymountain ranges and
    waterwaysAfrica generally remained isolated
    until the 19th Century. Europe discovered
    Africa whereupon the continent was carved into a
    series of colonial possessions.

63
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Africa. Berlin Conference (1884-85) formally
    divided Africa among the European states France
    in the western Sub Saharan and northern parts
    Italy in the Horn Belgium in south central the
    British and Dutch here and there.

64
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Africa. Colonization, by its very nature, meant
    particular things for Africa. First, that
    natural boundaries of tribes and peoples would be
    changed to fit the needs of the colonists the
    colonists drew new boundaries that facilitated
    the exploitation of resources to repatriate to
    the colonial state whereupon manufactured goods
    would be produced. The Industrial Revolution
    made this imperative. Second, the new boundaries
    would combine tribes of peoples who had histories
    of hostilityindeed colonial policy, in many
    instances, was precisely to divide and to conquer.

65
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Middle East. The Middle (perhaps more
    appropriately Near) East is the birthplace and
    the crossroads of civilizations. Consider the
    Romans being supplanted by the Byzantium Empire
    which, in turn, was replaced by the Ottoman
    Empire (1453) which lasted until the end of WW
    I. The text properly notes that Semitic peoples
    are comprised of both Arabs and indigenous Jews.

66
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Middle East. The region is comprised additionally
    of Turks, Persians (Nubian Empire of northern
    Africa, Kunde) and a few associated others.
    Historically the area we call the Middle East has
    been a strategic regionwell before oil.
    Included commerce from Africa, Asia, and Europe
    cross paths here. Early civilization emerged
    around 4,000 BCE, in the Euphrates and Tigris
    river valleys as well as the Nile river valley.

67
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Middle East. the region is the home to three of
    the worlds great religions Islam,
    Christianity, and Judaism. Much as we saw with
    China, the regions peoples are rightly proud of
    their early accomplishments algebra, other
    mathematicsimported from the Far Eastand
    advanced technologies, medicines, and optics.
    The Ottomans and emerging European cultures began
    competing for control from 1400s-1800s, with
    Europeans finally emerging as dominant.

68
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Middle East. Then the Industrial Revolution and
    its need for oil, coupled with discoveries of oil
    in the area, caused the region to be the object
    of competing Europeans states. Ever since then
    the region has been the focus of great power
    intrigues and politics.

69
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • South Asia. The Subcontinent that defines this
    region is separate from the Eurasian continent by
    vast mountain ranges (Himalayas). The authors
    define South Asia as India, East and West
    Pakistan (known now as Bangladesh and Pakistan
    respectively) Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka (formerly
    known as Ceylon) and the Maldives. Many great
    civilizations from this region (Hindu from the
    Ganges River) succumbed to European suzerainty in
    1850s (the British) just before Americas civil
    war.

70
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • South East Asia. The authors distinguish between
    the Indochina peninsula and the island nations.
    Weve already discussed ASEAN and APEC. The
    French gained an Asia foothold in Indochina and
    the British in India and Burma, Singapore, and
    Hong Kong the Portuguese in Macaoand actually
    earlier than the French in Indochina the Dutch
    in Indonesia, and the Philippines (Spanish and
    US).

71
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Flash Points.
  • State Failure. The authors cite Kaplans
    alarmist warning of the dangers of failed states
    in Africa. Whether one buys Kaplans entire
    argument, the authors note potential problems in
    Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, and Angola Sierra Leone,
    Liberia (2003). The additionally warn of Somalia
    as an example of how Africa is a security concern
    for everyone, not just Africans.

72
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Flash Points.
  • State Failure. The question is how to address
    failed states? 1) Unilateral intervention by
    neighboring states fearing spillover 2)
    Interventionunilateral and multilateralwith the
    blessing of regional organizations 3) Annexation
    by a neighboring state 4) Regional integration,
    which as weve seen, requires minimum
    prerequisites such as shared norms-values, etc.
    Finally they discuss Palestine as a failed state
    waiting to happen.

73
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Flash Points.
  • AIDS Crisis. Infectious and parasitic diseases
    are major causes of deathskilling some 17
    million annually. In 1999, they note, AIDS
    surpassed all other causes of death in Sub
    Saharan Africa. Frequently due to
    cultural-religious norms, AIDS is a neglected by
    the very governments whose peoples are most
    vulnerable. One startling statistic they cite is
    the CIA projection that in the 2000s, AIDS is
    expected to kill one quarter of the populations
    in certain states.

