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New trends and some thoughts on the future of mobile learning

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Title: New trends and some thoughts on the future of mobile learning


1
New trends and some thoughts on the future of
mobile learning
Tom Brown South Africa
2
Introduction
  • The keen adoption of m-learning in educational
    environments and the number of pilot projects
    show that m-learning is experiencing exponential
    growth.
  • Constructivism has been the learning paradigm
    during the past few decades And m-learning is
    thriving in social constructivist learning
    paradigms.
  • However, ICT developments are impacting
    educational practice and we will, in future,
    experience shifts in learning paradigms!
  • What will new mobile devices look like?
  • What will new learning paradigms look like?
  • What will the role of m-learning be in these new
    learning paradigms?

3
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Why is m-learning thriving?
6
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • Around 62 of all adults across the major
    European countries now use a mobile phone,
    according to the research.
  • Currently, 41 of European adults use SMS,
    compared to 30 that use the Internet / email.
  • SMS is particularly popular in the UK where 49
    of adults use it, compared to 39 who are online.
  • In Germany, 43 of adults use SMS as opposed to
    29 of adults who use the Internet/email.
    In France, 30 use SMS compared to 25 who go
    online.
  • Statistics from Gartner (2002)

7
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • Over 50 of all employees spend up to half of
    their time outside the office.
  • More than 525 million web-enabled phones will be
    shipped by 2003.
  • Worldwide mobile commerce market will reach 200
    billion by 2004.
  • There will be more than 1 billion wireless
    internet subscribers worldwide by 2005.
  • Multi-purpose handheld devices (PDA and
    telephone) will outsell laptop/desktop computers
    combined by 2005.
  • Most major US companies will either switch to or
    adopt wireless networks by 2008.
  • Statistics from Empowering Technologies
    Incorporated cited by Keegan (2003)

8
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • Desmond Keegan recently (2003) published his
    latest book called The Future of Learning From
    eLearning to mLearning. In chapter four of his
    book, Keegan presents and analyses no less than
    30 m-learning initiatives across the globe in
    2001.
  • NKI Distance Education in Norway has 400
    e-learning courses. During 2003 and 2004 it
    announced that it had made available mobile
    learning versions of all its 400 courses. This
    represents a massive introduction of mobile
    learning.

9
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • Exponential growth in wireless networks, services
    and devices
  • Learners are continually demanding more mobile
    services and experiences
  • Greater personalisation, flexibility and mobility
  • Improved access anywhere, anytime
  • Fills small gaps of time with useful learning
    events (stolen moments for learning David
    Metcalf)
  • M-learning enhances collaborative, co-operative
    and active learning
  • Mobile communication devices provide
    opportunities for the optimising of interaction
    and communication between lecturers and learners,
    among learners and between members of COPs.

10
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • For the first time in ICT history, we have the
    right time, the right place and the right idea to
    have a huge impact on education handheld
    computing.
  • Soloway (2003)

11
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • The mixing of distance learning with mobile
    telephony to produce mLearning will provide the
    future of learning.
  • Keegan (2003)

12
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • By 2006, data network access from personally
    owned mobile devices will be the leading problem
    facing higher education IT managers.
  • Gartner (2004)

13
Why is m-learning thriving?
  • The mobile revolution is finally here.
    Wherever one looks, the evidence of mobile
    penetration and adoption is irrefutable cell
    phones, PDAs, MP3 players, portable game devices,
    handhelds, tablets and laptops abound. No
    demographic is immune from this phenomenon. From
    toddlers to seniors, people are increasingly
    connected and are digitally communicating with
    each other in ways that would have been
    impossible to imagine only a few years ago.
  • Wagner (2005)

14
What is the relation between m-learning and
e-learning?
15
m-learning vs e-learning
  • E-learning is the macro concept that includes
    online and mobile learning environments.
  • M-learning is a subset of e-learning.
  • E-learning is in turn a subset of distance
    learning, which is in turn a subset of flexible
    learning.

