Session 8: Local Reading of Images of Global Popular Culture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Session 8: Local Reading of Images of Global Popular Culture


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Session 8Local Reading of Images of Global
Popular Culture
  • February 27th
  • 1100 am - 1245 pm

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Paper prepared for theInternational Conference
on East-West Identities Globalisation,
Localisation and Hybridisation
  • February 26th and 27th, 2004
  • Hong Kong Baptist University

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Todd Joseph Miles Holden
  • Professor of Mediated Sociology
  • Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
    (GSICS)
  • Tohoku University
  • Sendai, Japan

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  • Global Career and National Identity

developing theory, studying Japan
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An Opening Vignette
  • Not five years ago a commercial appeared on
    Japanese television depicting sumo rikishi
    Wakanohana with a swarm of young boys seeking to
    push him from the ring.

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An Opening Vignette
  • Just this past year, ads have featured soccer
    star Shinji Ono and baseball sensation Ichiro
    Suzuki
  • similarly, with kids,
  • but set in foreign locales or with foreign
    cultural themes.

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Applied to this Paper
  • This simple comparison of advertisements captures
    a phenomenon at the heart of this research

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Applied to this Paper
  • Issues of
  • Globality
  • Identity
  • Mediation
  • Societal Change

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Related to the themes of this conference
  • Ichiro and Ono reflect the flow of goods
  • between Japan and western countries
  • what I have referred to elsewhere as sports
    exports
  • these exports have provided the occasion for the
    re-import of information and practices back
    into Japan
  • such activity provides the basis for potential if
    not actual melding of east and west

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Related to the themes of this conference
  • Reflexively, such flow has brought new awareness
    of and ways for discoursing about the concepts of
    I, we and they.
  • Whereas Japanese may once have engaged in
    identity discourse by recourse to domestic
    symbols, this is now not exclusively or even
    primarily the case
  • Often, now, local identity is communicated by
    reference to exogenous referents.

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Related to the themes of this conference
  • This reflects a sea-change of sorts in the matter
    of Japanese identity
  • From gaijin complex (Christopher 1984) -- in
    which inferiority dogged nearly all contact with
    the west
  • To Japanese who speak Dutch and conquer foreign
    leagues
  • Becoming equal (or even superior) to westerners.

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Related to the themes of this conference
  • The concept of what a Japanese is (embodied in
    these ads as male, athlete, achiever) appears
    also to have undergone some change.
  • How identity is presented is less in terms of
    indigenous and traditional terms
  • more in terms of exogenous and popular forms.
  • Also, one sees the key role of popular cultural
    artifacts (such as soccer or baseball) and
    contemporary media (such as ads) in filtering (or
    mediating) these new senses of identity.

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Related to the themes of this conference
  • Finally, discourse about differences between east
    and west is often localized
  • often in recombinant or hybridized form.

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Related to the themes of this conference
  • A major thread of domestic discussion the
    cultural difference in the orientation of
    athletes and fans toward sports in America and
    Japan.
  • cultural differences now make their way into news
    and ads
  • foreign-based athletes are depicted smiling,
    relaxing, actually playing as they perform their
    sports abroad
  • So, too, though are cultural similarities -- and
    areas of consonance and accord -- emphasized

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A Paper of Concepts
  • Globalidentity
  • Global Career
  • Historical Stages
  • Exports and Imports
  • By specifiable units of analysis
  • Within identifiable sectors
  • Resource Mix
  • Mediated Identity

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Globalidentity
  • Here I fuse the words global and identity
  • An indexical sign
  • A signification
  • Indicating the way that ideas, practices and
    people associated with the global (and its
    doppelganger, the local) bear on discourse about
    identity

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Theorizing Identity
  • Globalidentity itself is the result of what I
    have elsewhere called mediated identity
  • Ways in which discourse about self and nation are
    filtered through specific media products.
  • A discursive formation increasingly engaged by
    and exerting influence over globalization.

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Theorizing Globalization
  • Global Career
  • Every country possesses its own unique global
    signature (or profile)
  • based on its individualized history of
    local/global encounters
  • across a range of analytic units and societal
    sectors

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Terms
  • units -- globalization may touch a geographic
    region differently than it does only one nation
    or any particular social group
  • sectors -- globalization manifests itself
    differently depending on which of the traditional
    domains of sociological analysis it touches
  • political, economic, social, cultural and moral

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Factors Influencing Career
  • Every nations career differs depending on an
    array of factors present in the context.
  • Including
  • ethnic composition
  • cultural history
  • religious practices
  • technological development
  • political structure
  • economic system
  • resource mix

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A Simple Comparison
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Globalization Footprints
  • Differ based on the various mix of these factors
  • As between 2 countries
  • Also as between 2 epochs for the same country

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A Simple Comparison
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Footprints by Epoch
  • Thus, for instance, America and Japan have both
    manifested career stages in which they were
    quiescent (or isolated) and active
    (expansionist).
  • Japan was (locally) quiescent pre-Meiji, then
    (globally) active between 1865 and 1945
  • America has gone through numerous bouts with
    local quiescence and global activity.

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Flow
  • Career stages are also marked (and dictated) by
    export and import
  • The goods or services (or engagements) entering
    or leaving the context are variously identifiable
    as
  • Economic
  • Political
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Environmental

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Flow by Epoch
  • Thus, for instance
  • 1. Japan may have evinced a politically-influenced
    career stage in the 1930s and 1940s
  • Defined by militarism and economic gain through
    aggrandizement
  • 2. The career stage of the 1960s and 1970s was
    almost purely economic
  • Exported manufactured goods
  • Propped up by favorable political/administrative
    policies
  • 3. The 1990s and 2000s reflect a very different
    career stage
  • One based on cultural exports (films, animation,
    books, movies, sports)

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Applications to JapanInformation Flow
  • Japans current stage of globalization can be
    called sport export/media re-import
  • domestic athletes are global economic/cultural
    exports
  • But in the hands of news and entertainment media,
    they are reimported

This text serves various purposes
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Applications to JapanCultural Knowledge
  • Re-imports work as vehicles for the transmission
    of foreign cultural beliefs and practices into
    Japan

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Applications to JapanNihon-centrism
  • Indigenous media treat these fruits of
    globalization as moral and political text.

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Applications to JapanIdentity Discourse
  • The result of Japans current stage in its global
    career is a disquisition on identity.

