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Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems

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Title: Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems


1
Unit 7Common Diseases and Conditions of Body
Systems
  • Nurse Aide I Course

2
Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems
  • This unit reviews the structure and function of
    the body and its systems.
  • It presents common disorders of each system and
    lists the normal changes that occur with the
    aging process.
  • It includes signs and symptoms which should be
    reported.

3
Common Diseases and Conditions of Body
Systems(continued)
  • A basic knowledge of normal anatomy and
    physiology will help the nurse aide to understand
    the signs and symptoms of disease, the reasons
    for the care given, and the purposes of
    procedures that are carried out for the
    residents comfort, healing and recovery.
  • In-depth information is not provided.

4
Common Diseases and Conditions of Body
Systems(continued)
  • It is intended that upon completion of the unit,
    the student will have rudimentary knowledge of
    the body systems sufficient to enhance resident
    care.

5
Body Systems
6
  • 7.0 Discuss the makeup of the male and female
    body.
  • 7.1 Describe the relationship between cells,
    tissues, organs, and systems of the body.

7
Body SystemsCells
  • Building blocks of body 
  • Microscopic in size 
  • Cells combine to form tissue 

8
Body Systems
Tissues
  • Cells organized into tissue to carry on
    particular activities (connect, support, absorb,
    secrete, protect, direct, coordinate, allow
    movement) 
  • Groups of tissues form organs

9
  • 7.1.1 List the organs of the body.

10
Body SystemsOrgans
  • Made up of several types of tissues
  • Carry on special functions
  • Some organs in pairs - kidneys and lungs
  • Some organs single heart, brain, liver,
    stomach, intestines, bladder
  • Organs combine to form systems

11
  • 7.1.2 Identify the systems of the body.

12
Systems
  • A system is a group of organs that work together.

Body Systems
  • Skeletal
  • Muscular
  • Circulatory
  • Respiratory
  • Digestive
  • Urinary
  • Endocrine
  • Nervous
  • Reproductive
  • Integumentary
  • Sensory

13
Body Systems
Systems combine to form the human body.
14
The Skeletal System
15
  • 7.2 Identify functions of the skeletal system.

16
The Skeletal System
  • Comprises the bony framework of the body
  • Has 206 bones

17
The Skeletal System(continued)
  • FUNCTIONS
  • Support
  • Protect
  • Movement
  • Mineral storage
  • Blood cell production

18
The Skeletal System(continued)
  • JOINTS - point where bones meet
  • Immovable cranium
  • Slightly movable - vertebral discs
  • Freely movable - shoulder, knee, wrist

19
The Skeletal System(continued)
  • COMPOSITION OF JOINTS
  • Ligament - connects bone to bone
  • Tendon - connects muscle to bone

20
The Skeletal System(continued)
  • COMPOSITION OF JOINTS
  • Bursa - fluid filled sac that allows bones to
    move easily over others
  • Cartilage connective tissue that cushions the
    joint at end of bones and between bones

21
  • 7.2.1 Discuss common disorders of the skeletal
    system.

22
Common Disorders of Skeletal System
  • Osteoporosis - porous bone that breaks easily

23
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)
  • Fracture - break in bone
  • simple - bone broken, skin intact
  • compound - bone broken, penetrates skin
  • comminuted - bone broken, fragments in tissue
  • greenstick - incomplete break

24
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)
  • Arthritis - inflammation of the joints
  • osteoarthritis due to stress on joints
  • usually affects weight bearing joints knees,
    hips, vertebrae and fingers
  • aching, stiffness, limited motion

25
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)
  • Arthritis - inflammation of the joints
  • rheumatoid arthritis - systemic disease
  • causes inflammation, deformity and crippling
  • joints painful, stiff, swollen, red and warm

26
Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)
  • Amputation removal of all or part of limb
  • Sprain - stretched or torn ligaments or tendons
  • Bursitis - inflammation of bursa causing pain on
    movement

27
  • 7.2.2 Discuss changes that take place in the
    skeletal system due to aging.

28
Skeletal System Changes Due To Aging
  • Bones more porous or brittle
  • Joints less flexible
  • Postural changes
  • Awkward walking patterns
  • Slowed recovery from position changes and sudden
    movements

29
  • 7.2.3 List observations/situations relating to
    skeletal system.

