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While youre waiting

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Revenge. Inadequacy/withdrawal. Another Way to Determine The Reason ... 'I get perturbed when you become an academic couch potato. Get in the game. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: While youre waiting


1
While youre waiting
  • Consider the non-motivated students who
    motivated you to be here today (Ironic, isnt
    it). What happened to their inborn love of
    learning thirst for knowledge?
  • In place of just plain lazy, what valid
    reasons can you identify that might account for
    the failure to cooperate, participate, and/or
    put forth effort into doing well in their
  • -Academics
  • -Timeliness to school or class
  • -Preparedness for class
  • -Social interactions
  • -Personal development
  • -Classroom behavior
  • Please offer us some of your perceptions.

2
What are some common reasons why youngsters fail
to engage in a task, activity, or endeavor?
  • Lack of skill or knowledge base to handle the
    task.
  • Different learning style or need for
    supports/SPED.
  • Doesnt see importance/connection to his/her
    life.
  • Fear of losing in competition. (Research Kids
    motivated more by collaboration than
    competitiongroup competition OK)
  • Rewards for success are meaningless, trivial,
    and/or fail to build inner motivation to achieve
    (i.e., candy, points, contra- indicated praise or
    criticism).
  • Lack of belief in ability due to past failure
    negative comments of significant others
    (parents, peers, teachers)
  • Fear of looking dumb if fail (Forced choice
    Bad vs dumb)
  • Mistakes perceived as failure rather than
    opportunity to learn (ala Bernard Baruch Mrs.
    Frizzle)
  • Others? (Drill kill or boring instruction)

3
Interventions for Lack of skill or knowledge
base to handle the task?
  • I.D. gaps in the learning/skill sequence with
    criterion-referenced testing.
  • Teach the skills, procedures, or
    information they dont yet know.

4
Interventions for Different learning style or
Need for supports/SPED ?
  • Differentiated instruction Modify the
  • presentation/instruction
  • materials
  • procedures
  • expectations
  • Ensure understanding by having the student repeat
    the directions in his/her own words.
  • Ensure initial engagement into the assignment.
  • Check in early often with the student to assure
    understanding task engagement.
  • Simplify a complex behavior by utilizing
    shaping or task analysis. (Both found on
    BehaviorAdvisor.com)

5
  • At Home
  • ( packed into my suitcase when I travel).

6
Interventions for Doesnt see importance or
connection to his/her life?
  • Relate the content assignments to their lives.
  • Query them about their future aspirations. Tie
    material into that future.
  • Locate admired/admirable people who use the
    content in their daily lives jobs.
  • For more info, go to http//www.behavioradvisor.co
    m/Motivation.html

7
Interventions for Fear of Failure?
  • Clickers (Make mistakes anonymously)
  • Assign peer helpers/cross age tutors.
  • Develop activities assignments that
  • Reduce individual competition
  • Involve team competition (rather than
    individual).
  • Focus on improvement versus precision.
  • Focus on the putting forth of effort, not
    accuracy.
  • Reminisce previous successes resulting from
    persistence.
  • Avoid reassurances such as
  • Cmon, its EZ. (from teacher or peers)
  • You know how to do it. You did it yesterday.
  • Maybe if you pay really close attention this
    summer, you might be able to pass the exam.
  • BUT WHY???
  • Go to http//www.behavioradvisor.com/Motivation.h
    tml
  • The Secret Curse of Expert Archers, KATIE
    THOMAS, August 1, 2008, NY Times

8
-Would you want to be doing what youre asking
your students to do?-Two kids nod in agreement
with the teacher. One is thinking about a
video game.Interventions for Inattentive Due
to Lack of Captivating Instruction
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/php/interventionist
    a/interventionista_intv_list.php?prob_typeoff_tas
    k__inattention
  • http//interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/interventio
    ns/motivation/motivation.php
  • http//interventioncentral.com/htmdocs/interventio
    ns/genAcademic/spark.php
  • http//www.behavioradvisor.com/TeachingTips.html

9
We I.D. the reason via an FBA, which is a set of
precise complex procedures for
  • helping the Committee on Special Education
    arrive at the wrong conclusion with great
    certainty.
  • determining the motivation for, or function of
    an aberrant behavior pattern.
  • Question
  • Does it make sense to seek the motivation for
    non-motivation or the function of lack of
    functioning?
  • Unless the absent enthusiasm for learning is due
    to special needs (SPED, language, learning
    style), the usual procedures
  • Medical check
  • Achievement testing
  • I.Q testing
  • A-B-C analysis anecdotal notes
  • are pretty much useless in identifying the
    purpose.

10
Dreikurs Mistaken Goals.
  • When struggling or insecure, will seek support
    guidance. If not feeling accepted supported
  • Attention.
  • Power Seeking.
  • Revenge.
  • Inadequacy/withdrawal.