M-learning is e-learning through mobile
computational devices Quin (2001)
16
m-learning vs e-learning
(Brown, 2004)
17
Approaches to m-learning
18
Focus on communication
  • Communication is the source from which
  • m-learning emerges.
  • Nyiri (2002)

19
Current m-learning activities and projects
20
Current activities and projects
  • The use of mobile phones and SMS
  • Administrative learning support
  • Bulk SMS for administrative information
  • Access to examination and test marks via mobile
    service number or m-portal
  • Access to financial statements and registration
    data via mobile service number or m-portal
  • Academic learning support
  • Communication and interaction (bulk SMS / IVR)
  • Assessment (MCQs / Quizzes)
  • Feedback on assignments and tasks
  • Motivational and instructional messages

21
Current activities and projects
  • Integration of m-learning with established
    e-learning environments
  • M-portals and SMS-gateways (SMS-portal integrated
    with the LMS/LCMS e.g. WebCT)
  • Mobile tutoring
  • Mobile blogging
  • M-assessment (e-assessment on mobile devices)
  • Collaborative learning, discussion groups
  • Wireless environments
  • Pilot wireless classrooms
  • Hot spots and wireless LANs on campus

22
Current activities and projects
  • The use of PDAs, smartphones and Pocket PCs
  • Classroom tools (note taking, scheduling, etc)
  • Beaming (via bluetooth) in classrooms (sharing
    notes, handing in assignments, etc)
  • Assessment assessing performance and providing
    automated results and feedback
  • Coursework, scheduling and assignments in wirless
    environments
  • JIT on-the-spot information for field workers,
    brokers, salespersons, etc

23
Current activities and projects
  • Language learning through SMS
  • JIT on-the-spot (e.g. medical) resources on PDA
  • ME-learning (personalised, appreciation for own
    learning process)
  • Mobile composing (music composition on PDAs)
  • Contextual and locational awareness (e.g. at
    museums)
  • Mobile tutoring
  • Mobile blogging (moblogging)
  • Courseware and multimedia on PDAs (including
    distribution and streaming)
  • Assessment
  • Experiential learning and fieldwork
  • Collaborative learning, discussion groups

24
Noteable EU-funded projects
  • MOBIlearn
  • (context awareness, adaptive human interfaces,
    mLCMS, mobile media delivery, collaborative
    learning, etc)
  • M-Learning Project
  • (platforms systems, learning materials for
    small screens various devices, collaborative
    tools, etc)
  • Ericsson Leonardo Da Vinci project
  • (mLCMS, courses and courseware, tools, etc)

25
Latest and future developments
  • Moblogging (mobile blogging)
  • Instant messaging (IM)
  • Wireless Google
  • Collapse-to-Zoom and Popouts
  • Ambient technology and intelligence
  • Personalised learning with dynamic adaptation of
    learning resources to individual preferences
  • Text to speech speech recognition for mobile
    devices
  • Multi-user applications and resources
  • Multi-technology interaction
  • Podcasting (broadcasting of audio to iPods)

26
What will m-learning environments look like in
2010?
27
2010 envisaged
  • Wireless is big and mobile devices are small
  • Ambient technology and intelligence
  • Always-on wireless connections and ubiquitous
    computing
  • Wearable mobile technologies
  • Bio-informatics a commercial reality
  • New methods and approaches to learning and
    collaborating with ICT
  • Personalised learning with dynamic adaptation of
    learning resources to individual preferences
  • From courseware to performanceware
  • m-LMSs and m-LCMSs
  • Platforms supporting multi-user interaction on
    software, applications and equipment

28
2010 envisaged
29
2010 envisaged
30
2010 envisaged
31
2010 envisaged
32
2010 envisaged
33
2010 envisaged
34
2010 envisaged
35
2010 envisaged
36
2010 envisaged
37
What will future learning paradigms look like?
38
Example of EU plans
  • The European Unions aims
  • for 2010
  • From PC centered to ambient intelligence
  • personalised and for all users
  • surrounding environment is the interface
  • technology is almost invisible
  • infinite bandwidth and full multimedia
  • almost 100 online community
  • Focus on maximizing the learning process
  • and its impact
  • Oliveira (2003)