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Applications to JapanIdentity Discourse
  • Nearly all media accounts of Japans athletic
    exports work to place Japan in the world of
    nations

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East meets West
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East Centered in the West
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Nihonjinron
  • So, too, do they elaborate the true nature of
    Japan and the hidden meaning of Japaneseness
  • the result of implicit clashes (and contrasts)
    between Japan and the West

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Past Approaches (to Globalization)
  • The Sectoral Approach
  • Wallerstein (1976) highly influential view of
    globalization as a world economic system
  • Giddens (1990) viewed globalization primarily in
    terms of four institutional dimensions
  • generally reduced to the political
  • and economic, as well
  • Eades (2000) saw social and cultural elements
  • followed Hannerz (1992) and Watson (1997)
  • globalization should be viewed as the movement of
    people, practices and cultural products across
    space

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The Recognition of Context
  • Appadurai (1992) served to move discussion from
    macro conceptions to micro scale.
  • Milieu or locality was seen as often
    important in how globalization was expressed and
    experienced

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The Invention of Scapes
  • Five scapes could serve as analytic axes around
    which globalization could be better viewed.
  • These included
  • Ethnicity
  • Finance
  • Ideology
  • Technology
  • Media

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Employing Scapes as Analytic Tools
  • Scapes provide researchers with a comparative
    device
  • A convenient, immediately fathomable tool
  • Which can demonstrate the great differences (and
    similarities) engendered in various countries by
    globalization

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A concrete example finanscape, Japan and U.S.
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A concrete example Technoscape, Japan and U.S.
It is not the case that these countries are
always in a synergistic, inverse relationship
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Synthesizing (theoretical) Approaches
  • Globalization may touch a geographic region
    differently than it does only one nation or any
    particular social group
  • Example soccer World Cup 2002
  • The first World Cup held in Asia
  • Not all Asian nations experienced the same
    effects on identity
  • Viet Nam (a non-participant) certainly
    experienced less interest than Japan (a host)
  • Japan (a host) less fervor than South Korea (a
    host AND semi-finalist).
  • Another semi-finalist (U.S.) was far less
    interested than South Korea.

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Synthesizing Approaches
  • Globalization may touch various sectors (in any
    one society) differently
  • Example TV in Japan
  • The Crown Princes wedding in 1959 spurred
    domestic TV sales
  • It led to the creation of complicated nation-wide
    commercial networks
  • As a system of communication it binds a nation
  • often through overt identity discourse
  • or by providing the substance for a uniform
    national conversation
  • Removed in time from the initial
    political-cultural stimulus, the globalization
    of TV as a form of domestic communication has
    experienced more benign cultural outcomes
  • It has served to produce an empire of leisure
    a society devoted to entertainment, relaxation
    and play.

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The Importance of Time
  • A subtlety in Appadurais work
  • generally only implied in his provocative
    examples
  • If we conceive of the 5 scapes as akin to roads
    or vessels that cut across and feed a lived
    context, then we should ask
  • Are each of these roads traversed in equal
    measure?
  • Are they probed to the same degree?
  • Are they explored identically from context to
    context?
  • Or are they expressed within any one context from
    historical moment to historical moment?

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The Implications of Time
  • The answer is obvious
  • Japans profile of globalization regarding
    finance looks very different than its ethnic
    profile, which is different still from its media
    profile
  • Example
  • Cultural globalization Oshin (1983) to Pokemon
    and Sailor Moon (1990s)
  • Ethnic globalization migration to the U.S, from
    1886 to 1924

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Historical Conclusions
  • Globalization footprints for any one country
    will often differ from epoch to epoch.
  • None of these signatures are necessarily if
    ever equally expressed
  • in the various sectors of society or scapes
  • Nor are they identical in character
  • Or contemporaneous when they appear

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Inflow and Outflowthe concept of
directionality
  • Globalization operates via flow of goods, ideas,
    practices (and the like) INTO and OUT OF a given
    context

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Inflow and OutflowThe example of Japan and
Malaysia
  • Malaysia, a country rich in natural resources,
    was invaded and occupied by Japan during the war
    years
  • Japans global career in the 1970s and 80s was
    marked by exogenous (economic) flow
  • By contrast, until the 1990s, Malaysias global
    career was a local affair
  • local production and consumption of durables to
    stimulate local growth
  • the reception of foreign industries whose goods
    could be assembled locally
  • This history of global (Japanese) outflow and
    local (Malaysian) inflow marks the respective
    global careers of these two countries
  • Such global in- and out- flow, so distinct from
    each other, exerts differential, impacts on each
    nations global profile

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Inflow and OutflowThe example of Japanese
cultural appropriation
  • This process applies (in reverse) when studying
    Japans history of absorbing and adopting western
    style
  • From Meiji to the Post-War era, there were cycles
    of avidly importing and consuming western
    manners, clothing, interiors, and popular culture
    (see Tobin et al., 1992)
  • Caveat 1 considerable indigenization also
    occurred
  • Caveat 2 by the 1980s a considerable outward
    flow of Japanese cultural products was making its
    way into Asia followed by flow to the west in
    the 1990s

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Concluding about flowImport, Export and
Episodes
  • Flow manifests itself as economic, political,
    social, cultural, or environmental
  • sometimes in combination
  • When flow enters from the outside, it can be
    thought of as global import
  • When flow emanates from a country and enters
    another, foreign, context, it can be thought of
    as global export
  • When incidents of flow occur they can be called
    episodes
  • When episodes occur in great enough measure to
    suggest a trend, the apparent phenomenon can be
    thought of as constituting a stage in the focal
    countrys globalization career

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In Sum
  • An adequate conceptualization of globalization
  • Foregrounds the concept of career
  • An individual history
  • One that is comprised of distinct stages
  • These stages relate to episodes of global contact
  • Characterized, in the first instance, by
    directionality
  • i.e. as phenomena associated with inflow or
    outflow
  • These phenomena are expressed (and the episodes
    best perceivable) by viewing particular aspects
    of society
  • Traditionally viewed in terms of sectors
  • More recently scapes
  • I suggest key factors, including
  • ethnic composition
  • cultural history
  • religious practices
  • technological development
  • political structure
  • economic system
  • resource mix

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Whats Next
  • I seek to show the utility of this mode of
    analysis by exploring the global career of one
    particular country, Japan.
  • I focus on ways that global career connects with
    issues of identity
  • above all, national identity.

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Befu on Globalization
  • Befu has argued that there are 3 distinct periods
    to Japans globalization
  • pre-Tokugawa
  • mid-19th century through 1945
  • the period following the Pacific War
  • He terms this Nikkei
  • Defined as those who moved away from Japan and
    resided or reside outside Japan and their
    descendants

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Period 1 Pre-Tokugawa
  • From the 15th century to 17th centuries Japanese
    patrolled the coasts of China and Southeast Asia
  • as pirates and merchants
  • establishing "Japan towns" abroad
  • This era came to end by governmental fiat

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Period 2 Mid-19th Century to WWII
  • This era was marked by Japanese emigration by the
    millions to
  • Hawaii
  • North and South America
  • East and Southeast Asia
  • Oceania
  • This period of diaspora was brought to a close
    with the conclusion of the Pacific War in 1945

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Period 3 Post-War Diaspora
  • The third period started soon after the end of
    the war and continues to the present
  • According to Befu, it is characterized by 8
    distinct categories of diaspora