11
Another Way to Determine The Reason
  • If the youngster doesnt respond to your
    assessment question (When you pretend that
    youre not capable of doing the work, are you
    trying to make me go away?), you can still
    identify the Mistaken Goal" via these
    guidelines
  • If you feel                          The student
    is probably seeking Annoyed                     
                    ? Threatened
                                    ?
  • Hurt                                            
    ?
  • Disheartened (at inability to reach this
    student)       ?  
  •    If a student                                  
    Then the probable goal is
  • Stops a behavior, but then repeats it ?        
    Refuses to stop and increases the
    misbehavior ?       Becomes violent or
    hostile ?
  •   Refuses to cooperate, participate, put forth
    effort,
  • or interact ?

12
Interventions for Inadequacy?
  • NEVER show frustration. This reaction may
    reinforce a sense of worthlessness.
  • Offer encouragement support. Do not
    criticize unless using a criticism sandwich.
    (later)
  • Blame lack of success on the curriculum,
    materials, or the way you taught the lesson. Do
    not blame the student.
  • Set up kids for success.
  • Focus on recognizing effort, not accuracy or
    grades. (later)
  • Use praise in an informed skilled manner.
    (later)
  • If slight effort was exerted, positively
    acknowledge it via partial praise (later)
    focus on ways to improve in that area.
  • Have the student self-evaluate, identifying what
    parts of the task were done correctly
    incorrectly. Then have him/her develop a plan
    for improvement (or have him/her redo the task
    well).  Assist support as needed.
  • For more information on Dreikurs model
    interventions, go to www.BehaviorAdvisor.com/WhyKi
    dsMisbehave.html .

13
Todays Focus
  • Strategies that accomplish the following
    (simultaneously)
  • Enhance chances of task engagement
    (especially with defensive passive
    pupils)
  • Develop a can do (or will try) attitude in
    kids
  • Strengthen student-teacher relationships
    (Belonging)
  • This Sessions Agenda
  • Avoiding verbal blunders that undermine our
    efforts to motivate students.
  • Offering criticism thats constructive (not
    destructive) promotes motivation to achieve.
  • Giving praise positive recognition that builds
    ( maintains) an internal drive to achieve.

14
Dont say DONT, Stop using STOP, No using
NO.
  • NO cheating!!
  • Quit bellyaching!
  • Stop stopping!
  • Dont be talking to your neighbor.
  • Speed Round! Rephrase the following.
    Identifying the desired actions. Do so quickly
    to simulate rapid rephrasing after having uttered
    such comments.
  • Quit talking.
  • Dont be rude.
  • No insults, knuckle head.
  • NO BOOGER PICKING!

15
A student reluctantly walks to the front of the
room to read his/her composition. The class
becomes noisy inattentive during the reading.
  • Im really disappointed in what Im seeing
    and hearing right now. From experience, I know
    that I can expect better (Adolescents more
    mature) behavior from our class.
  • Right now, I need for everyone to be looking
    up here with mouths closed and ears open.
    (Direction stating what they OUGHT to be doing)
  • Thank you (a positive you ) . I know that
    well listen closely now, giving our classmate
    the same respect we would want in this
    situation. (Belief Statement).

16
Defusing The Conflict Cycle
  • Situation A teacher uses respectful voice and
    wording to de-escalate an emerging bad situation.
    She also discovers the reason for the defensive
    behavior, works WITH the student to solve the
    problem.
  • Jim Wrights video from InterventionCentral.com

17
Lots of Eye Messages
  • Lots of I messages
  • I need for all.
  • In 30 seconds, my eyes should be seeing
  • All the noise is making me
  • Success in this endeavor requires that all of us
  • Right now, we should all be
  • Our mission at this moment is to
  • Be sure that any Yous are positive or neutral.
  • Avoid any accusatory or negative Yous.

18
Select the properly phrasedI message(s).
  • Before each class, eye brows through my lesson
    plan.
  • I get perturbed when you become an academic
    couch potato. Get in the game.
  • I need for all of my students to be moving their
    pencils on their worksheets.
  • Im unable to teach when youre so noisy.
  • I see that youre out of your seat again.
  • All of the above (numbered) statements are
    properly phrased I messages .

19
Select a negative YOU Statement. Imagine the
situation in which it was said. Rephrase it.
(Self or partners)
  • Use your garbage mouth again youre headed to
    the office.
  • With your attitude, youre gonna end up dead or
    on welfare.
  • Youve got more excuses than any 12 people I
    know. You know, its not that youre stupid.
    Youre just lazy.
  • I give up. Youre more trouble than youre
    worth.
  • Why do you just give up? You never raise your
    hand for help.
  • Why are you out of your seat again?
  • Are you hyperactive or rude?
  • If youre not writing, youre not earning points
    and you cant go.
  • Youre gonna fail this course cause you dont do
    the homework.
  • Youre too noisy. Why do you always have to be
    so loud?
  • BETTER YET Recollect a negative you message
    heard recently. Rephrase it.
  • Feel free to disapprove of the BEHAVIOR, but
    NOT the students CHARACTER or SENSE OF SELF.
    (Symptom Estrangement or Descriptive
    Criticism).

