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The Civil Rights Movement


I. Why Did the Civil Rights Movement Take Off After 1945? ... A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.) JFK finally begins to campaign for Civil Rights legislation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement
  • There were two phases to the Civil Rights
    movement one phase between 1945-1965 and the
    other after 1965.

I. Why Did the Civil Rights Movement Take Off
After 1945?
  • Black equality became a significant political
    issue for the Democratic Party
  • WWII had been fought against racism abroadhard
    to keep harboring it at home
  • Black veterans came home dedicated to change
  • Increasing number of White Americans condemned
  • Discrimination in the United States hurt our
    propaganda battle against the Communists

II. The Truman Years
  • Trumans 1948 election year agenda
  • No significant Civil Rights congressional
  • Truman moves on his own to do what he can for
    Civil Rights
  • --Desegregation of the military (1948)
  • Jackie Robinsons breakthrough (1947)

II. The Truman Years (cont.)
  • Split at the 1948 Democratic convention
  • Energized Truman hits the campaign trail hard
  • Republican Dewey runs a boring, conservative
  • Trumans stunning election
  • Trumans Fair Deal (1949)

III. The Battle in the Courts
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • -- separate but equal facilities legal
  • Smith v. Allwright (1944)
  • First attack separate is not equal
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
  • -- Chief Justice Earl Warren

III. Battle in the Courts (cont.)
  • Eisenhower disapproves of Brown decision
  • Desegregation with all deliberate speed
  • Other Warren Court Civil Rights decisions
  • Popular opposition to the Brown decision
  • No real progress on desegregation at first

IV. The Eisenhower Years
  • Eisenhowers philosophy related to Civil Rights
  • First Civil Rights Acts passed since the Civil
    War (1957 and 1960)
  • Opposition to the integration of Little Rock
    Central High School (1957)
  • --Governor Orville Faubus

V. Out of the Schools and Into the Buses
  • The arrest of Rosa Parks (December, 1955)
  • The Montgomery, Ala. Bus Boycott
  • The leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • The Montgomery model for Civil Rights activism
    boycott, publicity, courts
  • SCLC formed (1957)

VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape
  • Lunch counter sit-ins begin Greensboro, NC
    (February, 1960)
  • SNCC created (April, 1960)
  • CORE Freedom Ride (May, 1961)

VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.)
  • Demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama (April,
  • --Eugene Bull Connor
  • Letter from Birmingham City Jail
  • Governor George Wallace tries to block
    integration of the University of Alabama (Fall,

VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.)
  • JFK finally begins to campaign for Civil Rights
  • Continued violence even in the face of some
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. and the March on
    Washington (August, 1963)
  • -- I Have a Dream

VI. A Mass Movement Takes Shape (cont.)
  • Mississippi Freedom Summer Project (1964)
  • MFDP Protests at the 1964 Democratic convention
  • Voter registration in Selma, Alabama (1965)
  • --Sheriff Jim Clark
  • By the mid-1960s, substantial success in the
    South had been achieved

VII. The Kennedy and Johnson Years
  • JFKs initial reluctance to push for Civil Rights
  • The integration of Ole Miss (1962)
  • --James Meredith
  • JFK finally decides to push past better
    enforcement to new congressional Civil Rights

VII. The Johnson Years (cont.)
  • The role of Kennedys assassination in the Civil
    Rights movement
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Anti-poll tax Amendment (24th1964)
  • Voting Rights Act (1965)
  • Impact of the Voting Rights Act

VII. The Johnson Years (cont.)
  • The tone of public political discourse changed
    after 1965
  • Johnson appoints first Black cabinet secretary
    Robert Weaver of HUD (1966)
  • Much more needed to be done for Civil Rights
    outside of the South, so 2nd phase began

VIII. The Era of Disillusionment 1965 On
  • Early to mid-1960s were a hopeful time for Civil
    Rights advocates
  • Goal of Assimilation
  • A Spoiled Utopia after 1965things would not be
    that simple

A. New Problems
  • Residential Discrimination
  • -- Red Lining
  • The Challenges of School integration in the North
  • The historical, traditional segregation of
    northern cities
  • The resurrection of the KKK once again
  • More effective White opponents in the North

B. Race Riots
  • Watts Riots in Los Angeles (Summer, 1965)
  • Riots each summer from 1965-1969
  • --Chicago and Cleveland (1966)
  • --Newark and Detroit (1967)
  • --Washington, D.C. (1968)

B. Race Riots (cont.)
  • Riots as an expression of grievance against the
    White American consumer society
  • Riots shocked the White American public
  • Frustration and self-destruction expressed in
    these riots
  • Unlike earlier race riots, these riots were not
    started by White mobs

C. Black Power
  • Growing tension between SNCC and Martin Luther
    King, Jr.
  • --Stokely Carmichael
  • Black Power
  • Carmichael succeeded by H. Rap Brown as head of
    SNCC (1967)

C. Black Power (cont.)
  • The formation of the Black Panther Party in
    Oakland, CA (1966)
  • --Huey Newton
  • --Eldridge Cleaver
  • Resurrection of the philosophy of Marcus Garvey

C. Black Power (cont.)
  • The leadership of Malcolm X
  • --Black Muslims
  • --Assassinated in 1965
  • Cultural expressions of Black Power
  • --Afro Hairstyles
  • --Black-studies programs
  • -- Negro no longer used
  • --1968 Olympics

D. Decline of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Economic contraction works against Civil Rights
  • Northern phase not as successful
  • Resistance from White Unions
  • Vietnam replaces Civil Rights as the liberal
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. loses influence with LBJ