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John Locke

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Becomes physician and advisor to First Earl of Shaftesbury (big Whig politician) Reign of Charles II, Charles dies in 1685. I. Historical Background ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: John Locke


1
John Locke
  • Second Treatise on Government

2
Lockes Second Treatise
  • I. Biographical/Historical Background
  • II. State of Nature One
  • III. Freedom, Liberty, and License
  • IV. Property and Labor

3
I. Historical Background
  • John Locke (1632 1704)
  • Enters Oxford in 1651
  • Studies philosophy, natural history, medicine
  • Becomes physician and advisor to First Earl of
    Shaftesbury (big Whig politician)
  • Reign of Charles II, Charles dies in 1685

4
I. Historical Background
  • Line of succession issue (Catholic vs.
    Protestant)
  • Locke through Shaftesbury gets implicated in
    plot to assassinate James
  • Leaves England for Holland in 1683
  • Begins to write anonymous political pamphlets,
    including the Two Treatises on Government (1689)

5
I. Historical Background
  • 1688 Glorious Revolution in England
  • Replace the Catholic line from James with William
    and Mary (both Protestant)
  • Locke was an advisor to William while the two of
    them were in Holland together
  • In exchange for throne, William Mary agreed to
    a more limited, constitutional monarchy
  • Signed Toleration Act which allowed for
    religious toleration for most faiths (except
    Catholicism and Unitarianism)

6
I. Historical Background
  • Locke lives out his days on government pension
  • without further ado, Lockes Second Treatise

7
II. State of Nature 1
  • Locke begins Chapter 2
  • To understand political power right, and derive
    it from its original, me must consider what state
    all men are naturally in
  • What we need to know, then, is the natural
    condition of mankind

8
II. State of Nature 1
  • Continuing with the quote from the opening of
    Chapter 2
  • and that is a state of perfect freedom to
    order their actions, and dispose of their
    possessions, and persons as they think fit,
    within the bounds of the law of Nature, without
    asking leave, or depending upon the will of any
    other man.
  • What does that mean?

9
II. State of Nature 1
  • Individuals living in state of nature
  • Also seems we need to know 3 things
  • Freedom
  • Law of nature
  • Property Rights

10
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • Two senses of freedom at work here
  • Free from any social bonds, which means
  • Not dependent on the will of any other people
  • I can do X without asking someone elses
    approval to do X
  • Bear in mind, he is saying that this freedom is
    natural that we naturally are free from any
    social constraints or relations
  • Note to this point in human history, very few
    people could be said to enjoy freedom in this
    sense

11
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • But its not just any freedom, rather its
    freedom in accord with the law of nature
  • And that law is
  • The state of Nature has a law of Nature to
    govern it, which obliges every one and reason,
    which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will
    but consult it, that being all equal and
    independent, no one ought to harm another in his
    life, health, liberty, or possessions (chp.2,
    par 6).

12
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • We get 2 arguments to support this view
  • Religious
  • Each of us is created in Gods image
  • We dont have the right to destroy ourselves (as
    we are Gods creatures), so we cant have the
    right to destroy others like us
  • Secular
  • equal and independent phrase
  • Moral sympathy and rationality

13
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • Summary
  • In state of nature we have freedom, which is life
    in accordance with the law of nature
  • Distinction between liberty and license
  • For Locke, liberty is not the right to do
    everything, but rather to do anything in
    accordance with the law of nature

14
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • ButHow can I be free if I must obey a law?

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
15
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • Drug addict example
  • Do I want to be the kind of person who smokes
    crack?
  • Do I want to smoke crack now? Or now? Or..
  • Only the first person is truly free
  • Freer in that life is more fully an expression of
    your own will
  • When following the laws of nature, you are
    following the dictates of your own reason and
    nothing else

16
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • In other words, freedom does not mean war it
    means peace!
  • Think of interpersonal interaction do we need a
    sovereign to tell us what is right?