20

21
Application...
  • A frequently off-task youngster is again drawing
    others attention from their assignments with his
    clownish behavior. Right now, he is using
    pencils to roll back his eye lids. He then
    bulges his eyes and sticks out his tongue. How
    would you replace the following contra-indicated
    response?
  • Are you crazy or somethin? Whatre you doing
    that for? Keep showing that numbskull behavior
    and youre losing points. Dont be pushing me,
    knuckle-head.

22
Critical of Criticism
  • Why not
  • Tell it like it is / Tell it to em straight /
    Draw the line
  • Set limits / Pull in the reins / Put on a leash
  • Let em know its not OK to do in my class
  • Let em know whos boss here
  • Put em in their place
  • Point out where they need to improve
  • ?
  • For example (Psycho-T on CD)

23
Research on Criticism
  • Older adolescents after public criticism
  • 1 in 10 performed same or better on the task
  • 9 in 10 performed worse
  • Nearly every one of over 80 students reported one
    or more of the following
  • Feeling bad about oneself.
  • (I cant do anything right. Im stupid.)
  • Resentment toward the treatment.
  • Dislike for the person who criticized.

24
More Criticism of Criticism
  • A teacher in a good classroom no longer praised
    students for being on task or working. She
    chastised students for being off task. The
    result?
  • The off task behavior of observed students
    increased from 8.7 to 25.5 of the time.
  • 2nd phase Teacher increased criticism from
    average of 5 times per minute to 16.
  • Off task behavior of observed students increased
    from 31 (pre-test) to over 50 of the time
    (post-test).
  • Why did these results occur?
  • FMToon
    Marshall Memo review Summer 2007

25
  • Partial
  • Praise.
  • Research with adolescents Math Littering
  • Grp 1 Recognized for tidy actions math
    procedures (even though not yet proficient)
  • Grp 2 Criticized directed to engage in actions
  • Grp 3 No feedback.
  • Results 1st made gains on both. 2nd 3rd, no
    change.
  • T. Thorkildsen (2007). Adolescents moral
    engagement in urban settings.Theory into
    Practice,46 (2),113-120

26
Partial Praise Practice
  • As your assistant teacher continues with the
    recitation of the spelling words for this weeks
    test, what would you say to Gayle after
    comforting her and convincing her to join you in
    the back of the room?
  • What would you positively recognize?
  • What alternative response might be identified as
    the two of you problem solve?(click 4 steps)
  • Gayle Video Tape .

27
So then, what do we utterin place of criticism?
  • besides I messages Partial Praise
    (with encouragement)?
  • Proximity Praise?
  • Sandwich.
  • Eg

28
C - Sandwiches Emotional Health Food
  • Kneeling down facing the student, the teacher
    quietly says Fran, during the last 10 minutes,
    you were really focused. It shows in the quality
    of your work. We all take short brain breaks,
    but we need to draw those eyes back to your
    paper. I looking forward to reviewing your work
    with you later.
  • Luis, I appreciate your help in keeping Rodney on
    task. However, prodding someone to finish so
    that you can copy his answers deprives you of
    true learning. From now on, I look forward to
    seeing you working hard on your own assignment
    in-between the reminders to Rod.
  • Pon

29
Which one is the properly phrasedCriticism
Sandwich?
  • 1. You can be proud of remembering to capitalize
    the first word of each sentence, even if you
    forgot to use any punctuation. So what do we
    need to remember? Right. Dont leave out those
    commas, periods, and question marks in the next
    draft.
  • 2. Youve added many more adjectives, creating a
    more interesting piece. Now lets focus on
    adding more adverbs in the last rewrite. Youre
    getting the hang of adding details, and Im
    anxious to read a final draft with even more
    detail.
  • 3. Both of the above items are examples of
    well-worded criticism sandwiches. Activ

30
Criticism Better digested when placed between
two compliments.
  • Think of a recent event when you gave (or avoided
    giving) criticism. If you could go back to that
    time, how would you have phrased
    the sandwich?
  • OR M.J. usually arrives about 10
  • minutes late (if at all) to your class.
  • Today, s/he passes through your classroom
  • door about 20 seconds after the bell.
    (Progress!) Your other students are still working
    on the Do Now activity.
  • Ans

31
Better late than never.
  • Hi MJ. Good to see you. Thanks for making
    the effort to get here in a more timely
    manner. Its appreciated.
  • Cmon in and get yourself settled while I tell
    you about the Do now. (Teacher walks with
    student to his/her desk, explains the task, and
    as leaving and removing a hand from the students
    shoulder, says) Im getting a high 5 ready
    for tomorrow when you beat the bell.
  • OR Please understand though, that Im still
    under the same constrictions as before Ive got
    to ask you to stroll down to the office for a
    late pass. But like I said, I really appreciate
    your effort to get here on time. Ill be sure
    to get my fingers warmed up to give you a high
    5 when you beat the bell tomorrow.