39
Example of EU plans
  • The European Unions aims
  • for 2010
  • Innovations in learning
  • personalised and adaptive learning
  • dynamic mentoring systems
  • integrating experienced based learning into the
    classroom
  • research on new methods and new approaches to
    learning with ICT
  • Oliveira (2003)

40
Example of EU plans
  • The European Unions aims
  • for 2010
  • Learning resources
  • dynamically adapt learning resources to
    individual needs and preferences
  • digital learning resources and professional
    learning for work
  • platforms supporting collaborative learning
  • Access
  • mobile learning and interface technologies
  • Oliveira (2003)

41
Supported inquiry
  • Supported inquiry (guided research)
  • my version facilitated and supported inquiry
  • From courseware to performanceware
  • ''Inquiry into authentic questions generated
    from student experiences is the central strategy
    for teaching''
  • Soloway (2003)
  • Focus on
  • Collaboration and discourse
  • Learning in context and task-sensitive
  • ICT an integrated part of learning process

42
Rise of the knowledge economy
  • According to Gartner (2003) the new knowledge
    economy is merely in its emerging stages. The
    knowledge economy will only reach maturity from
    2010 onwards.

43
Rise of the knowledge economy
44
Rise of the knowledge economy
  • According to Gartner (2003) the new knowledge
    economy is merely in its emerging stages. The
    knowledge economy will only reach maturity from
    2010 onwards.
  • A doubling of the worlds knowledge (Bontis,
    2002)
  • 1930 ? every 30 years
  • 1970 ? every 7 years
  • 2010 ? every 11 hours

45
Rise of the knowledge economy
  • According to Gartner (2003) the new knowledge
    economy is merely in its emerging stages. The
    knowledge economy will only reach maturity from
    2010 onwards.
  • A doubling of the worlds knowledge (Bontis,
    2002)
  • 1930 ? every 30 years
  • 1970 ? every 7 years
  • 2010 ? every 11 hours
  • We already experience enormous challenges in
    coping with the current overflow of available
    information. It is difficult to imagine what it
    will be like when the knowledge economy is in its
    prime...

46
Future learning paradigms
  • Paradigm shifts?
  • knowledge knowledge
  • adoption production
  • information information
  • gathering generation
  • constructivism social
  • constructivism
  • teaching learning
  • facilitation

?
47
Beyond constructivism?
?
48
Beyond constructivism?
?
?
49
Beyond constructivism?
50
Beyond constructivism?
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Future learning paradigms
  • I believe that the real literacy of tomorrow
    will have more to do with being able to be your
    own private, personal reference librarian, one
    that knows how to navigate through the
    incredible, confusing, complex information spaces
    and feel comfortable and located in doing that.
    So navigation will be a new form of literacy if
    not the main form of literacy for the 21st
    century.
  • Brown (1999)

58
The role of m-learning in future learning
paradigms
59
The future role of mobile devices
  • In general
  • Access to information and knowledge
  • Ambient connectivity to people and resources
  • Communication and interaction
  • Navigation tools to deal with the abundance of
    information and knowledge in the knowledge era
  • In education
  • NOT the delivery of content per se
  • Communication, collaborative learning and
    learning (navigationism) support
  • Tools to improve effectiveness and efficiency
  • Navigation tools to optimise learning activities

60
Current approaches to m-learning
61
Paper vs PDA content
  • Why (contemporary) learners prefer content on
    paper rather than on a PDA
  • Internal memory is limited and sometimes causes
    the PDA to be too slow.
  • Making notes on the PDAs is an effort and the
    keyboard is too small.
  • Reading a document requires too much scrolling.
  • Pictures in the .doc or .pdf documents are not
    always of high quality.
  • It takes too much effort and more time to read
    documents on a PDA.
  • A printed version of the documents is easier to
    use.
  •   Wentzel, P. et al (2005)
  • Could be a different story when future
    sophisticated PDAs offer similar functionalities
    as laptops or PCs.