74
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Flash Points.
  • C. Radical Islam Jihadism. From my perspective
    the authors appear to be rather tepid in their
    concernprobably a function of when the ms. was
    written versus when actually published. For
    instance they use passive constructions such as
    some people believe and the old pejorative
    descriptions as green peril and green menace.
  • Lack of Economic Development.

75
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Flash Points.
  • Radical Islam Jihadism. The authors passively
    point out that It has been argued that Islam is
    the only ideological alternative to the West,
    which transcends national boundaries. As such
    its a transnational phenomenon. In a world of
    some 6 billion persons, 1 billion are Muslim
    (around 16-17). They do note that Muslims
    comprise majorities in some 50 states and
    significant minorities in many others. They cite
    some evidence of the threat of Jihadism to intl
    order and stability.

76
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Regional Perspective. The authors cite Puchalas
    themes that inform a radical non-Western
    perspective (p. 433)
  • The West is viewed as enjoying global hegemony
    via imperialists
  • The power is reinforced by public and private
    institutions (TNCs, IOs, media)
  • Western influence is aided and abetted by
    indigenous collaborators who sale out their own
    people for money
  • Western influence is thought to be responsible
    for cultural annihilation and domination

77
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Regional Architecture.
  • South-South Cooperation. The so-called
    non-aligned movement (NAM) began in Bandung
    Indonesia in 1955. Sukarno sponsored it. Six
    years later it was formalized with a membership
    of 25 states. Today its membership is around 113
    states. During the CW its behavior reflected
    little of its name sake. Since the CWs demise
    it has begun to function collectively to mobilize
    its power in the UNs General Assembly. It has
    been successful, if not in effecting a NIEO,
    keeping it is the forefront of issues.

78
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Regional Architecture.
  • South-South Cooperation. Its purpose is to close
    the 8020 gap. Additionally they discuss the G77
    in similar terms and mention a number of other
    organizations. Virtually every govt believes the
    gap in unsustainable in the long term. Some
    believe its is the inevitable and international
    consequences of the global-capitalist system
    others are more optimistic about eventual
    development. See Table 14.1

79
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Regional Architecture.
  • Regional Organizations. Never fully realized or
    as the authors note a mixed record. They cite
    Spain and W. Sahara . . . . In 2000, the OAU
    became the Africa Union (AU). 2) Southern Africa
    Development Community (SADC) with 9members. 3)
    Economic Community of West African States
    (ECOWAS), established in 1975 and has become
    increasingly involved and effective in post-CW
    era. The Arab League which was established in
    1945, originally with Egypt, Syria, Lebanon,
    Iraq, Trans-Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Now
    a very important regional actor with some 25
    members.

80
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Regional Architecture.
  • Supplemental linear vs. dependency
  • Regional Organizations. While the G77 and NAM
    are trans-regional, other regional organizations
    exist and are discussed here. 1) Organization of
    Africa Unity (OAU) was formed in Addis Ababa in
    1963. Its original mission was rather ambitious
    the creation of the United States of Africa.
    Two other early purposes were boundary related,
    problems left from colonial times. Article XIX
    provides for dispute resolution via mediation,
    conciliation, and arbitration.

81
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Case Study Human Rights and Community. Rwanda
    and Burundi. In early 1990s, communal violence
    between the Hutu and Tutsi broke out and in three
    months time it is estimated that between 800 k
    and a 1 million. Belgiums colonial tenure used
    Tutsis over Hutu and exacerbated already troubled
    relations. Violence broke out and the world sat
    on its collective hands.

82
Regional ApplicationsChap. 14 The South
Global South
  • Conclusion. Many hope the end of the CW would
    bode well for those in the GS. Clearly this has
    not been the case. The old problemslack of
    development, poverty, urbanizationremain while
    new problems have emerged AIDS, effects of drug
    trade, environmental degradation, terrorism, etc.

83
Regional ApplicationsChap. 15 The United
States and the Americas
  • Introduction.
  • Roots of Americas ethos
  • Political freedom
  • Anti-tyranny
  • Application to International Politics
  • Americas foreign policy pillars prior to 20th
    Century

84
Chap. 16. Global Commons
  • Introduction
  • Flash Points
  • Human Population
  • Fossil Fuels and Minerals
  • Species Loss
  • Forests
  • Water
  • Air Pollution
  • Global Architecture
  • Case Study War against Drugs

85
Global Commons I. Introduction
  • Timeline of sorts representative of the rise of
    the environment as in issue in world politics.
    Interestingly, the first international attention
    was in the early 1970s with the creation of the
    UN Environmental Program (UNEP) in 1972. Not
    until the 1980s did much attention get focused,
    however. By the 1980s concern for the
    environment was widespread (482).