32
RESEARCH The most effective strategy for
promoting motivation, cooperation on-task
behavior is
  • Recognition for appropriate behavior
  • Non-verbal approval
  • Smiles
  • Thumbs up
  • Written commentary
  • Notes
  • Comments on papers
  • Verbal approval
  • Acknowledgement (Tammy has her materials
    ready.)
  • Praise
  • Pem?! TNotPar

33
When Praise Doesnt Perform
  • Many self-proclaimed no-nonsense teachers
    insist that It doesnt work
    And for them, it didnt.
    (But why?)
  • Meanwhile, a large percentage of praise given
    profusely by well-meaning teachers is ineffective
    or counterproductive. (But why?)
  • Has it happened to you? You praise a student
    who, upon hearing the compliment, acts up.
  • What might be some reasons for why praise
    sometimes fails?
  • Usual susp

34
The Usual Suspects.
  • Teachers fails to be consistent and persistent.
  • Student perceives that s/he has completed
    enough of the task adequately, can take a
    break / quit.
  • A well-behaved, motivated student is fearful of
    being victimized in a classroom staffed by a
    weak teacher.
  • Teacher is viewed as being judge jury, not
    unswervingly supportive.
  • Student does not like or respect the teacher.
  • Student is from a culture or household that
    doesnt use much praise.
  • Student is member of a minority group
    historically not given respect esteem. Their
    folklore differs from that of voluntary
    minorities.

35
Praising praise resistant kids (suspicious of
authority, your culture, bad history with
teachers learning) before interpersonal bonds
develop
  • Personalized public praise can provoke
    misbehavior designed to avoid the appearance of
    subservience to authority.
  • Give private praise or send notes privately
  • Replace specific public praise with general
    praise to unspecified pupils
  • I love the way that Casper is copying down
    todays learning goal. becomes?
  • Students who are copying down the learning goal
    are showing me that they are leaders. Theyve
    got my respect.

36
  • NEXT A closer look at the practice of positivity
    some tips for effective praising that will
    ensure that kids respond to it well feel like
    theyre .

37
Praiseworthy Praise?
  • Watch our colleague in this next video clip.
  • Observe her style of praise.
  • Your thoughts?
  • Compliments or suggestions for her?
  • Do you have a similar style of responding when a
    students product shows improvement?
  • Teacher praises student product (in computer) or
    http//www.usu.edu/teachall/video/video.htm (slow
    load from internet) select Group Contingency
    230 into clip

38
PRAISE Always Praiseworthy?Situation A
student, easily capable of submitting
high-quality homework assignments, does so for
the first time in a month. Its inferior work
(for this student), but at least something has
been produced.Of the 4 praise options youll
see, which one is proven in research studies to
be effective ? (Results in improved behavior
or achievement)
  • Thanks for submitting the assignment, Lee.
    Im pleased to see it.
  • Wow. Stupendous job, Lee! This is an
    especially fine piece of work. Intelligence,
    effort, and precision fine-motor coordination
    beautifully combined in one exceptional paper.
    Youve got more grey matter inside that skull of
    yours than any 12 people I know.
  • Super! You know, Ive been waiting a
    looonnnngggg for you to submit this paper.
    Whats it been, Leefour weeks since Ive seen
    anything from you? Hey, keep it up, and dont
    make me wait so long for the next one, OK?
  • Alright Lee! Lets give you credit in the grade
    book right away. Turn in one every day now, huh?

39
Analysis?
  • Thanks for submitting the assignment, Lee.
    Im pleased to see it.
  • Wow. Stupendous job, Lee! This is an
    especially fine piece of work. Intelligence,
    effort, and precision fine-motor coordination
    beautifully combined in one exceptional paper.
    Youve got more grey matter inside that skull of
    yours than any 12 people I know.
  • Super! You know, Ive been waiting a
    looonnnngggg for you to submit this paper.
    Whats it been, Leefour weeks since Ive seen
    anything from you? Hey, keep it up, and dont
    make me wait so long for the next one, OK?
  • Alright Lee! Lets give you credit in the grade
    book right away. Turn in one every day now, huh?

40
Contra-indicated Types of Praise
  • Unearned Praise
  • Praising substandard (for that child) academic or
    behavioral performance conveys the message that
    The work is fine
  • for a person of your low ability.
  • INSTEAD? What do you say when a students
    performance isnt up to expectations, but at
    least the pupil gave you something (for a
    change)?
  • Caring Criticism in a Sandwich
  • eff

41
Effuse Praise
  • Lavish praise for a non-demanding accomplishment
  • Holy moly! Fantastic job of passing out papers!
  • Great Googily Moogily! Thats a spectacular job
    of hamster cage cleaning. Youre a super-duper
    pooper scooper!
  • Gives students incorrect perceptions of their
    performance (After age 7 or 8 they simply dismiss
    it as being insincere). When youngsters
    accomplish a non-challenging non-academic
    task/duty of which they are quite capable, it is
    best recognized with?
  • Thank you. (if contextual cues make the
    reason clear.)
  • Or Description of outcome
  • Your paper has the proper heading.
  • Fain

