Branding - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods ... e.g., Camaro. Modifier (designating item or model) e.g., Z28. Brand Leadership. Brand ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Branding

  • A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or
  • or a combination of them, intended to identify
    the goods
  • or services of one seller or group of sellers
    and to
  • differentiate them from those of competitors
  • It can convey up to six levels of meaning
  • Attributes (e.g., KFC Microsoft)
  • Benefits (e.g., Volvo BMW)
  • Values (e.g., The Body Shop Nokia)
  • Culture (e.g., Ikea Coca Cola Citibank)
  • Personality (e.g., Armani Versace)
  • User (e.g., Reebok Nike)

Brands. Whats in a Name ?
Major Branding Decisions
Four Brand Strategies
Product Category
Line Extension
Brand Extension
New Brands
Brand Name
Brand Strategy
  • Line Extension
  • Existing brand names extended to new forms,
    sizes, and flavors of an existing product
  • Brand Extension
  • Existing brand names extended to new or modified
    product categories.
  • Multibrands
  • New brand names introduced in the same product
  • New Brands
  • New brand names in new product categories.

Product Line Stretching
Two-Way Stretch
Marriott added the Renaissance Hotels line to
serve the upper end of the market and the
TownePlace Suites line to serve the moderate and
lower ends.
Brand Name Selection
  • A brand name is rooted in a given language and,
    if used elsewhere, may have either a different
    meaning or none at all
  • Ideally, marketers look for brand names that
    evoke similar emotions or images around the world
  • Language problems are particularly difficult to

Search for A Brand Name
  • An arbitrary or invented word not to be found in
    any standard English dictionary, such as Toyotas
  • A recognizable English (or foreign-language)
    word, but one totally unrelated to the product in
    question, such as the detergent Cheer
  • An English (or other language) word that merely
    suggests some characteristic or purpose of the
    product, such as Mr. Clean
  • A word that is eventually descriptive of the
    product, although the word may have no meaning to
    persons unacquainted with English (or the other
    language), such as the diaper brand Pampers
  • Within one or more of these categories, a
    geographical place or a common surname, such as
    Kentucky Fried Chicken
  • A device, design, number, or some other element
    that is not a word or a combination of words,
    such as 3M Company

Potential Levels ofA Brand Hierarchy
  • Corporate (or company) brand
  • e.g., General Motors
  • Family brand
  • e.g., Chevrolet
  • Individual brand
  • e.g., Camaro
  • Modifier (designating item or model)
  • e.g., Z28

Brand Leadership
  • Organizational Structure
  • And Processes
  • Responsibility for brand
  • Strategy
  • Management processes
  • Brand Architecture
  • Brand/subbrands/endorsed
  • brands
  • Roles of brands/subbrands

Brand Leadership
  • Brand-Building Programs
  • Accessing multiple media
  • Achieving brilliance
  • Integrating the communication
  • Measuring the results
  • Brand Identity/Position
  • Aspirational Image
  • Positioning of the brand

Brand Identity
  • Brand identity is a set of brand associations
    that the brand strategist aspires to create or
  • The brand identity represents what the
    organization wants the brand to stand for The
    brand image is the brands current associations
  • When realized, the brand identity should help
    establish a relationship between the brand and
    the customer by generating a value proposition
    potentially involving functional, emotional, or
    self-expressive benefits or by providing
    credibility for endorsed brands

Four Perspectives of Brand Identity
  • Brand as product
  • Product scope Product attributes Quality/Value
    Uses Users Country of origin
  • Brand as organization
  • Organization attributes Local vs. global
  • Brand as person
  • Personality Customer/brand relationship
  • Brand as symbol
  • Visual image and metaphors Brand heritage

Brand Identity Perspectives - Symbol
  • Visual Imagery
  • Metaphors
  • Brand Heritage

The Brand Identity Structure
  • The core identity usually has two or four
    dimensions that compactly summarize the brand
  • Brand essence a single thought that captures the
    soul of the brand it can be viewed as the glue
    that holds the core identity elements together,
    or as the hub of a wheel linked to all of the
    core identity elements
  • The extended identity includes all of the brand
    identity elements that are not in the core,
    organized into meaningful groupings

Value Proposition
  • Created by the brand identity
  • Functional benefits
  • Emotional benefits
  • Relate to the ability of the brand to make the
    buyer or user of a brand feel something during
    the purchase process or use experience
  • Self-expressive benefits
  • The brand provides a vehicle by which a person
    proclaim a particular self image

What The Brand Is--Functional Benefits
  • VW German engineering
  • BMW The ultimate driving machine
  • Abbey National Bank A special kind of security
  • Xerox The digital document company
  • 3M Innovation
  • Banana Republic Casual Luxury
  • Compaq Better Answers
  • Lexus Without compromise

What The Brand Does-- Emotional and
Self-Expressive Benefits
  • American Express Do more
  • Pepsi The Pepsis generation
  • HP Expanding possibilities
  • Apple The power to be your best (or Think
  • Sony Digital dream kids
  • Schlumberger The passion of excellence
  • Nike Excelling
  • Microsoft Help people realize their potential
    (or Where doe you want to go today?)