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8 Diasporic Types
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Alternate Conceptualizations
  • As considered earlier, a fuller accounting of any
    countrys globalization would consider inward, as
    well as outward, flow.
  • We can think in terms of cultural, political,
    social and economic processes.
  • A global signature will include
  • goods and services
  • political structures and ideas
  • social groups
  • cultural ideas and practices

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Japans Global Outflow
  • Japan has experienced moments of export as far
    back as the early third century, when diplomats
    ventured to China.
  • export was (political and cultural) information
  • Militarizers ventured to what is now the Korean
    peninsula in the late fourth century, seeking to
    exert dominion
  • More diplomacy ensued, with missions to China in
    the seventh century and then to Europe in 1613
  • During the Meiji period (1867-1912) the
    government sent numerous scholars and leaders to
    foreign countries on fact-finding missions.
  • This period of hyper-consumption of the West
    resulted in the appropriation of everything from
    postal systems and irrigation projects to goods
    and culture, both high and low
  • Then the militarists fought with China in 1894
    and Russia in 1904
  • They moved to occupied China in the 1920s
  • The next bout of outward-reach was in the
    mass-production export-driven era, running from
    the mid 1950s to mid-1980s
  • During the 1970s Japanese fashion designers
    joined international haute couture
  • Beginning in the 1980s cultural exports in music,
    film, animation and books began

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Japan and Inflow
  • Historically, inflow has been more extensive than
    outflow
  • Buddhism came in the 6th century
  • The gun and then Christianity in the middle of
    the 16th century
  • Business from Holland came in the early 17th
    century and Russia in the later stages of the
    17th century
  • The forced opening of Japan by the United States
    transpired in the mid-19th century
  • Once again, the enforced reconstruction by the
    United States following armed conflict between
    the nations

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The Sports Stage of Japans Globalization Career
  • Generally
  • athletic inflow has also been more extensive than
    outflow
  • until establishment of Japan as a global economic
    power, sports outflow was scant.

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The Sports Stage of Japans Global Outflow
  • Waseda Universitys baseball team traveled to
    Americas west coast in 1905
  • Compiled a 7-win 19-loss record against schools
    like Stanford, USC and Washington
  • Participation in the Stockholm Olympics of 1912
  • Took part in the First Far Eastern Championship
    Games held in Manila, in 1913
  • The government first subsidized an international
    sports event at the Fifth Far Eastern Games, held
    in Shanghai, in 1921
  • Japan participated in the Davis Cup in 1921
  • Otherwise, episodes of athletic outflow prior to
    the Pacific War were limited to individual
    efforts
  • American professional baseball in 1914-15
  • Wimbledon in 1934

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Athletic Globalization now a steadily accreting
stream
  • Number of Japanese currently on MLB rosters 11
  • 1995 1
  • 2000 7
  • 2002 15
  • 2004 11 (but with the most position players
    ever four)
  • Number of Japanese currently on European soccer
    rosters 8
  • 1995 0
  • 2000 1
  • 2001 4
  • 2002 7
  • 2004 8

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The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Since about the turn of the (twentieth) century,
    Japan has served as a visitation ground for
    foreign athletic imports
  • In 1908 a team of major league reserves visited
    and won all seventeen games they played against
    Japanese teams
  • A 1931 all-star team featured Lou Gehrig, Lefty
    Grove, Mickey Cochrane and Frankie Frisch.
  • Another visit featured Babe Ruth who drew 75,000
    fans to one game, 65,000 to another he hit 14
    homers in 17 games
  • Two Negro League visits were staged in 1927 and
    1932. Their collective record was 46 wins against
    one loss.
  • In the pre-war years at least 4 foreigners played
    for Japanese teams
  • a Russian won over 300 games in a nineteen year
    career
  • a Hawaiian American won 240 games
  • a Taiwanese became the first foreigner to win a
    batting title in 1942
  • Following the war, Hawaiian Wally Yonamine, a
    nikei, was recruited to help pave the way for
    regular foreign involvement in Japanese baseball.
  • Nearly every year for the past forty years
    foreigners have been featured on Japanese rosters

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The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Over the years, Japan has also served as a site
    for athletic competitions, facilitating the entry
    into Japan of people and practices from beyond
    national borders
  • Tokyo hosted the Third Asian Games in 1958 and
    the Summer Olympics in 1965
  • This was the first Olympics held in Asia
    rightfully a point of pride for Japanese
  • Also the first TV Olympics
  • Subsequent (winter) Olympiads were staged in
    Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998.
  • The former was the first winter games held
    outside of Europe or North America
  • Japan was the site of the World Cup (in 2002)
  • Also numerous international competitions
  • The First Winter Asian Games were convened in
    Sapporo in 1986
  • The Second Winter Games, held in Sapporo, in 1990
  • The Fifth Winter Games, staged in Aomori in 2003
  • The Ninth World Swimming Championships, held in
    Fukuoka in 2001
  • The World Wheelchair Basketball championships, in
    Kitakyushu in 2002
  • The World Cup of Volleyball, in various Japanese
    cities in late 2003
  • Since 2000, ten Japanese cities have hosted
    sixteen international marathons
  • Japan has become a venue for other nations
    professional leagues
  • The National Basketball Association
  • Major League Baseball

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The Import/Export Nexus
  • Certainly, Japans status as an economic power
    has been central in facilitating this import
    phenomenon
  • An example of the crucial role of resource mix
    in a countrys global career.
  • However, the embrace of exogenous content has
    always been a hallmark of Japans global
    signature
  • A habituated response for a society too often
    isolated from the rest of the world, only to
    learn belatedly that it has fallen behind

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Discussion
  • The impacts of this export/re-import chain bear
    on Japanese identity
  • To a great extent this is the result of media
  • In the next section I wish to consider these
    connections

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Domestic Media, Global Content, Local Effects
  • In this stage of globalization, Japanese media
    appear to be serving as a filter
  • conveying and centering the many episodes of
    Japans global involvement
  • To appreciate this, let me resurrect two concepts
    that Giddens (1990) contributed to globalization
    analysis
  • disembedding mechanisms
  • the reflexive appropriation of knowledge

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Disembedding Mechanisms
  • Defined those mechanisms that lift out social
    activity from local contexts, reorganizing social
    relations across large spans of time-space
    (199021)
  • Clearly, Giddens didnt have baseball or soccer
    in mind, but certainly the phenomenon I have been
    discussing embodied in the earlier ads of
    Ichiro and Ono apply.

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Disembedding Mechanisms
  • In a word the global flow of athletes (and their
    re-importation via mediation) brings activities
    from other spaces into our immediate context.
  • The ideas and practices that are normally removed
    from our consciousness and everyday experience
    suddenly materialize for our contemplation
  • Examples include Ono shopping in Holland or
    footballer Takahara riding the subways in Hamburg.

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The Reflexive Appropriation of Knowledge
  • It is the consumer of global flow who is
    challenged to examine his or her social practices
    in light of incoming information.
  • This new information has the ability to
    constitutively alter the character (199038)
    of local social practices and beliefs.