42
It wasnt effuse. Those kids deservedthe
praise that I gave to them!
  • So what went wrong in this situation?
  • Tony video (in computer) .
  • And on the other end of the spectrum

43
Faint (Back-handed) Praise
  • Avoid praise that hints at past problems
  • Monique! Good to see you arrive on time for
    once.
  • Jonaya Im elated to see a completed journal
    reflection today. Its the first one youve
    done all week.
  • Wow. Im shockedFlabbergasted! I never
    thought youd pass that exam!
  • Welp, it took forever but you finally got the
    steps in the right order.
  • Wonderful. This is the first time youve ever
    earned all your points for the morning
    session.
  • You were paying attention today, Jazz. I just
    might have to change my opinion of you.
  • Your challenge Rewrite one of the above
    statements to offer praise for an accomplishment
    without degrading the act by bringing up a
    history of failure. Reminisce only about
    positive actions.
  • Con

44
Controlling Praise (Ulterior motives)
  • Directs (rather than encourages) future
    performance.
  • Dajour, youve used excellent indentation and
    punctuation up to this point. Be sure to keep it
    correct until the end of your composition.
  • Research (Kast Connor, 1988 - 3rd, 5th 8th
    graders) Keep it up. praise destroyed student
    motivation to continue with the desired behavior.
  • Nice penmanship in your journal entry today.
    You should write that legibly every day.
  • (Instead?)
  • Nice penmanship in your journal entry. With
    those well-formed letters, the reader can give
    full attention to the content. Perf

45
Praising High Scores or Perfect Behavior
  • Why not recognize exceptional performance?
  • You got all check pluses on your homework this
    week.
  • James 100 ...The only one in the class. Well
    done.
  • Good boy, Calvin. You worked in your group
    without once causing a problem.
  • Focusing on nearness to perfection promotes the
    view that
  • Scores grades matter more than learning.
  • Perfection must be attained maintained at all
    costs.
  • In pursuit of that praise, kids often?
  • Cheat use deceit (due to failure anxiety).
  • Avoid engaging in academic or behavioral
    challenges in which they might fall short of
    perfection. Labl

46
Labeling Praise
  • What could be wrong with saying things like
  • Good boy.
  • See? Youre a smart kid.?
  • Few kids ( adults) are fully Good Smart.
  • We look bad if the student is thinking
  • Youre not very with-it. I got all these
    answers by text messaging my sister while you
    were helping others.
  • The positive label may be at odds with what has
    been persistently heard by the youngster.
  • Boy, have you got it wrong! That label doesnt
    fit comfortably at all. Heres who I really
    am.
  • The student then displays behavior that is
    consistent with his/her present identity (e.g.,
    head down, destroying paper, talking with others,
    playing with items). Harv. Me Supre complim

47
Labels are for jelly jars, not kids
  • Devoid of supporting specifics, positive labels
    result in a psychological house built on sand,
    one easily destroyed by comments / actions
    contrary to the label.
  • This contrast causes great emotional distress as
    ones self image is threatened. Any failure
    indicates that they might not really have the
    gift or be a good kid.
  • This failure doesnt promote persistence in
    overcoming obstacles In their minds, success
    comes naturally to those who are smart or
    good. Having to try hard proves theyre not
    smart or good.
  • They seize opportunities to show their strengths
    (even when it is not appropriate), and seek
    constant approval (Was I a good girl? Am I
    smart?) because they dont know what constitutes
    being good or being smart.
  • Dwek

48
Carol Dwecks Research
  • Three groups of students in 5th grade (S400)
  • Phase 1 Members of each group work one at a time
    on a challenging puzzle task (non-verbal IQ test)
    that all can complete successfully. The groups
    received different praise when done.
  • For effort You got a score of x. You must
    have worked really hard.
  • For grade received Wow. You got a score of
    x.
  • For being smart Wow. You got a score of x.
    Thats a very good score. You must be really
    smart.
  • Results
  • The groups were equally excited about taking
    similar tasks home to practice.
  • They were equally confident about future
    performance on this sort of task.

49
Phase 2 of One StudySo whatll it be? Hard or
easy?
  • The groups were given a choice of a challenging
    task from which they could learn a lot, but might
    not succeed (Non-verbal puzzle task designed for
    7th graders) OR an easier task on which they
    were sure to do well. Were there differences
    between the groups?
  • 90 of effort group chose the challenging task.
  • Most of the smart group selected the easier one
  • Why the difference?
  • They seek out non-challenging tasks in order to
    maintain the unsupported image of smart.

