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Urban Heat Island Pilot Project

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One trillion tons of recoverable coal in the world, by far the largest reserve ... John Flicker, National Audubon Society, president. Wind Energy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urban Heat Island Pilot Project


1
Urban Heat IslandPilotProject
Figure 4.23
2
Solar Cooking Solution
Figure FS 4.1.1
3
Solar Energy
Figure FS 4.1.2
4
Coal Energy
  • But also, we're advancing clean-coal
    technologies. The goal is to have a zero-emission
    coal-fired plant. President George W Bush

5
Coal Energy
  • One trillion tons of recoverable coal in the
    world, by far the largest reserve of fossil fuel
    left on the planet
  • The United States has over 25 of the worlds
    recoverable coal reserves
  • Figure quoted by the coal industry is 250 years
    of reserves
  • Coal liquefaction expensive, uses lots of water,
    produces double the carbon dioxide when compared
    to regular petroleum use and produces diesel when
    the vast majority of the U.S. car fleet runs on
    gasoline

6
Coal Energy
  • Our use of coal leads to ravaged mountains, air
    pollution from acidic and toxic emissions and
    fouled water supplies
  • Coal mining is massively more invasive than oil
    or gas drilling
  • Coal burning power plants account for more than
    two-thirds of sulfur dioxide, 22 of nitrogen
    oxides, nearly 40 of carbon dioxide and a third
    of all mercury emissions in the United States

7
Coal Energy
  • Each year coal plants produce about 130 million
    tons of solid waste, about three times more than
    all the municipal garbage in the U.S.
  • The American Lung Association calculates that
    around 24,000 people a year die prematurely from
    the effects of coal fired power plant pollution.

8
Carbon Sequestration
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    (IPCC) estimated in 2005 that it is highly likely
    that geologic locations worldwide are capable of
    sequestering at least two trillion metric tons of
    CO2 - more than is likely to be produced by
    fossil fuel consuming power plants this century

9
Carbon Sequestration
  • Carbon sequestration is not without risk. The two
    main risks are sudden escape and gradual leakage
    of carbon dioxide.
  • In 1986 at Lake Nyos in Cameroon, Africa carbon
    dioxide originating from a volcano killed over
    1,700 people
  • However according to IPCC this is unlikely for
    engineered CO2 storage in carefully selected,
    deep porous geologic rock formations. In regard
    to gradual leakage the IPCC estimated in 2005
    that in excess of 99 of carbon sequestered is
    very likely to remain in place for at least one
    hundred years.

10
Nuclear Energy
  • Well, if you're really interested in global
    warming and climate change, then it seems like to
    me that we ought to promote technologies to
    advance the development of safe nuclear power.
    It's a renewable source of energy, and at the
    same time has no emissions to it. President GWB

11
Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclear power produced by the reaction of uranium
    inside a nuclear reactor. The reactor uses
    uranium rods, the atoms of which are split in the
    process of fission, releasing a large amount of
    energy. The process continues as a chain reaction
    with other nuclei takes place. The heat released
    heats water to create steam, which spins a
    turbine, producing electricity.

12
Nuclear Energy
  • The process of nuclear fission allows for the
    production of tremendous amounts of energy from a
    small amount of fuel.
  • The cost of making nuclear power is about the
    same as coal, which is considered very
    inexpensive
  • Nuclear power does not produce any air pollution
    or release carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide into
    the atmosphere. Therefore, it does not contribute
    to global warming or acid rain

13
Nuclear Energy
  • Waste produced from nuclear fission of uranium is
    poisonous, and highly radioactive, requiring
    maintenance and monitoring at the storage sites.
  • There can be connections between nuclear power
    and nuclear weapon proliferation, since both
    require large-scale uranium enrichment
    facilities.
  • The operation of an uncontained nuclear reactor
    near human settlements can be catastrophic, as
    shown by the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine
    (former USSR), where large areas of land were
    affected by nuclear fallout.

14
Ethanol
  • And then, in the State of the Union, I talked
    about another aspect of economic security and
    environmental quality, and that is changing the
    habits or changing how we power our cars. And I
    want more people driving automobiles with, you
    know, ethanol, for example, or biodiesel.
    President GWB

15
Ethanol
  • Ethanol is an alcohol-based alternative fuel
    produced by fermenting and distilling starch
    crops that have been converted into simple
    sugars.
  • Ethanol is most commonly used to increase octane
    and improve the emissions quality of gasoline

16
Ethanol
  • Direct combustion without emissions filtering
    generally leads to air pollution similar to that
    from fossil fuels.
  • Producing liquid fuels from biomass is generally
    less cost effective than from petroleum, since
    the production of biomass and its subsequent
    conversion to alcohols is particularly expensive.
  • Some researchers claim that, when biomass crops
    are the product of intensive farming, ethanol
    fuel production results in a net loss of energy
    after one accounts for the fuel costs of
    fertilizer production, farm equipment, and the
    distillation process.

17
Wind Energy
  • Wind power produces no water or air pollution
    that can contaminate the environment, because
    there are no chemical processes involved in wind
    power generation. Hence, there are no waste
    by-products, such as carbon dioxide.
  • Wind generation is a renewable source of energy,
    which means that we will never run out of it.

18
Wind Energy
  • "When you look at a wind turbine, you can find
    the bird carcasses and count them. With a
    coal-fired power plant, you can't count the
    carcasses, but it's going to kill a lot more
    birds."-- John Flicker, National Audubon
    Society, president

19
Wind Energy
  • This type of energy harnesses the power of the
    wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These
    turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which
    creates electricity. Wind towers are usually
    built together on wind farms
  • For every 10,000 birds killed by human
    activities, less than one death is caused by a
    wind turbine

20
Wind Energy
  • Wind is unreliable
  • Wind farms are ugly
  • Bats
  • Ground-nesting birds
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