30
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System
  • Slow and unsteady body movement
  • Difficulty holding objects
  • Complaint of pain in joints
  • Swelling, redness and warmth in joints
  • Inability to move joints

31
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal
System(continued)
  • Complaint of pain with movement
  • Complaint of neck or head pain
  • Resident who has fallen (stay with resident, call
    for help, do not move resident or allow resident
    to move)

32
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal
System(continued)
  • Resident with cast on arm or leg
  • complaint of pain in limb
  • swelling of fingers or toes
  • pale skin of fingers or toes
  • cyanosis and coolness of fingers or toes

33
Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal
System(continued)
  • Resident with cast on arm or leg
  • odor or drainage from cast
  • inability to move toes or fingers
  • complaint of numbness of fingers or toes
  • drainage from cast

34
The Muscular System
35
  • 7.3 Identify functions of muscles.

36
The Muscular System
  • Provides body with ability to move
  • Over 650 different muscles that comprise nearly
    half the body weight

37
The Muscular System(continued)
  • Functions of muscles
  • Allow movement
  • Help body stay erect posture
  • Produce most of bodys heat
  • Give body form
  • Provide movement of internal organs

38
  • 7.3.1 Discuss common disorders of the muscular
    system.

39
Common Disorders of Muscular System
  • Paralysis - loss of voluntary movement due to
    neurological damage such as stroke or trauma
  • Multiple sclerosis weakness of muscles due to
    loss of covering on nerves that control them
  • Atrophy muscle mass decreases in size

40
Common Disorders of Muscular System(continued)
  • Contracture - permanent shortening of muscle
    joints become ankylosed (frozen)
  • Muscle strain damage caused by trauma
  • Myalgia - muscle pain
  • Torn muscle - tear caused by trauma

41
  • 7.3.2 Discuss changes in the muscular system due
    to aging.

42
Changes in Muscular System Due to Aging
  • Poorer response to stimuli
  • Pain when moving, therefore muscles not used as
    often
  • Less active
  • Muscle strength and bulk loss
  • Slower muscle - nerve interaction

43
  • 7.3.3 List observations relating to the muscular
    system.

44
Observations of Muscular System to Report
  • Difficulty holding or lifting objects
  • Inability to move a body part
  • Difficulty walking
  • Loss of muscle strength and tone

45
Observations of Muscular System to
Report(continued)
  • Edema of tissue or joint
  • Complaint of muscle pain
  • Generalized weakness and fatigue
  • Slow, unsteady body movement

46
The Circulatory System
47
  • 7.4 Identify functions of the circulatory system.

48
Circulatory System
  • Circulation is continuous movement of blood
    throughout body

49
Circulatory System(continued)
  • Functions of circulatory system
  • Arteries carry blood with oxygen and nutrients
    away from heart and to cells
  • Veins carry waste products away from cells and to
    heart

50
Blood
  • Adult has 5 to 6 quarts (liters)
  • Consists of
  • water - 90 (plasma)
  • blood cells
  • carbon dioxide and oxygen
  • nutrients, hormones and enzymes
  • waste products

51
Blood(continued)
  • Types of blood cells 
  • Red blood cells - erythrocytes 
  • carry oxygen from blood to cells 
  • White blood cells - leukocytes 
  • fight infection 
  • Platelets - thrombocytes 
  • required for clotting to stop bleeding 

52
Blood Vessels
  • Arteries - carry blood away from heart
  • Veins carry blood to heart

53
  • 7.4.1 Discuss how the blood vessels relate to the
    pulse and blood pressure.

54
Heart
  • Tissue (three layers)
  • endocardium - smooth, inner layer
  • myocardium thick, muscular middle layer
  • pericardium double-walled membrane that covers
    outside of heart

55
Heart Chambers
  • Heart divided into right and left side
  • Atria upper chambers receive blood
  • Ventricles lower chambers pump blood to lungs
    and body

56
Heart Chambers
  • Four chambers
  • right atrium (1) - receives blood from two large
    veins
  • superior vena cava
  • inferior vena cava
  • right ventricle (2) - receives blood from right
    atrium and pumps it to lungs through pulmonary
    artery

57
Heart Chambers(continued)
  • Four chambers
  • left atrium (3) - receives oxygenated blood from
    left and right pulmonary veins
  • left ventricle (4) - pumps blood to aorta, which
    delivers blood to all body parts (except lungs)

58
Heart Valves
  • Located at entrance and exit of each ventricle
  • Four heart valves

59
Heartbeat
  • Systole - contraction of heart muscle
  • Diastole - relaxation of heart muscle
  • Blood pressure highest and lowest pressure
    against walls of blood vessels as heart contracts
    and relaxes
  • Pulse - expansion and contraction of artery

60
  • 7.4.2 Discuss common disorders of the circulatory
    system.