50
Phase 2 of another study Difficult task.
  • Groups were given a more difficult set of
    problems on which they wouldnt do well.
  • The effort group persisted longest on the task.
    The smart kids gave up sooner because?
  • Sois false hope better than no hope at all?
  • Students were asked
  • Did you enjoy the task?
  • ?Was there a difference in responses?
  • Those praised for effort enjoyed the difficult
    task at least as well as the first one. They
    didnt view their performance as reflecting upon
    their intelligence.
  • Smart kids started to question their
    intelligence.
  • Dweck They were dependent on continuing praise
    in order to maintain their confidence.
  • So what do we do when kids seek our continual
    positive input? (Was I good? Im smart,
    right?) To next slide

51
If Time Responding to Attempts to Secure
Praise In your groups How would you respond to
each?
  • I put the paper scraps in the trash can.
  • Yep, thats where it goes. Thanks for the
    help.
  • Tyrice cant do it, but I can. OR They
    cant do it and its so easy.
  • How were you able to do it? (Have him/her task
    analyze/delineate the steps/strategies unless
    N.A.) (Then) Would you help Jimmy do it by
    telling him the steps and showing it to him?
  • (after winning a group Family Feud) Were the
    best! Were 1!
  • What are some of the things you did so well that
    made your team so dog-gone good at that game?
  • Did I get them all right?
  • (Use descriptive praise to identify the
    appropriate behaviors and/or use a Sandwich.)

52
Continuing on (another study).
  • All 3 groups were called back to engage in a task
    with a level of difficulty similar to the tasks
    of Phase 1 in which all groups were successful.
  • Were all groups again equal in their performance?
  • The smart kids performance was the worst of
    the 3 groups.
  • The smart kids performed worse than on the
    original easy tasks! (phase 1 of the
    experiment)
  • The kids praised for their effort did the best
    improved their performance over the initial task.

53
Outcomes
  • Those praised for intelligence developed a fixed
    view of it. Youve either got it or you
    dont.
  • Those praised for effort developed a flexible
    view of intelligence. Its like a muscle.
    Exercise it and it will get stronger.
    T
  • Similar results were obtained in her research
    with kindergarten students praised for being
    smart or good (Behavior).

54
Flexible versus Fixed Views of Intelligence.
  • Research in highly selective colleges revealed
    the same results as in the public schools. AND
    with regard to African American students in
    particular
  • (Blackwell) Life Sciences Magnet School (East
    Harlem). 2 groups
  • Group 1 8 session workshop teaching study skills
  • Group 2 Same as above module on how the brain
    grows neurons when challenged.
  • Teachers were able to identify students from each
    group
  • Grades motivation improved in latter group.
  • (Aronson Fried, 1998) Ones view of
    intelligence can be changed! Minority students
    were shown a movie of changes that take place in
    the brain every time one exerts effort. Then
    they were told about the relationship between
    effort and intelligence.
  • This group went on to earn significantly higher
    grades than the control group.
  • 1Drawbck

55
  • Theres one drawback to focusing solely on the
    putting forth of effort. What might it be?
  • Effort wont improve performance if students
    dont have the necessary prerequisites
    supports.
  • We must teach the skills, information,
    knowledge that bring benefits from effort.
  • But promoting effort helps them learn the
    prereqs!
  • Each part supports the other.

56
Teaching Kids to be value challenge, exert
effort, and become Smart Good
  • (In your groups) What are some skills and talents
    that we can teach, and then prompt/praise, in
    order to promote a flexible view of who they are
    and can be? (academically and behaviorally
    speaking) (3 min)
  • Study strategies, Organizational skills
  • Concentration
  • Steps followed, Approach, Plan of attack
  • Being creative (Brainstorming 100 uses for
    brick)
  • Use of role-played social skills, anger
    management skills, tolerant (re)actions, etc.
  • Persistence flexible persistence (going to
    Plan B when first attempts dont work)
  • Facts, rules, mneumonic devices
  • Use of assistive technology .

57
Withhold the Verbal Rubber Stamp
  • Avoid assigning labels, even positive ones
  • Great actor
  • Nice girl and other ones youve heard like?
  • Phenomenal speller
  • Talented artist
  • Super athlete
  • Wonderful reader
  • Great helper
  • Instead, describe the ACTIONS that deserve
    positive recognition.
  • Let kids (re)label themselves if they wish to
    do so.

58
Examples
  • Excellent prediction, Farrah. You had to be
    listening closely to be so detailed in describing
    what you thought might happen next.
  • Lamont, Im impressed with how you went to the
    glossary to find definitions.
  • Hey. Jackson. Cmere. I gotta tell ya Im
    really impressed with your decision to return to
    class after the fire drill when others took off
    for the hills. It takes a lot of self-control
    and maturity to make these types of responsible
    choices. Give yourself a pat on the back after
    you get one from me.

59
Self Recognition ( self-praise)
  • Place the onus on the youngster Have the student
    identify the appropriate actions that should be
    or were displayed.
  • When the time comes to present your powerpoint
    session to the class, what things are you going
    to remember to do? (Prepping the student for
    success)
  • Im a happy teacher when I look at this project.
    Why?
  • I just saw you do something that made you look
    very mature and responsible. Did you notice it
    too?
  • You can be very proud of yourself right now. Why
    do you think I say that?
  • Have them further delineate statements such as I
    gave the right answer. or I did what I was
    supposed to do., etc.