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The Reflexive Appropriation of Knowledge Medias
Role
  • None of this mental work can transpire absent the
    media.
  • Forms of communication must engage in
    surveillance, then select, package and distribute
    information to users.

The production of systematic knowledge about
social life becomes, in Giddens words integral
to system reproduction, rolling social life away
from the fixities of tradition.
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Reflexivity in Japan
  • This production/distribution function is a daily
    media activity in Japan
  • They present an array of redundant mediations
    about domestic athletic exports or foreign
    athletic imports to information consumers
  • The examples are far too numerous to cite
  • But in other work (Forthcoming, 2002, 2003d) I
    have provided many.

73
Mediated Identity
  • To date I have touched little on identity
  • However, the careful listener will apprehend the
    manifold ways that identity ripples through the
    present treatment
  • identity discourse surfaces in the implicit we
    in discourse about Japanese athletes competing in
    foreign leagues
  • Also in the (not so) implicit other in
    discourse about Japanese rivals in exogenous
    sporting cultures

74
The Ubiquity of Mediated Identity
  • This lack in discussing identity is not due to a
    poverty of things to say about it
  • Past empirical work has studied the connections
    between identity discourse and
  • television advertising (Holden 2000)
  • cell phone use (Holden and Tsuruki 2003)
  • web pages (Holden 2003b)
  • fashion (Holden 2003a)
  • Clearly, it is because of the presence and
    routines of media that reflexive processes of
    globalized identity discourse is currently
    transpiring.

75
Mediated Identity and the Discourse of Self
  • The discourse about Japans sports exports is
  • Ubiquitous
  • A saturating mode of discourse
  • Daily re/produced
  • Particularly via news media, but also
    advertising, fan magazines, Internet home pages,
    and television entertainment programs.
  • The cumulative effect of these media re-imports
    is to exert a powerful, transformative pressure
    in contemporary Japanese society
  • By orienting information consumers to a
    globalizing world, contemporary sports mediations
    serve as conduit for communicating to Japanese
    their competence even excellence in the world
    beyond domestic borders
  • Global sports discourse assists Japanese in
    interpreting themselves.

76
GlobalidentitySuccessful Japan
  • This emphasis on how Japanese are successfully
    competing in the larger world of (western,
    global) sport carries a metaphoric power
  • It suggests Japans place and efficacy in the
    world of nations.

77
GlobalidentityAn Adventurous Japan
  • The global world is represented as accessible to
    Japanese no longer impenetrable or daunting as
    it once was
  • The west is becoming demystified, tamed,
    habituated
  • For Japan, another reinvention a new social
    transformation

78
Conclusion
  • In this paper I have sought to outline a theory
    of globalization that seeks to account for
  • Its unevenness in diffusion
  • Its differential expression in the contexts it
    enters
  • The widely diverging ways in which it is
    experienced and treated by human agents and the
    structures they have created

79
From Global CareerTo Globalidentity
  • To do that I argued that all countries possess
    their own global profile -- what I have labeled a
    global career
  • Such careers are modified by any number of
    factors, including ethnic composition, cultural
    history, religious practices, technological
    development, political structure, economic
    system, and resource mix
  • Global careers are also comprised of historical
    stages, which means that the global footprint of
    any given analytic unit may differ from epoch to
    epoch
  • A major influence over the rhythm or character of
    stages is the directionality of global flow
    whether content is imported into or exported by
    the analytic unit
  • Depending on its nature the material associated
    with that flow may be economic, political,
    social, cultural, or environmental

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Concluding About Japan
  • We have seen that
  • the current stage of Japans globalization career
    is defined, above all, by sports exports and
    imports
  • it is a form of diaspora that links nations.
  • Such trends in population movement, however, are
    connected with cultural, social and economic
    imperatives that have transpired both inside and
    outside Japan
  • These include, most notably
  • the advent of professional sport leagues
  • the proliferation of electronic forms of
    communication
  • the steady accretion of leisure time
  • the concomitant ascent of sport as a fixture in
    many national cultures
  • the lessening difficulty of international travel
  • the increased connection between local clubs and
    foreign-based media markets
  • the rise of a global pool of athletes.

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Redounding to Identity
  • This contemporary diasporic flow is having very
    direct, integrative effects back home
  • In the hands of media, the return flow that comes
    in the form of information on television, in
    magazines, books, newspapers, and Internet
    webpages, works to nurture and solidify national,
    group and individual identity
  • In its various incarnations export and
    re/import or import and re/export we encounter
    a phenomenon with significant implications for
    the perception of Japan and Japaneseness, by
    Japanese, as well as by others throughout the
    global community.

82
Thank You for your indulgence and attention
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Globalidentitya new mode of discourse
  • The daily attention accorded to Japans athletes
    in the west appear (in/on)
  • Newspapers
  • T.V. morning and wide shows
  • Evening news programs
  • Advertising
  • Of course, the west is never mentioned, but the
    setting is an implicit venue in which Japans
    cultural representatives toil

84
Globalidentitya new mode of discourse
  • These export/re-imports are regularized and
    repetitive communication vehicles
  • what Hall (1996) calls a discursive formation
  • As is common to much identity discourse, the
    exogenous (the west, the global) is used to
    refract, modify and/or solidify definitions of
    local (to attract or buy viewers)
  • It also re/produces Japanese identity

85
  • The fusion of numerous factors have been central
    to identity formation in contemporary Japan.
    These include
  • human movement
  • economic markets
  • technology in the form of transportation and
    media
  • institutions such as knowledge production and
    consumption
  • Combined they demarcate, clarify and assist
    localized understandings of self.
  • So, too, do they enable the consumption,
    adoption, modification of and/or resistance to
    exogenous (global) elements
  • In the process they communicate to Japanese their
    uniqueness, importance, commonality, unity and
    excellence in the world beyond personal,
    sub-group or national borders.

86
References
  • Appadurai, A. 1992.
  • Befu, H. 2000.
  • --------. 2001.
  • Boddy, W. 1998.
  • Buruma, I. 2003.
  • Christopher, R.C. 1983.
  • Eades, J. 2000.
  • Giddens, A. 1990.
  • Gordon, B. 2000.
  • Hall, S. 1996.
  • Hannerz, U. 1992.

87
References (continued)
  • Holden, T.J.M. 1999.
  • -------------. 2000,
  • -------------. 2002.
  • -------------. 2003a.
  • -------------. 2003b.
  • -------------. 2003c.
  • -------------. Forthcoming.
  • Holden, T.J.M. and Tsuruki, T. 2003.

