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Are Those Who Bring Work Home Really Working Longer Hours Implications for BLS Productivity Measures

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Who is bringing work home from the workplace and why? ... Business is conducted from home. 0.56. 0.59. Finish or catch up on work. 2004. 2001 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Are Those Who Bring Work Home Really Working Longer Hours Implications for BLS Productivity Measures


1
Are Those Who Bring Work Home Really Working
Longer Hours? Implications for BLS Productivity
Measures
  • Lucy P. Eldridge
  • Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the
policies of the BLS
2
Labor Productivity Growth
  • Output Growth - Hours Worked Growth
  • Quarterly labor productivity for major sectors
    (principal federal economic indicator)
  • Industry labor productivity
  • International comparisons of labor productivity
    in manufacturing for 15 countries

3
Questions
  • Who is bringing work home from the workplace and
    why?
  • Do workers who bring work home work longer hours
    than those who only work in the workplace?
  • Does the BLS nonfarm business sector labor
    productivity measure capture work brought home
    from the workplace?

4
Sources of Work at Home Data
  • American Time Use Survey (ATUS)
  • May CPS Supplement on Work Schedules and Work at
    Home (CPS Supplement)

5
American Time Use Survey (ATUS)
  • 2003 - 2006 time-use daily diaries
  • Hours worked constructed using minutes for main
    job, by location
  • Restrict sample to nonfarm business sector
    employees who work on their diary day

6
ATUS Bring Work Home Variable
  • Weekday diary day
  • Report any minutes of work for their main job at
    the workplace and at home on the same day
  • Weekend/holiday diary day
  • Report any minutes of work at home

7
May CPS Supplement Work Schedules and Work at
Home(CPS Supplement)
  • 1997, 2001 and 2004
  • All respondents from the May CPS are asked
    supplement questions
  • Questions about work schedules and work at home

8
CPS Supplement Bring Work Home Variable
  • As part of this job do you do any of your work
    at home?
  • Do you have a formal arrangement with your
    employer to be paid for the work that you do at
    home or were you just taking work home from the
    job?

9
Percent of Nonfarm Business Employees, by Work
Location
10
Who is bringing work home?
  • Estimate a multinomial logit model
  • Compare those who bring work home with
  • those who work exclusively at the workplace
    (ATUS)
  • those who do no work at home
  • (CPS Supplement)

11
Who is bringing work home?Demographic
characteristics
  • Black employees are less likely than white
    employees
  • Hispanic employees are less likely than
    non-Hispanic employees
  • Highly-educated employees are more likely than
    less-educated employees
  • Female employees are less likely than male
    employees (except 2001 CPS Supplement)
  • Older employees are more likely than younger
    employees (CPS Supplement)

12
Who is bringing work home? Parental Status
  • Parents of young children are more likely than
    those without children
  • Mothers of infants are less likely than fathers
    of infants (CPS Supplement)

13
Reasons for Working at Home Proportion of
Nonfarm Business Employees Who Bring Work Home,
(CPS Supplement)
14
Do those who bring work home work longer hours?
(ATUS diary hours)
15
Do those who bring work home work longer hours?
(ATUS diary hours)
16
Do those who bring work home work longer hours?
(ATUS diary hours)
17
Do those who bring work home work longer hours?
(ATUS diary hours)
18
Do those who bring work home work longer hours?
(ATUS) Average weekly
hours (AWH)
19
Do those who bring work home work longer hours?
(CPS Supplement) Average
weekly hours (AWH)
20
BLS Hours Worked for all Persons in the Nonfarm
Business Sector
  • Primary of source of hours data is the Current
    Employment Statistics (CES) survey
  • Supplement with other information where CES data
    are lacking, most importantly
  • Estimate nonproduction/supervisory worker hours
    using a ratio from the Current Population Survey
    (CPS) by major industry groups
  • Convert CES hours-paid to an hours-at-work basis
    using National Compensation Survey (NCS)
  • Add hours for self-employed, government
    enterprise, and unpaid family workers from CPS

21
Share of Nonfarm Business Sector Hours and
Employment, by Type of Worker 2004
  • Hours Worked
    Employment
  • Production/Nonsupervisory Employees
  • Nonproduction/Supervisory Employees
  • Nonemployees

22
Does the BLS nonfarm business labor productivity
measure capture work brought home?
  • Estimate percent of unmeasured hours for
    production/nonsupervisory employees and
    nonproduction/supervisory employees separately
  • Assume that hours worked at workplace are
    measured
  • Assume hourly workers are less likely to do
    unpaid work at home than salaried workers
  • Assume that CPS respondents include hours worked
    at home in their reported AWH

23
Hours worked for Production/ Nonsupervisory
Employees
  • Measured hours
  • Unmeasured hours

24
Percent of Unmeasured Hours Worked for
Production/Nonsupervisory Employees

25
Percent of Unmeasured Hours for
Production/Nonsupervisory Employees in Nonfarm
Business Sector
26
Percent of Unmeasured Hours for
Production/Nonsupervisory Employees in Nonfarm
Business Sector
27
Percent of Unmeasured Hours for
Production/Nonsupervisory Employees in Nonfarm
Business Sector
28
Hours worked for Nonproduction/ Supervisory
Employees
  • Measured hours
  • Percent of unmeasured hours assuming hours at
    home are reported accurately in CPS AWH

29
Percent of Unmeasured Hours for Employees in
Nonfarm Business Sector
30
Does the BLS nonfarm business labor productivity
measure capture work brought home?
  • What if those who bring work home are not able to
    accurately recall work at home in average weekly
    hours reported to the CPS?

31
Hours worked for Nonproduction/ Supervisory
Employees (Reporting bias)
  • Measured hours
  • Percent of unmeasured hours assuming reporting
    bias

32
Percent of Unmeasured Employee Hours in the
Nonfarm Business Sector (Reporting Bias) (ATUS)
33
Percent of Unmeasured Employee Hours in the
Nonfarm Business Sector (Reporting Bias) (ATUS)
34
Does BLS nonfarm business productivity capture
unpaid work at home?
  • An adjusted hours series (levels) for all persons
    that captures work from home, will be
    approximately 0.6 1.1 higher than official
    series
  • An adjusted hours series (levels) for all persons
    that captures work from home, will be
    approximately 0.8 1.1 higher than official
    series (reporting bias)

35
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36
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38
Conclusions
  • 8-9 of nonfarm business employees brought some
    of their work home ( 1997 2006)
  • Employees tend to bring work home in order to
    finish or catch up on work not completed in the
    workplace
  • Evidence suggest employees bring work home at
    least in part to better balance work and family
  • Highly-educated workers are more likely to bring
    work home than less-educated work

39
Conclusions
  • Those who bring work home work longer hours than
    those who work exclusively in a workplace
  • There may be a 0.6-1.1 downward bias in measured
    hours levels
  • Unmeasured hours worked at home have little
    affect on productivity trends

40
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41
ATUS/CPS Supplement Match 2004
  • 745 nonfarm business employees
  • 93 brought work home (CPS Supplement)
  • 45 brought work home on weekday(ATUS)
  • Only 21 ever work at home in CPS Supplement
  • 45 brought work home on weekend(ATUS)
  • 69 did not have a formal arrangement to be paid
    for work at home in the CPS Supplement

42
Hours worked for Production/ Nonsupervisory
Employees (Reporting bias)
  • Measured hours
  • Percent of unmeasured hours
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