60

Effective Praise
  • DESCRIBES the
  • actions that were demonstrated
  • thought processes used
  • approach taken to address the issue.
  • Focuses on EFFORT PROGRESS.
  • Better behavior grades follow.
  • However, well still focus on what got them to
    that point
  • persistence hard work. toon

61
  • Avoid saying Good or its vague nebulous
    variations (Nice job. Great.) in isolation.
  • Be specific. Give details. Elaborate on what
    you mean by
  • Good.
  • Adele Faber Elaine Mazlich (1995, Summer).
    Praise that doesnt demean, criticism that
    doesnt wound. American Educator, 19(2), 33-38
  • Toon

62
  • Avoid labels and generalities that offer little,
    if any, helpful feedback on ones performance.
  • How would you improve on the statement in the
    final frame?
  • Adele Faber Elaine Mazlich (1995, Summer).
    Praise that doesnt demean, criticism that
    doesnt wound. American Educator, 19(2), 33-38

63
Say What You See
  • I like the way that you
  • Ooh. The (noun) is very (adjective).
  • Youre a wonderful writer. becomes
  • This piece is so colorful and captivating. The
    passages bring vivid images to mind. Thats
    because now youre adding a wide variety of
    adverbs and adjectives. One other thing
  • let me compliment you on creating
  • some very imaginative situations.
  • (Positive YOU statement describing what has
    been accomplished).

64
Finally!! A complete homework assignment with a
heading!! Which praise is most likely to
motivate?
  • Lets see Theres a complete heading, all
    questions have been answered. Thanks Jackie.
    Im looking forward to reading it tonight.
  • Holy Moly! My heart! (Teacher clasps hands over
    heart and puts a shocked look on her face,
    followed by a sunshine smile). Its been quite a
    while since Ive seen one of these from you, and
    its great to see that youve finally turned the
    corner and are submitting homework again.
  • Alright Cooper! Every answer is correct. Lets
    give you credit in the grade book right away.
    Youve got the smarts, so I expect an assignment
    every day now.
  • Alright, Jackie! (Mr. K. gives a high five to
    the student, and a smile appears on her face).
    This is one good looking paper you just
    submitted. Youre a smart kid. Keep em coming,
    and you just might see that passing grade.

65
Beyond Recognition to Application
  • Select one (or more) of the statements from the
    projected list (next slide). Write your
    revision(s).
  • Be sure to follow your rephrasings with
    encouragement or statements that show your faith
    in the youngster.
  • Waiting for the others to finish? If so, think
    of a label that youve given to another (or think
    of a label that was assigned to you as a child...
    chatterbox, smart, pretty, bossy,
    irresponsible, silly, angel, clumsy,
    fast).
  • If the label was positive, rephrase it to point
    out the actions that were pleasing.
  • If the label expressed displeasure, describe the
    desired actions that should have been displayed.
    Click

66
Imagine the situations in which these vague You
are labeling comments were uttered. Rephrase
them by describing specific actions or results
that created those impressions.
Youre a wonderful artist, T.K. Youre
finally getting your head on straight. Youre
a great swimmer/cheerleader/etc. Gee golly.
Youre one phenomenal teacher. Personal labels
and suggested changes?
67
Huh? What?
  • When youre watching your wording, also slow
    down your rate of speech.
  • Adults speak at 170 words per minute
  • 5 - 7 year olds process speech at 120 words...
  • (Mr. Rogers practiced speaking at 124 words)
  • Average high schooler processes at 140-145
  • Imagine teacher explaining new concept
  • Do we create learning behavior problems by
    talking faster than we can be understood?

68
Sending NotesA. Reminders from non-human
sourcesB. Stick-ups
69
  • Cute Reminders from things that couldnt possibly
    have written them. 36

70
Reminders
  • A student teacher finds a youngster failing to
    write in her log for the third day in a row
  • Please give me a rest. signed Your
    Tongue.
  • I miss you. signed Your Seat.
  • Your challenge Think of students who frequently
    engage in particular actions (or fail to engage
    in desired actions). Devise a humorous note for
    use when you return to the classroom. Feel free
    to work with a partner.

71
This is a Good Place for a Stick-Up
  • Hector, please turn to page 14 and answer the
    first four questions.
  • I aint openin up your stupid book. This stuff
    is baby crap.

72
Public Image
  • Public message This stuff is uninteresting or
    far below my ability. Therefore I refuse to do
    it.
  • Hidden message This stuff is way too hard for
    me. I dont have the skills to do it well. Its
    reminding me of my frailties and confronting me
    with another failure experience (or
    mind-exhausting work). Its threatening my
    private and public image.
  • CHOICES Bad vs. Dumb.

73
If You Detect That a Youngster Needs Assistance
  • Continue to teach the lesson
  • (while moving slowly toward the student).
  • As you teach, write on a post-it note
    Do you want (not need) help?
  • Keep walking,but look back at some point.
  • Watch for a Yes or No cue.
  • If Yes, write another note
  • From me or another student?

74
Choices
  • More time? Click here
  • Time to go? Click here

75
  • Just one more note .
  • GO HOME!
  • SOON
  • Please wait a few minutes
  • as we finalize things.