61
Common Disorders of the Circulatory System
  • Arteriosclerosis - walls of arteries become thick
    and harden
  • Hypertension - high blood pressure 
  • Peripheral vascular disease - decrease in flow of
    blood to extremities and brain 
  • Angina pectoris - chest pain 

62
Common Disorders of the Circulatory
System(continued)
  • Varicose veins - enlarged, twisted veins usually
    in legs 
  • Congestive heart failure - circulatory congestion
    caused by weak pumping of heart muscle
  • Myocardial infarction (MI) - heart attack due to
    blockage in coronary arteries

63
Common Disorders of the Circulatory
System(continued)
  • Anemia low red blood cell counts
  • Thrombus blood clot
  • Phlebitis inflammation of vein
  • Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits on walls of
    arteries that reduce blood flow 

64
  • 7.4.3 Discuss changes that occur in the
    circulatory system with aging.

65
Changes of the Circulatory System Due To Aging
  • Heart muscle less efficient
  • Blood pumped with less force
  • Arteries lose elasticity and become narrow
  • Blood pressure increases
  • Blood chemistry less efficient
  • Capillaries become more fragile

66
  • 7.4.3 List observations relating to the
    circulatory system.

67
Observations of the Circulatory System
  • Changes in pulse rate and blood pressure
  • Changes in skin color
  • Changes in skin temperature coldness

68
Observations of the Circulatory System(continued)
  • Complaint of dizziness and headaches
  • Complaint of pain in chest and/or indigestion
  • Edema in feet and legs
  • Shortness of breath

69
Observations of the Circulatory System(continued)
  • Sweating
  • Blue color to lips and/or nail beds
  • Complaint of tingling sensations
  • Memory lapses
  • Lack of energy
  • Irregular respirations
  • Anxiety
  • Staring and lack of responsiveness

70
The Respiratory System
71
  • 7.5 Identify the function and structure of the
    respiratory system.

72
The Respiratory System
  • Respiration means to breathe in oxygen and
    breathe out carbon dioxide
  • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide necessary
    for life

73
The Respiratory System(continued)
  • Process
  • External respiration - oxygen and carbon dioxide
    exchanged between lungs and blood
  • Internal respiration - oxygen and carbon dioxide
    exchanged between blood stream and cells

74
The Respiratory SystemStructure
  • Oral cavity mouth
  • Pharynx throat
  • Larynx - voice box
  • Trachea windpipe
  • Bronchi - right and left
  • Bronchioles - smallest branches of bronchi
  • Alveoli - air sacs covered with capillaries

75
The Respiratory SystemStructure(continued)
  • Nose - lined with mucous membrane
  • air filtered by cilia
  • mucous membrane warms and moistens air

76
The Respiratory SystemStructure(continued)
  • Lungs
  • right - 3 lobes
  • left - 2 lobes

77
The Respiratory SystemStructure(continued)
  • Pleura membrane that encloses lungs
  • Diaphragm - muscle that separates the chest and
    abdomen
  • contraction - draws air into lungs
  • relaxation - forces air out of lungs

78
  • 7.5.1 Review common disorders of the respiratory
    system.

79
Common Disorders of Respiratory System
  • URI Upper Respiratory Infection - infection of
    nose, throat, larynx, trachea
  • Pneumonia - inflammation or infection of the lungs

80
Common Disorders of Respiratory System(continued)
  • Emphysema (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    COPD) alveoli become stretched and stiff
    preventing adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon
    dioxide
  • Asthma spasms of bronchial tube walls causing
    narrowing of air passages usually due to allergies

81
Common Disorders of Respiratory System(continued)
  • Allergy reaction to substances that leads to
    slight or severe response by body.
  • Influenza highly contagious URI
  • Pleurisy inflammation of the pleura surrounding
    the lungs

82
Common Disorders of Respiratory System(continued)
  • Bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi
  • Lung cancer - malignant tumors in the lungs that
    destroy tissue

83
  • 7.5.2 Discuss changes in the respiratory system
    due to aging.