88
References (continued)
  • Lie, J. 2001.
  • Lull, J. 1995.
  • McLuhan, M. 1995 (1964).
  • McVeigh, B.J. 2002.
  • Nederveen Pieterse, J. 2002.
  • Painter, A.A. 1996.
  • Rosenberger, N. 1992.
  • Stanlaw, J. 1992.
  • Tobin, J.J. (ed.). 1992.
  • Wallerstein, I. 1976.
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Title: Session 8: Local Reading of Images of Global Popular Culture


1
Session 8Local Reading of Images of Global
Popular Culture
  • February 27th
  • 1100 am - 1245 pm

2
Paper prepared for theInternational Conference
on East-West Identities Globalisation,
Localisation and Hybridisation
  • February 26th and 27th, 2004
  • Hong Kong Baptist University

3
Todd Joseph Miles Holden
  • Professor of Mediated Sociology
  • Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
    (GSICS)
  • Tohoku University
  • Sendai, Japan

4
  • Global Career and National Identity

developing theory, studying Japan
5
An Opening Vignette
  • Not five years ago a commercial appeared on
    Japanese television depicting sumo rikishi
    Wakanohana with a swarm of young boys seeking to
    push him from the ring.

6
An Opening Vignette
  • Just this past year, ads have featured soccer
    star Shinji Ono and baseball sensation Ichiro
    Suzuki
  • similarly, with kids,
  • but set in foreign locales or with foreign
    cultural themes.

7
Applied to this Paper
  • This simple comparison of advertisements captures
    a phenomenon at the heart of this research

8
Applied to this Paper
  • Issues of
  • Globality
  • Identity
  • Mediation
  • Societal Change

9
Related to the themes of this conference
  • Ichiro and Ono reflect the flow of goods
  • between Japan and western countries
  • what I have referred to elsewhere as sports
    exports
  • these exports have provided the occasion for the
    re-import of information and practices back
    into Japan
  • such activity provides the basis for potential if
    not actual melding of east and west

10
Related to the themes of this conference
  • Reflexively, such flow has brought new awareness
    of and ways for discoursing about the concepts of
    I, we and they.
  • Whereas Japanese may once have engaged in
    identity discourse by recourse to domestic
    symbols, this is now not exclusively or even
    primarily the case
  • Often, now, local identity is communicated by
    reference to exogenous referents.

11
Related to the themes of this conference
  • This reflects a sea-change of sorts in the matter
    of Japanese identity
  • From gaijin complex (Christopher 1984) -- in
    which inferiority dogged nearly all contact with
    the west
  • To Japanese who speak Dutch and conquer foreign
    leagues
  • Becoming equal (or even superior) to westerners.

12
Related to the themes of this conference
  • The concept of what a Japanese is (embodied in
    these ads as male, athlete, achiever) appears
    also to have undergone some change.
  • How identity is presented is less in terms of
    indigenous and traditional terms
  • more in terms of exogenous and popular forms.
  • Also, one sees the key role of popular cultural
    artifacts (such as soccer or baseball) and
    contemporary media (such as ads) in filtering (or
    mediating) these new senses of identity.

13
Related to the themes of this conference
  • Finally, discourse about differences between east
    and west is often localized
  • often in recombinant or hybridized form.

14
Related to the themes of this conference
  • A major thread of domestic discussion the
    cultural difference in the orientation of
    athletes and fans toward sports in America and
    Japan.
  • cultural differences now make their way into news
    and ads
  • foreign-based athletes are depicted smiling,
    relaxing, actually playing as they perform their
    sports abroad
  • So, too, though are cultural similarities -- and
    areas of consonance and accord -- emphasized

15
A Paper of Concepts
  • Globalidentity
  • Global Career
  • Historical Stages
  • Exports and Imports
  • By specifiable units of analysis
  • Within identifiable sectors
  • Resource Mix
  • Mediated Identity

16
Globalidentity
  • Here I fuse the words global and identity
  • An indexical sign
  • A signification
  • Indicating the way that ideas, practices and
    people associated with the global (and its
    doppelganger, the local) bear on discourse about
    identity

17
Theorizing Identity
  • Globalidentity itself is the result of what I
    have elsewhere called mediated identity
  • Ways in which discourse about self and nation are
    filtered through specific media products.
  • A discursive formation increasingly engaged by
    and exerting influence over globalization.

18
Theorizing Globalization
  • Global Career
  • Every country possesses its own unique global
    signature (or profile)
  • based on its individualized history of
    local/global encounters
  • across a range of analytic units and societal
    sectors

19
Terms
  • units -- globalization may touch a geographic
    region differently than it does only one nation
    or any particular social group
  • sectors -- globalization manifests itself
    differently depending on which of the traditional
    domains of sociological analysis it touches
  • political, economic, social, cultural and moral

20
Factors Influencing Career
  • Every nations career differs depending on an
    array of factors present in the context.
  • Including
  • ethnic composition
  • cultural history
  • religious practices
  • technological development
  • political structure
  • economic system
  • resource mix

21
A Simple Comparison
22
Globalization Footprints
  • Differ based on the various mix of these factors
  • As between 2 countries
  • Also as between 2 epochs for the same country

23
A Simple Comparison
24
Footprints by Epoch
  • Thus, for instance, America and Japan have both
    manifested career stages in which they were
    quiescent (or isolated) and active
    (expansionist).
  • Japan was (locally) quiescent pre-Meiji, then
    (globally) active between 1865 and 1945
  • America has gone through numerous bouts with
    local quiescence and global activity.

25
Flow
  • Career stages are also marked (and dictated) by
    export and import
  • The goods or services (or engagements) entering
    or leaving the context are variously identifiable
    as
  • Economic
  • Political
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Environmental

26
Flow by Epoch
  • Thus, for instance
  • 1. Japan may have evinced a politically-influenced
    career stage in the 1930s and 1940s
  • Defined by militarism and economic gain through
    aggrandizement
  • 2. The career stage of the 1960s and 1970s was
    almost purely economic
  • Exported manufactured goods
  • Propped up by favorable political/administrative
    policies
  • 3. The 1990s and 2000s reflect a very different
    career stage
  • One based on cultural exports (films, animation,
    books, movies, sports)

27
Applications to JapanInformation Flow
  • Japans current stage of globalization can be
    called sport export/media re-import
  • domestic athletes are global economic/cultural
    exports
  • But in the hands of news and entertainment media,
    they are reimported

This text serves various purposes
28
Applications to JapanCultural Knowledge
  • Re-imports work as vehicles for the transmission
    of foreign cultural beliefs and practices into
    Japan

29
Applications to JapanNihon-centrism
  • Indigenous media treat these fruits of
    globalization as moral and political text.

30
Applications to JapanIdentity Discourse
  • The result of Japans current stage in its global
    career is a disquisition on identity.