17
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • So for Locke, state of nature is when we are all
    free, indeed it is a state of perfect freedom
  • Also a state of equality, since no one is forced
    to submit to any authority higher than the
    dictates of her own reason

18
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • Chapter 2
  • A state also of equality, wherein all the power
    and jurisdiction is reciprocal, no one having
    more than another there being nothing more
    evident, than that creatures of the same species
    and rank promiscuously born to all the same
    advantages of Nature, and the use of the same
    faculties, should also be equal one amongst
    another without subordination or subjection,
    unless the Lord and Master of them all, should by
    any manifest declaration of his will set one
    above another, and confer on him by an evident
    and clear appointment an undoubted right to
    dominion and sovereignty.

19
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • For Hobbes, freedom and equality were in large
    measure responsible for the state of nature being
    a war of all against all
  • For Locke, freedom and equality lead to a
    radically different situation

20
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • Men living together according to reason,
    without a common superior on Earth, with
    authority to judge between them, is properly the
    state of Nature (chp. 3, par. 19).

21
III. Freedom, Liberty, License
  • Which raises the question of why we would ever
    leave the state of nature? Why not anarchy?
  • Do we find any problems lurking in the state of
    nature????

22
IV. Property Labor
  • Source of Private Property?

23
IV. Property Labor
  • 2 Caveats though
  • no spoilage
  • must leave as good in kind for others to
    appropriate
  • that is, after you take your share, theres still
    enough left for others to take their share

24
V. State of Nature 2
  • Add money economy
  • Effect on our relations?

25
Wealth
Inequality in the State of Nature I
A
B
C
D
Individuals
26
Wealth
Inequality in the State of Nature I
Rough Equality
A
B
C
D
Individuals
(chp. 5,par. 37 par 41)
27
Wealth
Inequality in the State of Nature 2
After the introduction of a money
economy, inequality becomes much more extreme
A
B
C
D
Individuals
28
Wealth
Inequality in the State of Nature 2
After the introduction of a money
economy, inequality becomes much more extreme
A
B
C
D
But everyone is better off (chp. 5, par. 47)
Individuals
29
VI. Mutual Advantage the Social Contract
  • If we have social relations...
  • And we have economic relations...
  • Why do we need political relations?
  • Why wont people be able to get along?
  • Why do we need politics?

30
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
3 , 3
1 , 4
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
4 , 1
2 , 2
Prisoners Dilemma
31
VII. Prisoners Dilemma
  • Symbolic Form
  • Were in a Prisoners Dilemma situation whenever
  • T R P S
  • Temptation to defect Rewards of Cooperation
  • Rewards Punishment for Not Cooperating
  • Punishment Suckers Payoff

32
VII. Prisoners Dilemma
  • Note that even if we start at the cooperative
    outcome, that outcome is not stable
  • Each player can improve his/her position by
    adopting a different strategy
  • 4 best option (Temptation)
  • 3 2nd best option (Reward)
  • 2 2nd worst option (Punishment)
  • 1 worst option (Sucker

33
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
3 , 3
1 , 4
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
4 , 1
2 , 2
Prisoners Dilemma
34
VII. Prisoners Dilemma
  • But since both players have changed strategy we
    end up at the non-cooperative outcome, where both
    players are worse off than if they had chosen to
    cooperate

35
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
3 , 3
1 , 4
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
4 , 1
2 , 2
Prisoners Dilemma
36
VII. Prisoners Dilemma
  • And, as we noted, this non-cooperative outcome is
    also a Nash equilibrium outcome
  • Neither player has any incentive to change
    strategy since whoever changes will do
    immediately worse by making the move

37
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
3 , 3
1 , 4
Dont Cooperate
Cooperate
4 , 1
2 , 2
Prisoners Dilemma
38
VIII. Mutual Advantage and the Social Contract
  • Prevent defections and allow for cooperative
    behavior
  • What kind of political life?
  • Need to insure that everyone agrees to terms of
    contract
  • What sort of terms would arise?

39
Sovereign
We the People
40
Sovereign
Reciprocal Obligations
We the People
41
Sovereign
The Social Contract Binds the Sovereign and the
People
We the People
42
VIII. Mutual Advantage and the Social Contract
  • Lockes Social Contract then includes
  • Rights to protect us against the government
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Legislative power supreme (rather than the
    executive as in a monarchy)
  • Basis for this -- fundamental equality of all
    human beings
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