84
Changes in Respiratory System Due To Aging
  • Lung tissue becomes less elastic
  • Respiratory muscles weaken
  • Number of alveoli decrease
  • Respirations increase
  • Voice pitched higher and weaker due to changes in
    larynx
  • Chest wall and structures become more rigid

85
  • 7.5.3 List observations relating to the
    respiratory system.

86
Observations Of Respiratory System
  • Rate and rhythm of respirations
  • Respiratory secretions character
  • Character of cough
  • Changes in skin color - pale or bluish gray
  • Temperature changes
  • Difficulty breathing

87
Observations Of Respiratory System(continued)
  • Color of sputum
  • Complaint of pain in chest, back, sides
  • Shortness of breath
  • Noisy respirations
  • Sneezing
  • Gasping for breath
  • Anxiety

88
The Digestive System
89
  • 7.6 Identify functions and structures of the
    digestive system.

90
Digestive System
  • Also called the gastrointestinal system
  • Extends from mouth to anus
  • Functions
  • Digestion
  • Absorption

91
Digestive SystemStructures
  • Mouth
  • Stomach holds food until digestive juices
    chemically break it down into liquid chyme

92
Digestive SystemStructures
  • Intestines 
  • small intestine 
  • about 20 ft. long 
  • food digestion completed and nutrients absorbed
    into bloodstream

93
Digestive SystemStructures(continued)
  • Intestines 
  • large intestine
  • 6 ft. long
  • absorbs water, mineral salts and vitamins
  • secretes mucus to aid in movement of feces
  • has ability to add or remove water from feces

94
  • 7.2 Identify functions of the skeletal system.

95
Digestive System
  • Accessory Organs
  • Liver produces bile for breakdown of fats
  • Gallbladder stores bile produced by liver
  • Pancreas - manufactures insulin and digestive
    enzymes

96
  • 7.6.1 Discuss common disorders of the digestive
    system.

97
Common Disorders Of The Digestive System
  • Ulcer - a lesion or erosion of the lining of the
    stomach or small intestine
  • Hepatitis inflammation of the liver
  • Cirrhosis chronic disease of liver where scar
    tissue replaces liver tissue
  • Cholelithiasis - stones in the gallbladder

98
Common Disorders Of The Digestive
System(continued)
  • Pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
  • Cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
  • Colitis inflammatory disease of the colon

99
Common Disorders Of The Digestive
System(continued)
  • Hemorrhoids - enlarged veins in anal area
  • Constipation - difficulty in expelling fecal
    material incomplete or infrequent bowel
    movements
  • Diarrhea watery bowel movements

100
Common Disorders Of The Digestive
System(continued)
  • Gastritis inflammation of the stomach lining
  • Enteritis inflammation of the intestines
  • Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the stomach
    lining and intestines

101
Common Disorders Of The Digestive
System(continued)
  • Cancer - may occur anywhere along digestive tract
  • Hernia protrusion of organ through wall of
    cavity where it is normally contained

102
Common Disorders Of The Digestive
System(continued)
  • Diverticulosis - chronic disease in which many
    diverticula (small blind pouches) form in the
    lining and wall of the colon
  • Diverticulitis inflammation of diverticula

103
  • 7.6.2 Discuss changes in the digestive system due
    to aging.

104
Changes In Digestive System Due To Aging
  • Decreased number of taste buds
  • Slowing of peristalsis causing constipation
  • Slower absorption of nutrients
  • Difficulty chewing and swallowing

105
Changes In Digestive System Due To
Aging(continued)
  • Loss of bowel muscle tone
  • Decrease in amount of digestive enzymes and
    saliva production
  • Decreased appetite
  • Loss of teeth
  • Altered taste and smell

106
  • 7.6.3 List observations relating to the digestive
    system.

107
Observations Of The Digestive System
  • Stool color and consistency
  • Abdomen flat or distended
  • Date and time of last bowel movement
  • Nausea and vomiting

108
Observations Of The Digestive System
  • Blood in emesis or stool
  • Complaint of pain in stomach
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Poor appetite
  • Constipation and diarrhea

109
The Urinary System
110
  • 7.7 Identify functions and structure of the
    urinary system.

111
Urinary System
  • Also known as excretory system

112
Urinary System(continued)
  • Functions
  • Filter waste products from blood
  • Produce urine
  • Aid in maintenance of water balance
  • Regulate acid-base balance of body
  • Store urine until passed from body

113
Urinary SystemStructure
  • Kidneys
  • purplish brown, bean-shaped organs
  • located at back of abdominal cavity
  • weight 4-6 ounces each
  • filter waste products from blood

114
Urinary SystemStructure(continued)
  • Ureters - tubes that carry urine from kidneys to
    bladder
  • Urinary bladder - muscular sac that expands to
    hold urine received from the kidney
  • Urethra - tube extending from bladder to outside
    of body

115
  • 7.7.1 Describe the characteristics of normal
    urine.