62
Future approaches to m-learning
63
The future of m-learning
  • Whether we like it or not, whether we are ready
    for it or not, mobile learning represents the
    next step in a long tradition of technology
    mediated learning. It will feature new
    strategies, practices, tools, applications, and
    resources to realize the promise of ubiquitous,
    pervasive, personal, and connected learning. It
    responds to the on-demand learning interests of
    connected citizens in an information-centric
    world.
  • Wagner (2005)

64
Our challenges
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A navigationism paradigm
  • Institutions should move away from providing
    content per se to learners. We should focus on
    how to enable learners to find, identify,
    manipulate and evaluate existing knowledge, to
    integrate this knowledge in their world of work
    and life, to solve problems and to communicate
    this knowledge to others.
  • Teachers and educators should become the source
    of HOW to navigate in the ocean of available
    information and knowledge. We should become
    coaches within the knowledge economy.
  • Brown (2005)

67
Challenge 1
  • Our first challenge as educators
  • is to design and develop appropriate learning
    environments, based on sound pedagogical /
    didactical principles that will ensure the
    optimisation of learning in new learning
    environments.

68
Challenge 2
  • Our second challenge as m-learning and
    educational technology experts
  • is to keep abreast of developments in learning
    theory and to identify and anticipate shifts in
    learning paradigms to be able to adopt and adapt
    educational technologies that will ensure the
    optimisation of learning in the knowledge era.

69
Thank you
Thank You !
70
References
Bontis, N. (2002). The rising star of the Chief
Knowledge Officer. Ivey Business Journal,
March/April 2002 20 25. Brown, J.S. (1999).
Learning, Working Playing in the Digital Age.
Paper delivered at the 1999 Conference on Higher
Education of the American Association for Higher
Education, March 1999, Washington, USA. Brown,
T.H. (2004) The role of m-learning in the future
of e-learning in Africa? In Distance Education
and Technology Issues and Practice. Hong
Kong. Brown, T.H. (2005) Beyond constructivism
Exploring future learning paradigms. In
Education Today, issue 2 of 2005, Aries
Publishing Company, Thames, New Zealand. Gartner
(2002). SMS bigger than email in Europe. In Nua
Internet Surveys, November 11, 2002. Cited in TAD
Consortium Dec 2002 Information Update No. 4,
Telematics for African Development, Johannesburg,
South Africa.
71
References
Gartner (2003). Emerging Technology Scenario.
Paper delivered by Gartner analyst Nick Jones at
the Gartner Symposium and ITxpo, 4 6 August
2003, Cape Town, South Africa. Gartner (2004)
Predicts 2005 Higher Education Evolves, Gartner
Inc, Stamford, USA. Keegan, D. (2003). The
future of learning From eLearning to mLearning.
Hagen Fernstudienforchung, Germany. Moore G.A.
(1991) Crossing the chasm. Marketing and selling
high tech products to mainstream customers.
Harper Business. Nyiri, K. (2002). Towards a
philosophy of m-learning. Paper delivered at the
IEEE international workshop on wireless and
mobile technologies in education. August 29-30,
2002, Växjö University, Sweden.
72
References
Oliveira, C. (2003). Towards a knowledge
society. Keynote address delivered at the IEEE
international conference on advanced learning
technologies (ICALT). July 2003, Athens,
Greece. Quin, C. (2001). mLearning Mobile,
Wireless, In-Your-Pocket Learning. LiNE Zine
On-line, Fall 2002. Soloway, E. (2003).
Handheld computing Right time, right place,
right idea. Paper delivered at the IEEE
international conference on advanced learning
technologies (ICALT). July 2003, Athens,
Greece. Wagner, E.D. (2005) Enabling Mobile
Learning. EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 40, no. 3
(May/June 2005) 4053. Wentzel, P. et al (2005)
Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Students
Educational Experiences. Case Study from the
EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research, Boulder,
Colorado, USA.
73
The adoption curve
The technology adoption lifecycle (Moore, 1991)
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