31
Applications to JapanIdentity Discourse
  • Nearly all media accounts of Japans athletic
    exports work to place Japan in the world of
    nations

32
East meets West
33
East Centered in the West
34
Nihonjinron
  • So, too, do they elaborate the true nature of
    Japan and the hidden meaning of Japaneseness
  • the result of implicit clashes (and contrasts)
    between Japan and the West

35
Past Approaches (to Globalization)
  • The Sectoral Approach
  • Wallerstein (1976) highly influential view of
    globalization as a world economic system
  • Giddens (1990) viewed globalization primarily in
    terms of four institutional dimensions
  • generally reduced to the political
  • and economic, as well
  • Eades (2000) saw social and cultural elements
  • followed Hannerz (1992) and Watson (1997)
  • globalization should be viewed as the movement of
    people, practices and cultural products across
    space

36
The Recognition of Context
  • Appadurai (1992) served to move discussion from
    macro conceptions to micro scale.
  • Milieu or locality was seen as often
    important in how globalization was expressed and
    experienced

37
The Invention of Scapes
  • Five scapes could serve as analytic axes around
    which globalization could be better viewed.
  • These included
  • Ethnicity
  • Finance
  • Ideology
  • Technology
  • Media

38
Employing Scapes as Analytic Tools
  • Scapes provide researchers with a comparative
    device
  • A convenient, immediately fathomable tool
  • Which can demonstrate the great differences (and
    similarities) engendered in various countries by
    globalization

39
A concrete example finanscape, Japan and U.S.
40
A concrete example Technoscape, Japan and U.S.
It is not the case that these countries are
always in a synergistic, inverse relationship
41
Synthesizing (theoretical) Approaches
  • Globalization may touch a geographic region
    differently than it does only one nation or any
    particular social group
  • Example soccer World Cup 2002
  • The first World Cup held in Asia
  • Not all Asian nations experienced the same
    effects on identity
  • Viet Nam (a non-participant) certainly
    experienced less interest than Japan (a host)
  • Japan (a host) less fervor than South Korea (a
    host AND semi-finalist).
  • Another semi-finalist (U.S.) was far less
    interested than South Korea.

42
Synthesizing Approaches
  • Globalization may touch various sectors (in any
    one society) differently
  • Example TV in Japan
  • The Crown Princes wedding in 1959 spurred
    domestic TV sales
  • It led to the creation of complicated nation-wide
    commercial networks
  • As a system of communication it binds a nation
  • often through overt identity discourse
  • or by providing the substance for a uniform
    national conversation
  • Removed in time from the initial
    political-cultural stimulus, the globalization
    of TV as a form of domestic communication has
    experienced more benign cultural outcomes
  • It has served to produce an empire of leisure
    a society devoted to entertainment, relaxation
    and play.

43
The Importance of Time
  • A subtlety in Appadurais work
  • generally only implied in his provocative
    examples
  • If we conceive of the 5 scapes as akin to roads
    or vessels that cut across and feed a lived
    context, then we should ask
  • Are each of these roads traversed in equal
    measure?
  • Are they probed to the same degree?
  • Are they explored identically from context to
    context?
  • Or are they expressed within any one context from
    historical moment to historical moment?

44
The Implications of Time
  • The answer is obvious
  • Japans profile of globalization regarding
    finance looks very different than its ethnic
    profile, which is different still from its media
    profile
  • Example
  • Cultural globalization Oshin (1983) to Pokemon
    and Sailor Moon (1990s)
  • Ethnic globalization migration to the U.S, from
    1886 to 1924

45
Historical Conclusions
  • Globalization footprints for any one country
    will often differ from epoch to epoch.
  • None of these signatures are necessarily if
    ever equally expressed
  • in the various sectors of society or scapes
  • Nor are they identical in character
  • Or contemporaneous when they appear

46
Inflow and Outflowthe concept of
directionality
  • Globalization operates via flow of goods, ideas,
    practices (and the like) INTO and OUT OF a given
    context

47
Inflow and OutflowThe example of Japan and
Malaysia
  • Malaysia, a country rich in natural resources,
    was invaded and occupied by Japan during the war
    years
  • Japans global career in the 1970s and 80s was
    marked by exogenous (economic) flow
  • By contrast, until the 1990s, Malaysias global
    career was a local affair
  • local production and consumption of durables to
    stimulate local growth
  • the reception of foreign industries whose goods
    could be assembled locally
  • This history of global (Japanese) outflow and
    local (Malaysian) inflow marks the respective
    global careers of these two countries
  • Such global in- and out- flow, so distinct from
    each other, exerts differential, impacts on each
    nations global profile

48
Inflow and OutflowThe example of Japanese
cultural appropriation
  • This process applies (in reverse) when studying
    Japans history of absorbing and adopting western
    style
  • From Meiji to the Post-War era, there were cycles
    of avidly importing and consuming western
    manners, clothing, interiors, and popular culture
    (see Tobin et al., 1992)
  • Caveat 1 considerable indigenization also
    occurred
  • Caveat 2 by the 1980s a considerable outward
    flow of Japanese cultural products was making its
    way into Asia followed by flow to the west in
    the 1990s

49
Concluding about flowImport, Export and
Episodes
  • Flow manifests itself as economic, political,
    social, cultural, or environmental
  • sometimes in combination
  • When flow enters from the outside, it can be
    thought of as global import
  • When flow emanates from a country and enters
    another, foreign, context, it can be thought of
    as global export
  • When incidents of flow occur they can be called
    episodes
  • When episodes occur in great enough measure to
    suggest a trend, the apparent phenomenon can be
    thought of as constituting a stage in the focal
    countrys globalization career

50
In Sum
  • An adequate conceptualization of globalization
  • Foregrounds the concept of career
  • An individual history
  • One that is comprised of distinct stages
  • These stages relate to episodes of global contact
  • Characterized, in the first instance, by
    directionality
  • i.e. as phenomena associated with inflow or
    outflow
  • These phenomena are expressed (and the episodes
    best perceivable) by viewing particular aspects
    of society
  • Traditionally viewed in terms of sectors
  • More recently scapes
  • I suggest key factors, including
  • ethnic composition
  • cultural history
  • religious practices
  • technological development
  • political structure
  • economic system
  • resource mix

51
Whats Next
  • I seek to show the utility of this mode of
    analysis by exploring the global career of one
    particular country, Japan.
  • I focus on ways that global career connects with
    issues of identity
  • above all, national identity.

52
Befu on Globalization
  • Befu has argued that there are 3 distinct periods
    to Japans globalization
  • pre-Tokugawa
  • mid-19th century through 1945
  • the period following the Pacific War
  • He terms this Nikkei
  • Defined as those who moved away from Japan and
    resided or reside outside Japan and their
    descendants

53
Period 1 Pre-Tokugawa
  • From the 15th century to 17th centuries Japanese
    patrolled the coasts of China and Southeast Asia
  • as pirates and merchants
  • establishing "Japan towns" abroad
  • This era came to end by governmental fiat

54
Period 2 Mid-19th Century to WWII
  • This era was marked by Japanese emigration by the
    millions to
  • Hawaii
  • North and South America
  • East and Southeast Asia
  • Oceania
  • This period of diaspora was brought to a close
    with the conclusion of the Pacific War in 1945

55
Period 3 Post-War Diaspora
  • The third period started soon after the end of
    the war and continues to the present
  • According to Befu, it is characterized by 8
    distinct categories of diaspora