116
Urinary System
  • Characteristics of normal urine
  • Pale yellow to amber
  • Clear
  • Acidic
  • Quantity 1000-1500 ml. per day
  • pH 5.0 7.0

117
  • 7.7.2 Discuss common disorders of the urinary
    system.

118
Common Disorders of Urinary System
  • Nephritis - inflammation of kidney due to
    infection
  • Cystitis - inflammation of urinary bladder due to
    infection
  • Calculi kidney or bladder stones

119
Common Disorders of Urinary System(continued)
  • Uremia - accumulation of urea in blood due to
    kidney disease
  • Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra

120
Common Disorders of Urinary System(continued)
  • Kidney failure decreased ability of kidney to
    filter waste products from the blood
  • Urinary incontinence -inability to control
    urination

121
Common Disorders of Urinary System(continued)
  • UTI - Urinary Tract Infection
  • Retention - inability to completely empty the
    bladder
  • Hematuria - blood in the urine

122
  • 7.7.3 Discuss changes of the urinary system due
    to aging.

123
Changes In Urinary System Due to Aging
  • Decreased kidney size
  • Decreased elasticity of ureters, bladder and
    urethra
  • Decreased muscle tone
  • Diminished blood flow to kidneys

124
Changes In Urinary System Due to
Aging(continued)
  • Decreased ability of kidneys to concentrate urine
  • Difficulty emptying urinary bladder
  • Enlarged prostate in males which presses on
    urethra

125
  • 7.7.4 List observations relating to the urinary
    system.

126
Observations of Urinary System
  • Elevated temperature
  • Sugar and/or acetone in urine
  • Urine color other than clear, pale yellow

127
Observations of Urinary System(continued)
  • Complaint of burning on urination
  • Incontinence
  • Polyuria - excessive amounts of urine per voiding

128
Observations of Urinary System(continued)
  • Hematuria - blood in urine
  • Nocturia excessive urination at night
  • Urine having strong odor or cloudy appearance
  • Voiding small amounts of urine frequently

129
The Endrocrine System (Glands)
130
  • 7.8 Identify functions of the endocrine system.

131
Endocrine System (Glands)
  • Endocrine glands secrete chemicals called
    hormones directly into the blood stream

132
Endocrine System (Glands)
  • Functions of endocrine system
  • secretes hormones that regulate growth and
    development
  • secretes hormones that regulate metabolism and
    reproduction
  • secretes hormones that regulate the immune
    response

133
  • 7.8.1 Discuss the most common disorder of the
    endocrine system.

134
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes mellitus the most common disorder of
    the endocrine system
  • 80 of diabetics over 40 years of age
  • incidence increases as people age
  • 5 of people over age 65 require treatment

135
Diabetes Mellitus(continued)
  • Diabetes mellitus the most common disorder of
    the endocrine system
  • USA has highest morbidity and mortality rates
  • disorder of carbohydrate metabolism with
    decreased insulin production from pancreas

136
Diabetes Mellitus(continued)
  • Uncontrolled diabetes leads to damage to eyes,
    kidneys, circulation
  • Diabetes characterized by consistent, elevated
    blood glucose levels requiring oral medication
    to stimulate pancreas or insulin injections

137
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hypoglycemia
  • low blood sugar
  • Hyperglycemia
  • high blood sugar

138
  • 7.8.2 Discuss the changes in the endocrine system
    due to aging.

139
Changes In The Endocrine System Due To Aging
  • Decrease in thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and sex
    hormone secretions
  • Decreased glucose tolerance (Diabetes)
  • Multiple physical changes due to decrease of sex
    hormones

140
  • 7.8.3 List observations relating to endocrine
    system.