86
Global Commons I. Introduction
  • The commons (Garrett Hardins) tragedy of the
    commons allegory. Namely, there exists a
    village of cattle herders whose net worth is a
    function of the number of cattle he has. Assume
    each villager is a utility maximizer is
    rational. As such each villager wishes to
    maximize his net worth. However, the land on
    which each herders cattle graze is finite a
    limited or scarce resource. Consequently, each
    villager who rationally maximizes his own net
    worth affects the overall villages well being
    and eventually each of his fellow herders net
    worth.

87
Global Commons I. Introduction
  • Thus, say our authors, is the problem of the
    global commons. The global commons is composed
    of those resources that are held to be the common
    inheritance of all people and not the possession
    of individual countries (483). It turns out
    that said commons are numerous access to clean
    air and water protective ozone layer global
    warming resource scarcity species loss and the
    spread of disease. These minimally are
    considered global-commons issues.

88
Global Commons I. Introduction
  • Chapter premise and most who study these
    phenomena is that the nation-state system has
    done a particularly poor job of dealing with such
    issues. Simply put, these issues transcend
    national boundaries and therefore require
    different approaches. As globalization or
    interdependency increases, these issues become
    more compelling as they increasingly affect us
    all.

89
Global CommonsII. Flash Points.
  • Human Population. Human population growth
    accounts for a portion, though not all, of
    environmental degradation. Thus as the
    population increases, so increase the negative
    effects on the environment. It took all of human
    history until 1800 to reach a global population
    of 1 billion. It took a little more than 100
    years to double it. The human population doubled
    from 3 to 6 billion in a mere 40 years.

90
Global CommonsII. Flash Points.
  • Human Population. Human population growth
    accounts for a portion, though not all, of
    environmental degradation. Thus as the
    population increases, so increase the negative
    effects on the environment. It took all of human
    history until 1800 to reach a global population
    of 1 billion. It took a little more than 100
    years to double it. The human population doubled
    from 3 to 6 billion in a mere 40 years.

91
Global CommonsII. Flash Points.
92
Global CommonsII. Flash Points.
93
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Fossil Fuels. Here, obviously, the authors are
    speaking to the issue of non-renewable resources.
    The question then becomes the rate at which said
    resources are being consumed. Further, its the
    industrialized world that accounts for the
    alarming rates. Three-fourths of the worlds
    populationin the GSconsume only 17 of the
    fossil fuels. The US alone consumes about 80 of
    the worlds energy production annually. Imagine
    what will happen in coming years when countries
    such as China and India, both rapidly
    industrializing, become fully industrialized?

94
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Fossil Fuels. Here, obviously, the authors are
    speaking to the issue of non-renewable resources.
    The question then becomes the rate at which said
    resources are being consumed. Further, its the
    industrialized world that accounts for the
    alarming rates. Three-fourths of the worlds
    populationin the GSconsume only 17 of the
    fossil fuels. The US alone consumes about 80 of
    the worlds energy production annually. Imagine
    what will happen in coming years when countries
    such as China and India, both rapidly
    industrializing, become fully industrialized?

95
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Species Loss. Three million species of plants
    and 10 million of animals are estimated to be
    endangered 10 of flowering plants and greater
    than 1,000 vertebrates. Thirty percent of the
    worlds ecosystems are estimated to be in
    decline. The mention invasive species as a
    problem of modern world travel. In many if not
    most instances they wreak havoc.

96
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Continued. When an invasive species is
    introduced into a non-indigenous habitat it
    typically has no natural predator to balance its
    population rate. The authors cite the recent
    discovery of a deep-sea sponge that apparently
    has cancer applications. Beyond the fact that
    plants supply our oxygen, the issue is we know
    not what were destroying. The Convention on
    Biodiversity (Rio, 1992) is an attempt to get a
    global perspective on solving some of these
    problems. Noticeably absent from the signatories
    is the US.