56
8 Diasporic Types
57
Alternate Conceptualizations
  • As considered earlier, a fuller accounting of any
    countrys globalization would consider inward, as
    well as outward, flow.
  • We can think in terms of cultural, political,
    social and economic processes.
  • A global signature will include
  • goods and services
  • political structures and ideas
  • social groups
  • cultural ideas and practices

58
Japans Global Outflow
  • Japan has experienced moments of export as far
    back as the early third century, when diplomats
    ventured to China.
  • export was (political and cultural) information
  • Militarizers ventured to what is now the Korean
    peninsula in the late fourth century, seeking to
    exert dominion
  • More diplomacy ensued, with missions to China in
    the seventh century and then to Europe in 1613
  • During the Meiji period (1867-1912) the
    government sent numerous scholars and leaders to
    foreign countries on fact-finding missions.
  • This period of hyper-consumption of the West
    resulted in the appropriation of everything from
    postal systems and irrigation projects to goods
    and culture, both high and low
  • Then the militarists fought with China in 1894
    and Russia in 1904
  • They moved to occupied China in the 1920s
  • The next bout of outward-reach was in the
    mass-production export-driven era, running from
    the mid 1950s to mid-1980s
  • During the 1970s Japanese fashion designers
    joined international haute couture
  • Beginning in the 1980s cultural exports in music,
    film, animation and books began

59
Japan and Inflow
  • Historically, inflow has been more extensive than
    outflow
  • Buddhism came in the 6th century
  • The gun and then Christianity in the middle of
    the 16th century
  • Business from Holland came in the early 17th
    century and Russia in the later stages of the
    17th century
  • The forced opening of Japan by the United States
    transpired in the mid-19th century
  • Once again, the enforced reconstruction by the
    United States following armed conflict between
    the nations

60
The Sports Stage of Japans Globalization Career
  • Generally
  • athletic inflow has also been more extensive than
    outflow
  • until establishment of Japan as a global economic
    power, sports outflow was scant.

61
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Outflow
  • Waseda Universitys baseball team traveled to
    Americas west coast in 1905
  • Compiled a 7-win 19-loss record against schools
    like Stanford, USC and Washington
  • Participation in the Stockholm Olympics of 1912
  • Took part in the First Far Eastern Championship
    Games held in Manila, in 1913
  • The government first subsidized an international
    sports event at the Fifth Far Eastern Games, held
    in Shanghai, in 1921
  • Japan participated in the Davis Cup in 1921
  • Otherwise, episodes of athletic outflow prior to
    the Pacific War were limited to individual
    efforts
  • American professional baseball in 1914-15
  • Wimbledon in 1934

62
Athletic Globalization now a steadily accreting
stream
  • Number of Japanese currently on MLB rosters 11
  • 1995 1
  • 2000 7
  • 2002 15
  • 2004 11 (but with the most position players
    ever four)
  • Number of Japanese currently on European soccer
    rosters 8
  • 1995 0
  • 2000 1
  • 2001 4
  • 2002 7
  • 2004 8

63
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Since about the turn of the (twentieth) century,
    Japan has served as a visitation ground for
    foreign athletic imports
  • In 1908 a team of major league reserves visited
    and won all seventeen games they played against
    Japanese teams
  • A 1931 all-star team featured Lou Gehrig, Lefty
    Grove, Mickey Cochrane and Frankie Frisch.
  • Another visit featured Babe Ruth who drew 75,000
    fans to one game, 65,000 to another he hit 14
    homers in 17 games
  • Two Negro League visits were staged in 1927 and
    1932. Their collective record was 46 wins against
    one loss.
  • In the pre-war years at least 4 foreigners played
    for Japanese teams
  • a Russian won over 300 games in a nineteen year
    career
  • a Hawaiian American won 240 games
  • a Taiwanese became the first foreigner to win a
    batting title in 1942
  • Following the war, Hawaiian Wally Yonamine, a
    nikei, was recruited to help pave the way for
    regular foreign involvement in Japanese baseball.
  • Nearly every year for the past forty years
    foreigners have been featured on Japanese rosters

64
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Over the years, Japan has also served as a site
    for athletic competitions, facilitating the entry
    into Japan of people and practices from beyond
    national borders
  • Tokyo hosted the Third Asian Games in 1958 and
    the Summer Olympics in 1965
  • This was the first Olympics held in Asia
    rightfully a point of pride for Japanese
  • Also the first TV Olympics
  • Subsequent (winter) Olympiads were staged in
    Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998.
  • The former was the first winter games held
    outside of Europe or North America
  • Japan was the site of the World Cup (in 2002)
  • Also numerous international competitions
  • The First Winter Asian Games were convened in
    Sapporo in 1986
  • The Second Winter Games, held in Sapporo, in 1990
  • The Fifth Winter Games, staged in Aomori in 2003
  • The Ninth World Swimming Championships, held in
    Fukuoka in 2001
  • The World Wheelchair Basketball championships, in
    Kitakyushu in 2002
  • The World Cup of Volleyball, in various Japanese
    cities in late 2003
  • Since 2000, ten Japanese cities have hosted
    sixteen international marathons
  • Japan has become a venue for other nations
    professional leagues
  • The National Basketball Association
  • Major League Baseball

65
The Import/Export Nexus
  • Certainly, Japans status as an economic power
    has been central in facilitating this import
    phenomenon
  • An example of the crucial role of resource mix
    in a countrys global career.
  • However, the embrace of exogenous content has
    always been a hallmark of Japans global
    signature
  • A habituated response for a society too often
    isolated from the rest of the world, only to
    learn belatedly that it has fallen behind

66
Discussion
  • The impacts of this export/re-import chain bear
    on Japanese identity
  • To a great extent this is the result of media
  • In the next section I wish to consider these
    connections

67
Domestic Media, Global Content, Local Effects
  • In this stage of globalization, Japanese media
    appear to be serving as a filter
  • conveying and centering the many episodes of
    Japans global involvement
  • To appreciate this, let me resurrect two concepts
    that Giddens (1990) contributed to globalization
    analysis
  • disembedding mechanisms
  • the reflexive appropriation of knowledge

68
Disembedding Mechanisms
  • Defined those mechanisms that lift out social
    activity from local contexts, reorganizing social
    relations across large spans of time-space
    (199021)
  • Clearly, Giddens didnt have baseball or soccer
    in mind, but certainly the phenomenon I have been
    discussing embodied in the earlier ads of
    Ichiro and Ono apply.

69
Disembedding Mechanisms
  • In a word the global flow of athletes (and their
    re-importation via mediation) brings activities
    from other spaces into our immediate context.
  • The ideas and practices that are normally removed
    from our consciousness and everyday experience
    suddenly materialize for our contemplation
  • Examples include Ono shopping in Holland or
    footballer Takahara riding the subways in Hamburg.

70
The Reflexive Appropriation of Knowledge
  • It is the consumer of global flow who is
    challenged to examine his or her social practices
    in light of incoming information.
  • This new information has the ability to
    constitutively alter the character (199038)
    of local social practices and beliefs.