141
Observation Of The Endocrine System
  • Irritability restlessness
  • Nervousness
  • Confusion
  • Weight loss
  • Diaphoresis
  • Edema
  • Excessive thirst
  • Sweet, fruity odor to breath

142
Observation Of The Endocrine System(continued)
  • Complaint of headache
  • Drowsiness
  • Rapid, weak pulse
  • Low blood pressure
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Flushed, dry, hot skin
  • Excessive urination

143
The Nervous System
144
  • 7.9 Identify functions of the two major parts of
    the nervous system.
  • 7.9.1 Explain how damage to the nervous system
    differs from damage to other body systems.

145
Nervous System
  • Controls and organizes all body activities
  • Divided into two parts
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Central nervous system
  • brain
  • spinal cord

146
Nervous System(continued)
  • Basic unit of structure - neuron or nerve cell
  • Most complex cell in body
  • Does not reproduce if destroyed, it is not
    replaced

147
Nervous System(continued)
  • Nervous system enables you to
  • Speak
  • Hear
  • Taste
  • See
  • Smell
  • Think
  • Respond/move
  • Learn
  • Remember

148
Structure of Nervous System
  • Central nervous system
  • brain
  • cerebrum
  • largest portion of brain
  • responsible for judgment, memory, association and
    discrimination
  • divided into left and right hemispheres

149
Structure of Nervous System(continued)
  • Central nervous system (continued)
  • brain
  • cerebellum - responsible for coordination of
    muscles, balance and posture, and muscle tone
  • thalamus - monitors sensory stimuli

150
Structure of Nervous System(continued)
  • Central nervous system (continued)
  • brain
  • hypothalamus - controls the autonomic nervous
    system, the cardiovascular system, body
    temperature, appetite, water balance, the GI
    system, sleep, emotional state

151
Structure of Nervous System(continued)
  • Central nervous system (continued)
  • brain
  • pons - responsible for reflex actions like
    chewing, and production of saliva
  • medulla oblongata - regulates heartbeat,
    respirations, swallowing, coughing, blood pressure

152
Structure of Nervous System(continued)
  • Central nervous system (continued)
  • spinal cord
  • 18 inches long
  • extends from brain to small of back
  • carries messages to and from brain
  • relays messages to body through spinal nerves
  • handles reflexes

153
Structure of Nervous System(continued)
  • Peripheral nervous system nerves leaving the
    spinal cord and going throughout the body
  • digestion
  • secretion of glands
  • heart beat and breathing

154
  • 7.9.2 Discuss common disorders or conditions of
    the nervous system.

155
Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous
System
  • CVA Stroke or cerebrovascular accident - damage
    to part of brain due to blood clot or hemorrhage
    cutting off blood supply
  • Head or spinal cord injuries

156
Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous
System(continued)
  • Dementia from nutritional deficiencies, exposure
    to toxic substances, reduced blood flow to brain
    or unknown causes
  • Alzheimers disease - common cause of organic
    disease

157
Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous
System(continued)
  • Parkinsons disease progressive nervous disease
    associated with destruction of brain cells
  • Multiple sclerosis - loss of covering around
    nerve fibers interfering with nerve impulses to
    and from brain

158
  • 7.9.3 Discuss changes in the nervous system due
    to aging.

159
Changes In The Nervous System Due To Aging
  • Loss of nerve/brain cells
  • Increase in reaction time
  • Changes in memory
  • Receptors become less sensitive, so require
    increased stimuli for response

160
Changes In The Nervous System Due To
Aging(continued)
  • Reduced sense of touch and sensitivity to pain
  • Reduced blood flow to brain
  • Forgetfulness

161
  • 7.9.4 List observations relating to the nervous
    system.

162
Observations Of The Nervous System
  • Jerking motions
  • Speech changes
  • Complaint of numbness
  • Complaint of dizziness
  • Complaint of nausea

163
Observations Of The Nervous System(continued)
  • Confusion
  • Complaint of loss of feeling on one side
  • Incontinence
  • Deranged thought processes
  • Tremors

164
Observations Of The Nervous System(continued)
  • Muscular rigidity
  • Complaint of visual disturbances or changes
  • Paralysis
  • Seizures

165
The Sensory Organs
166
  • 7.10 Identify functions of the sensory organs.

167
Sensory Organs
  • Part of nervous system
  • Sensory neurons make one aware of changes in the
    environment
  • Changes known as stimuli

168
Sensory Organs(continued)
  • Functions of the sensory system
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Smell
  • Taste
  • Touch

169
Sensory Organs
  • Specialized functions
  • Eye
  • sense of sight
  • receives images and sends to brain
  • Ear
  • sense of hearing
  • transmits sounds to brain

170
Sensory Organs(continued)
  • Nose - (sense of smell) allows recognition of
    odors and improves taste of food
  • Taste buds on tongue - (sense of taste) allows
    recognition of sweet, sour, bitter, salty

171
Sensory Organs(continued)
  • Skin - (sense of touch) allows recognition of
    objects, pressure, heat, cold, pain, and pleasure

172
  • 7.10.1 Discuss common disorders of the sensory
    organs.