97
Invasive Species Chinese Snakehead Fish
98
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Forests. In theory these too are different than
    non-renewable. The tropical and subtropical
    forests cover only 7 of the worlds surface yet
    theyre home to more than half the worlds plant
    and animal species. They cite the alarming rate
    at which deforestation has been occurring,
    especially in the past few decades. Alas, much
    of it is done in the name of development for
    instance, most of the deforestation results from
    the expansion of farming and animal husbandry
    (ranching) making Hardins tragedy of the commons
    an apt allegory

99
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Water. Water scarcity is an increasingly serious
    problem. To cite two recent examples of which
    Im aware water in Middle East shared by Arabs
    and Israelis US-Mexico. Twenty-six countries
    are considered water scarce. The authors cite
    Israel vis-à-vis aquifers.
  • Oceans. The authors note the GSs position that
    the oceans represent a common heritage, a
    position memorialized in UNCLOS III. The
    resultant treaty has been signed by 133 nations

100
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Water. Continued
  • Oceans, Continued. The authors note the GSs
    position that the oceans represent a common
    heritage, a position memorialized in UNCLOS III.
    The resultant treaty has been signed by 133
    nations again notably absent is the US despite
    the fact that it took effect in 1996. The also
    note the problems of pollution and that it,
    perforce, transcends national boundaries oil
    spills, run off, fertilizers, etc. Finally the
    discuss the problem of flags of convenience
    under which most oil tankers as well as Cruise
    Ships and many other ships are registered.
  • Fish. Obviously fishes are a renewable resource
    but fishing stocks are being over-fished.
    Changes in spawning habits and over fishing
    threaten many species.
  • Coral Reefs. Some 60 of the worlds coral reefs
    are at risk.

101
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Air Pollution. Air pollution say are authors
    is a significant problem in the industrialized
    countries (p. 494). They note that Los Angeles
    alone produces some 400 tons of particulates
    annually. All of us who grew up in California or
    who have lived here long know what a problems
    pollution is in the Inland Empire and Los
    Angeles.

102
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Air Pollution, Continued.
  • Acid Rain. Normal rain has a pH of 5.6. In some
    parts of American rain with a pH of 4.6, i.e.,
    ten-times more acidic.
  • Climate Change and Ozone Depletion. The authors
    discuss the 25 increase in CO2 since the middle
    of the nineteenth century. Among other things,
    CO2 binds oxygen that the worlds population
    cannot breathe. Along with methane CH3 and
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), greenhouse gases have
    increased. Thus too has climate change increased
    correspondingly. They discuss the breadth of the
    problem in both the developed and GS. (See Fig.
    16.6). They then turn to the worlds responses
    1992 Rio Conference and the 1997 Kyoto Protocols.
    While Clinton signed the latter, it has yet to
    be ratified by the Senate. The Bush team is
    against it but has yet to come up with badly
    needed alternatives. See Documentary History, p.
    494. A related problem is the depletion of the
    protective ozone layer. Ozone in the lower
    atmosphere is a problema pollutant. In the
    upper atmosphere it protects the earth from
    harmful UV radiation. CFCs are a major
    contributor to both greenhouse gaseshence global
    warmingand to the depletion of ozone.

103
Global Commons. III. Global Architecture
  • Global Architecture. Its why its called the
    problem of the global commons. There is no
    global approach. Sovereign states make their own
    policies and regard IOs approaches as infringing
    on their sovereignty. The authors suggest that a
    global approach is needed. They cite Rosenaus
    definition of global governance, conceived to
    include systems of rule at all levels of human
    activity. These are informal rules where comity
    and reciprocity are the enforcement
    mechanismsthus they have limited usefulness.
    The benefits 1) treaties take a long time to
    negotiate 2) environmental issues involve a
    broad mix of states, NGOs, IGOs, and MNCs 3)
    environmental crises must be addressed quickly.

104
Global Commons. Environment as Security
Conclusion
  • Case Study The Environment as A Security Issue.
  • Conclusion. In the aftermath of the Rio Summit,
    an international consensus has emerged on the
    following 1) for the first time in history,
    humans are the principal force behind global
    environmental change 2) said human forces are a
    global rather than local concern 3) the changes
    will require flexible, agile policymaking 4) the
    time required to effect these changes is beyond
    the traditional timeframes. In other words,
    stop-gap expedients will not cut it.

105
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106
Global CommonsII. Flash Points
  • Air Pollution. Air pollution say are authors
    is a significant problem in the industrialized
    countries (p. 494). They note that Los Angeles
    alone produces some 400 tons of particulates
    annually. All of us who grew up in California or
    who have lived here long know what a problems
    pollution is in the Inland Empire and Los
    Angeles.

107
The End
  • Global Commons Next
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