Virgin Brand Identity
  • Brand essence Iconoclasm
  • Core identity Service quality Innovation Fun
    and entertainment Value for money
  • Extended identity Underdog Personality (Flaunts
    the rules Sense of humor Underdog Competent)
    Virgin Symbols (Branson and his perceived
    lifestyle Virgin blimp Virgin script logo)
  • Value proposition
  • Functional benefits A value offering with
    quality, plus innovative extras delivered with
    flair and humor
  • Emotional benefits Pride in linking to the
    underdog with an attitude Fun, good times
  • Self-expressive benefits Willingness to go
    against the establishment, to be a bit outrageous
  • Relationship Customers as fun companions

Creating EffectiveBrand Identity Systems
2. Link to a compelling functional
benefit whenever possible
1. Avoid a limited brand perspective
3. Ignore constructs that are not helpful
4. Generate deep consumer insight
8. Elaborate the brand identity
Creating EffectiveBrand Identity Systems
5. Understand competitors
7. Make the brand identity drive
the execution
6. Allow multiple brand identities
Brand-Building Tasks
Create visibility
Build associations and Create differentiation
Brand Building
Develop deep Customer relationships
Brand Relationship Spectrum
  • Branded House
  • Same Identity BMW Virgin
  • Different Identity GE Capital/GE Appliance
  • Subbrands
  • Master Brand as Driver Buick DeSabre HP DeskJet
  • Co-Drivers Gillette Sensor Sony Trinitron
  • Endorsed Brands
  • Strong Endorsement Courtyard by Marriott
  • Linked Name Obsession by Calvin Klein
  • Token Endorsement Universal Pictures (Sony)
    Lotus (an IBM Company)
  • House of Brands
  • Shadow Endorser Tide (PG) Lexus (Toyota)
  • Not Connected Pantene (PG) Nutrasweet (G. D.

The Virgin Business
Brand Equity
High Brand Equity Means
High Perceived quality
High brand associations
Other brand assets
High brand loyalty
High brand awareness
Reduced marketing Costs Increased Trade leverage
Easier to make brand associations Increased liking
and familiarity
Supports Quality Positioning Supports Higher-price
Create Positive Image Helps customer process infor
Patents or trademarks Strong channel relationships
Provides value to customer Assists in customer
information processing Increases confidence in
purchase Increases satisfaction in product use
Provides value to firm Increase effectiveness of
marketing programs Increases customer loyalty and
trade leverage Facilitates brand extensions Is a
source of competitive advantage
  • Co-branding--also called brand bundling or brand
    alliances--occurs when two or more existing
    brands from different organizations (or
    distinctly different businesses within the same
    organization) are combined into a product and/or
    marketed together in some fashion
  • An ingredient brand (Pillsbury Brownies with
    Nestle chocolate)
  • An endorser (Healthy Choice cereal from
  • A composite brand with multiple master brands
    (Citibank--American Airlines Visa credit card)
  • Co-branding is a classic search for synergy
  • The problem is finding the right fit and solving
    the implementation problems of two organizations
    with different systems and cultures, working

Ingredient Branding
  • Creating brand equity for materials, components,
    and parts that are necessarily contained within
    other branded products
  • The basic motivation for using ingredient
    branding is that it enhances the differentiation
    of the host brand from competition by
    characterizing the ingredient attribute in the
    host brand more specifically
  • Branded ingredients are often seen as a signal of
  • Intel inside Dell Computer

Advertising Alliances between Brands
Product Complementarity
Brand 1
Brand 2
Advertising Strategy
Kelloggs Tropicana High
Link products to usage occasion
Blockbuster Birds Eye High
Link products to usage occasion
dinner and a movie
Tide Oshkosh
High Attribute clean
Whirpool Day Runner Low
Link products to usage occasion
in kitchen
Fruit of the Loom Dodge Ram Van Low
Attribute comfort
Dove Sheer Endurance Low
Attribute soft on skin