173
Common Disorders Of The Sensory Organs
  • Cataract - lens of eye loses its transparency
  • Glaucoma - increased pressure in the eye due to
    an excess of aqueous humor
  • Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the eyelid lining

174
Common Disorders Of The Sensory
Organs(continued)
  • Sty - tiny abscess at the base of an eyelash
  • Otitis media - infection of the middle ear
  • Deafness - partial or complete hearing loss

175
  • 7.10.2 Discuss changes in the sensory organs due
    to aging.

176
Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging
  • Lens in eye becomes thick and cloudy
  • Sclera becomes more yellow
  • Less light reaches inner eye
  • Hearing structures of ear become less moveable
  • Soft wax production decreases

177
Changes In Sensory Organs Due to
Aging(continued)
  • Progressive hearing loss of high-pitched sounds
    occurs
  • Peripheral vision and night vision decreases
  • Eye adjusts more slowly to changes in distance
  • Sense of smell decreases

178
Changes In Sensory Organs Due to
Aging(continued)
  • Sense of taste (sweet and salty first) decreases
  • Accommodation to light and dark decreases
  • Sense of touch, heat, cold, pain and pressure
    awareness decreases

179
  • 7.10.3 List observations relating to the sensory
    system.

180
Observations Of The Sensory Organs
  • Sclera (white of eye) suddenly reddened or yellow
  • Lens of eye becomes cloudy
  • Complaint of pain in or around ear or eye
  • Red, swollen eye lid
  • Drainage from eyes
  • Complaint of difficulty seeing objects

181
Observations Of The Sensory Organs(continued)
  • Comment that rainbows apparent around lights
  • Drainage from ear canal
  • Complaint of feeling of fluid or noise in ear
  • Complaint of sudden flashes of light or loss of
    sight

182
The Integumentary System
183
  • 7.11 Identify functions of the integumentary
    system.

184
The Integumentary System (Skin)
  • Skin is bodys largest organ

185
The Integumentary System (Skin)(continued)
  • Functions
  • Protects body from injury and pathogens
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Eliminates waste through perspiration
  • Contains nerve endings for cold, heat, pain,
    pressure and pleasure
  • Stores fat and vitamins

186
The Integumentary System (Skin)(continued)
  • Hair and nails are appendages of skin

187
  • 7.11.1 Discuss common disorders of the skin.

188
Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System
  • Athletes foot - caused by a fungus, involves toes
    and soles of feet
  • Boils caused by bacteria entering hair
    follicles or sebaceous glands
  • Eczema - red, itchy areas on the surface of skin
  • Skin cancer

189
Common Disorders Of The Integumentary
System(continued)
  • Dermatitis - inflammation of skin
  • Tears due to fragile skin
  • Warts viral infection of skin
  • Burns first, second, or third degree, depending
    on amount of skin tissue destroyed
  • Bruising due to fragile skin and/or effects of
    medications

190
Common Disorders Of The Integumentary
System(continued)
  • Pressure sores - caused by poor circulation
    resulting from pressure that destroys skin and
    creates ulcer
  • Shingles - skin eruption due to viral infection
  • Gangrene - necrosis of tissue cells due to
    blockage of blood supply to an area, or blockage
    from disease or direct injury

191
  • 7.11.2 Discuss changes in the integumentary
    system due to aging.

192
Changes In The Integumentary System Due To Aging
  • Compromised circulation
  • Less active glands
  • Drying, thinning and scaling of skin
  • Thickening of nails
  • Loss of fat and elasticity of skin
  • Loss of hair color and thinning of hair

193
Changes In The Integumentary System Due To
Aging(continued)
  • Development of skin tags, moles and warts
  • Folds, lines and wrinkles in skin
  • Nails harden, become more brittle

194
  • 7.11.3 List observations relating to the
    integumentary system.