76
Problem Solving Gordons 6 (1)
  • Identify the problem (already done early in your
    get-together)
  • Brainstorm solutions
  • Discuss benefits problems inherent in each
  • Select one for use
  • Role play its use (The 1) (Addition by McIntyre)
  • Place it into practice (perhaps with surprise
    quizzes)
  • Meet again to evaluate the outcome tweak.
  • Return to Gayle
  • Next slide How to model it

77
Model use of the Knowledgevia Problem Solving
  • Arrange for the two of you to be in the same area
    pretend to have a problem similar to that of
    the student.
  • Teacher Ooh no. No. No. No.
  • Student Whats wrong?
  • Teacher Oh, Ive been given an order by my
    supervisor that I dont want to follow because
  • -I think its the wrong way to do things.
  • -I dont like the way I was told to do it.
  • -I dont think that I have the skill to do it
    well.
  • -Im not in the mood for this sort of thing right
    now.
  • (Use the reason(s) that are recurrent for the
    often-defiant kid.)

78
Providing Limited Acceptable(to you) CHOICES.
  • BOTTOM OF THE BARREL (The Do it or else
    format)
  • Youve got a choice Do it now or head down
    to the office.
  • Do you choose to follow my direction or do you
    choose to lose recess?
  • Most kids dont need this pushy approach.
  • It incites defiant oppositional kids.
  • Hein emer

79
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80
Choices
  • BETTER
  • (Pleasant voice some time/distance provided)
  • Would you like to complete the assignment now or
    later today? I have a 3 oclock and a 315
    appointment open. Take a minute and let me know
    what you decide. (Teacher moves away)
  • If you prefer to do it later, it can be during
    lunch or after school. However, if youd like to
    do it now, I can help you get started. After I
    answer Corettas question, Ill be back to hear
    what youve decided.

81
Choices
  • BEST (In respectful phrasing, offer
    options for completing the task/direction)
  • After a refusal to serve on the clean up crew
  • As a member of this weeks clean-up crew, you
    play an important part in our team effort to keep
    our classroom worthy of us. Which vital role
    would you like to play? Sweeper, wiper,
    organizer, table captain, supply checker, or
    supervisor?

82
Optional Activity
  • With colleagues or by yourself,
  • Seetheres a choice!
  • think of an activity, routine, event, practice,
    or realistic situation in which you could offer
    multiple options in order to promote student
    motivation to participate.
  • Feel free to outline, list, semantically map, or
    Venn diagram your thoughts.
  • Choices!
  • Unacceptable choices sleep, read paper, sneak
    out, imagining me gone, etc.
  • OR... If too much choice is overwhelming

83
(No Transcript)
84
  • A student fails to begin writing in his/her
    journal as is the daily routine. When you ask
    What do you need to be doing right now? (Our
    next strategy Questioning) s/he states
  • Im not in the mood to write in my log today.
  • Instead of Start writing or Im going to write
    an F in my grade book., think of some novel
    ways of completing the writing task that would be
    acceptable to you.
  • List various options for the
  • Instrument used to make marks on paper
  • Form
  • Content .

85
Acceptable (to me) Choices
  • Would you like to use
  • My green pen?
  • My red pen?
  • A felt tip marker?
  • The computer before printing it out?
  • The marker youve been using to write graffiti
    all over the lockers?
  • A pencil to sketch a drawing that illustrates an
    important happening from the last 24 hours?
    (Then request a title short description.)
  • The feather that I dip into your blood if you
    dont get to work IMMEDIATELY!

86
  • Remember those notes? Ive got one more
  • GO HOME!
  • SOON
  • Please wait a few minutes
  • as we finalize things.

87
Excellent Resources Full of Tips for Reaching
Teaching (presently)Non-Motivated Students
  • http//tep.uoregon.edu/resources/faqs/motivatingst
    udents/motivating.html
  • http//www.vanderbilt.edu/cft/resources/teaching_r
    esources/interactions/motivating.htm
  • http//www.behavioradvisor.com/Motivation.html

88
(Groups) Write examples of contraindicated praise
(with regard to a students behavior).
  • Grades/Perfection Focused solely on level of
    performance.
  • Unearned - Praising substandard performance
  • Effuse - Lavish praise for a non-demanding
    accomplishment
  • Faint - Praise that hints at past problems.
  • Controlling Praise followed by Keep doing it.
  • Then revise each to be more productive
  • Descriptive
  • Focused on effort and progress
  • Focused on the thought processes used
  • Sandwiched around criticism Glad2CatchIf

89
Whole Class Off-Task
  • Motivational sayings If you fall off a cliff,
    you might as well try to fly. Youve got
    nothing to lose.
  • Open slam doors
  • And these pages found on BehaviorAdvisor.com
  • Positive peer pressure
  • Group self-monitoring for privilege
  • Managing the behavior of groups
  • Managing Behavior with teaching style
  • Circle of Courage
  • Motivation

90
Intro
  • Ideas presented here to boost student motivation
    all stem from a single assumption People are
    most likely to learn when they are fully engaged
    interested in the learning task.
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