71
The Reflexive Appropriation of Knowledge Medias
Role
  • None of this mental work can transpire absent the
    media.
  • Forms of communication must engage in
    surveillance, then select, package and distribute
    information to users.

The production of systematic knowledge about
social life becomes, in Giddens words integral
to system reproduction, rolling social life away
from the fixities of tradition.
72
Reflexivity in Japan
  • This production/distribution function is a daily
    media activity in Japan
  • They present an array of redundant mediations
    about domestic athletic exports or foreign
    athletic imports to information consumers
  • The examples are far too numerous to cite
  • But in other work (Forthcoming, 2002, 2003d) I
    have provided many.

73
Mediated Identity
  • To date I have touched little on identity
  • However, the careful listener will apprehend the
    manifold ways that identity ripples through the
    present treatment
  • identity discourse surfaces in the implicit we
    in discourse about Japanese athletes competing in
    foreign leagues
  • Also in the (not so) implicit other in
    discourse about Japanese rivals in exogenous
    sporting cultures

74
The Ubiquity of Mediated Identity
  • This lack in discussing identity is not due to a
    poverty of things to say about it
  • Past empirical work has studied the connections
    between identity discourse and
  • television advertising (Holden 2000)
  • cell phone use (Holden and Tsuruki 2003)
  • web pages (Holden 2003b)
  • fashion (Holden 2003a)
  • Clearly, it is because of the presence and
    routines of media that reflexive processes of
    globalized identity discourse is currently
    transpiring.

75
Mediated Identity and the Discourse of Self
  • The discourse about Japans sports exports is
  • Ubiquitous
  • A saturating mode of discourse
  • Daily re/produced
  • Particularly via news media, but also
    advertising, fan magazines, Internet home pages,
    and television entertainment programs.
  • The cumulative effect of these media re-imports
    is to exert a powerful, transformative pressure
    in contemporary Japanese society
  • By orienting information consumers to a
    globalizing world, contemporary sports mediations
    serve as conduit for communicating to Japanese
    their competence even excellence in the world
    beyond domestic borders
  • Global sports discourse assists Japanese in
    interpreting themselves.

76
GlobalidentitySuccessful Japan
  • This emphasis on how Japanese are successfully
    competing in the larger world of (western,
    global) sport carries a metaphoric power
  • It suggests Japans place and efficacy in the
    world of nations.

77
GlobalidentityAn Adventurous Japan
  • The global world is represented as accessible to
    Japanese no longer impenetrable or daunting as
    it once was
  • The west is becoming demystified, tamed,
    habituated
  • For Japan, another reinvention a new social
    transformation

78
Conclusion
  • In this paper I have sought to outline a theory
    of globalization that seeks to account for
  • Its unevenness in diffusion
  • Its differential expression in the contexts it
    enters
  • The widely diverging ways in which it is
    experienced and treated by human agents and the
    structures they have created

79
From Global CareerTo Globalidentity
  • To do that I argued that all countries possess
    their own global profile -- what I have labeled a
    global career
  • Such careers are modified by any number of
    factors, including ethnic composition, cultural
    history, religious practices, technological
    development, political structure, economic
    system, and resource mix
  • Global careers are also comprised of historical
    stages, which means that the global footprint of
    any given analytic unit may differ from epoch to
    epoch
  • A major influence over the rhythm or character of
    stages is the directionality of global flow
    whether content is imported into or exported by
    the analytic unit
  • Depending on its nature the material associated
    with that flow may be economic, political,
    social, cultural, or environmental

80
Concluding About Japan
  • We have seen that
  • the current stage of Japans globalization career
    is defined, above all, by sports exports and
    imports
  • it is a form of diaspora that links nations.
  • Such trends in population movement, however, are
    connected with cultural, social and economic
    imperatives that have transpired both inside and
    outside Japan
  • These include, most notably
  • the advent of professional sport leagues
  • the proliferation of electronic forms of
    communication
  • the steady accretion of leisure time
  • the concomitant ascent of sport as a fixture in
    many national cultures
  • the lessening difficulty of international travel
  • the increased connection between local clubs and
    foreign-based media markets
  • the rise of a global pool of athletes.

81
Redounding to Identity
  • This contemporary diasporic flow is having very
    direct, integrative effects back home
  • In the hands of media, the return flow that comes
    in the form of information on television, in
    magazines, books, newspapers, and Internet
    webpages, works to nurture and solidify national,
    group and individual identity
  • In its various incarnations export and
    re/import or import and re/export we encounter
    a phenomenon with significant implications for
    the perception of Japan and Japaneseness, by
    Japanese, as well as by others throughout the
    global community.

82
Thank You for your indulgence and attention
83
Globalidentitya new mode of discourse
  • The daily attention accorded to Japans athletes
    in the west appear (in/on)
  • Newspapers
  • T.V. morning and wide shows
  • Evening news programs
  • Advertising
  • Of course, the west is never mentioned, but the
    setting is an implicit venue in which Japans
    cultural representatives toil

84
Globalidentitya new mode of discourse
  • These export/re-imports are regularized and
    repetitive communication vehicles
  • what Hall (1996) calls a discursive formation
  • As is common to much identity discourse, the
    exogenous (the west, the global) is used to
    refract, modify and/or solidify definitions of
    local (to attract or buy viewers)
  • It also re/produces Japanese identity

85
  • The fusion of numerous factors have been central
    to identity formation in contemporary Japan.
    These include
  • human movement
  • economic markets
  • technology in the form of transportation and
    media
  • institutions such as knowledge production and
    consumption
  • Combined they demarcate, clarify and assist
    localized understandings of self.
  • So, too, do they enable the consumption,
    adoption, modification of and/or resistance to
    exogenous (global) elements
  • In the process they communicate to Japanese their
    uniqueness, importance, commonality, unity and
    excellence in the world beyond personal,
    sub-group or national borders.

86
References
  • Appadurai, A. 1992.
  • Befu, H. 2000.
  • --------. 2001.
  • Boddy, W. 1998.
  • Buruma, I. 2003.
  • Christopher, R.C. 1983.
  • Eades, J. 2000.
  • Giddens, A. 1990.
  • Gordon, B. 2000.
  • Hall, S. 1996.
  • Hannerz, U. 1992.

87
References (continued)
  • Holden, T.J.M. 1999.
  • -------------. 2000,
  • -------------. 2002.
  • -------------. 2003a.
  • -------------. 2003b.
  • -------------. 2003c.
  • -------------. Forthcoming.
  • Holden, T.J.M. and Tsuruki, T. 2003.

88
References (continued)
  • Lie, J. 2001.
  • Lull, J. 1995.
  • McLuhan, M. 1995 (1964).
  • McVeigh, B.J. 2002.
  • Nederveen Pieterse, J. 2002.
  • Painter, A.A. 1996.
  • Rosenberger, N. 1992.
  • Stanlaw, J. 1992.
  • Tobin, J.J. (ed.). 1992.
  • Wallerstein, I. 1976.
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