195
Observations Of The Integumentary System To Report
  • Breaks
  • Rash
  • Complaint of itching
  • Black and blue areas
  • Redness
  • Ulcers, sores or drainage

196
The Reproductive System
197
  • 7.12 Identify functions of the reproductive
    system.

198
Reproductive System
  • Organs have dual functions
  • Produce reproductive cells
  • Produce hormones responsible for sex
    characteristics
  • females - estrogen and progesterone
  • males - testosterone

199
  • 7.12.1 Discuss common disorders of the
    reproductive system.

200
Common Disorders of the Reproductive System
  • Rectocele and cystocele hernias
  • rectocele - weakening of wall between vagina and
    rectum
  • constipation results
  • hemorrhoids form
  • cystocele - weakening of wall between urethra and
    vagina
  • causes urinary incontinence

201
Common Disorders of the Reproductive
System(continued)
  • Tumors - benign and malignant tumors of uterus,
    ovaries and breasts
  • pap smear
  • self breast exams
  • biopsy

202
Common Disorders of the Reproductive
System(continued)
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • gonorrhea
  • syphilis
  • herpes
  • AIDS
  • Prostatic hypertrophy - enlargement of prostate
    gland
  • Vaginitis

203
  • 7.12.2 Discuss changes in the reproductive system
    due to aging.

204
Changes In Reproductive System Due To Aging
  • Decreased size of testes
  • Decreased production of sperm
  • Delayed or less forceful ejaculation
  • Slower sexual response
  • Enlargement of prostate
  • Decreased sexual desire

205
Changes In Reproductive System Due To
Aging(continued)
  • Sagging breasts
  • Stopping of ovulation
  • Decreased vaginal secretions
  • Thinning of tissue of vaginal lining
  • Decreased sex hormone production
  • Loss of hair in vulva area

206
  • 7.12.3 List observations relating to the
    reproductive system.

207
Observations of Reproductive System
  • Bleeding
  • Complaint of pain
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Complaint of itching
  • Lumps

208
CANCER Second Leading Cause of Death in U.S.
209
  • 7.13 Define and discuss cancer.

210
Cancer
  • Definition abnormal growth of cells that can
    invade surrounding tissue and spread to other
    parts of body
  • Cancer cells can originate in any body tissue

211
Two Main Types Of Cancer
  • Sarcoma
  • bone
  • muscle
  • lymph system
  • cartilage
  • Carcinoma
  • skin
  • lining of hollow organs and passageways

212
  • 7.13.1 List two types of tumors and explain how
    they are different.

213
Tumor Growth Of Abnormal Cells
  • Benign tumor
  • grows slowly
  • localized area
  • Malignant tumor
  • grows slow or fast depending on type of cancer
  • invades other tissues and/or travels to other
    parts of body
  • causes death if not treated and controlled

214
Cancer Most Common Sites
  • Breast
  • Prostate
  • Uterus
  • Skin
  • Lungs
  • Colon
  • Rectum

215
  • 7.13.2 List the seven warning signs of cancer.

216
CAUTIONSeven Early Warning Signs Of Cancer
  • Change in bowel or bladder habits.
  • A sore that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  • Obvious changes in a wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

217
  • 7.13.3 Describe the three most common types of
    treatment for cancer.

218
Standard Cancer Treatment
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • oral
  • intramuscular
  • intravenous

219
  • 7.13.4 Discuss the guidelines for care of
    residents with cancer.

220
Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated
For Cancer
  • Fatigue - provide time for rest and recognize
    limitations
  • Loss of appetite
  • smaller meals
  • nutritious snacks
  • report requests for medications promptly

221
Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated
For Cancer(continued)
  • Skin keep clean and dry
  • eliminate irritation or pressure
  • report rashes, irritation, broken areas

222
Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated
For Cancer(continued)
  • Mouth - keep very clean
  • provide frequent mouth care
  • encourage liquids

223
Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated
For Cancer(continued)
  • Alopecia (loss of hair)
  • emotional support needed 
  • help resident to select head covering
  • wig
  • scarf
  • turban
  • hat 

224
Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated
For Cancer(continued)
  • Supportive actions
  • be positive but realistic
  • help to feel as attractive as possible
  • dont offer false hope
  • listen to concerns
  • be understanding of fears and frustrations

225
  • 7.13.5 List observations relating to cancer.

226
Cancer Observations To Report
  • Behavioral changes
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sores in mouth
  • Fever
  • Changes in weight
  • Bleeding
  • Changes in vital signs
  • Complaint of pain

227
The End
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