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Christopher Columbus

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Christopher Columbus. Christopher Columbus was an Italian sailor from Genoa. ... which used heavenly bodies such as the sun, moon and stars to determine latitude. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Christopher Columbus


1
Christopher Columbus
2
Christopher Columbus was an Italian sailor from
Genoa.
The Portuguese were trying to reach India by
sailing around Africa. Columbus believed he
could reach India faster by sailing west from
Europe across the Atlantic Ocean.
3
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Christopher Columbus was an Italian sailor from
Genoa.
The Portuguese were trying to reach India by
sailing around Africa. Columbus believed he
could reach India faster by sailing west from
Europe across the Atlantic Ocean.
Columbus based his plan on the information of
Marco Polo. He wrote of a land called Cipango
(modern-day Japan). He wrote that this land was
1,500 miles away from Asia. It is actually only
500 miles from mainland Asia.
Columbus misjudged the distance to Asia for two
reasons. First he accepted Marco Polos wrong
1,500-mile figure. Second, he miscalculated the
size of the world. He believed it was smaller it
actually is. Based on these misjudgments he
thought the distance from Europe to Asia was
3,000 miles rather than the 12,000 miles it
actually is.
5
Columbus first attempted to obtain funding for
his voyage from Portugal, and was rejected. They
believed Columbus had misjudged the distance to
Asia.
Next Columbus sought funding from Spain. The
monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, consented to
fund his expedition. They funded Columbus in
order to attempt to keep up with Portugal who was
getting closer to reaching India by sailing
around Africa.
Ferdinand and Isabella ruled Spain together.
Their marriage united Spain. Ferdinand was from
the kingdom of Aragon. Isabella was from the
kingdom of Castile. When they married Aragon and
Castile united and formed most of present-day
Spain.
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Unified, Spain could now complete the
Reconquista, or reconquest that was begun 700
years earlier. This was the recapturing of Spain
by Spanish Christians to drive the Muslims or
Moors out. In 1492, the Moorish stronghold of
Granada in southern Spain fell, and the
Reconquista was complete.
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Unified, Spain could now complete the
Reconquista, or reconquest that was begun 700
years earlier. This was the recapturing of Spain
by Spanish Christians to drive the Muslims or
Moors out. In 1492, the Moorish stronghold of
Granada in southern Spain fell, and the
Reconquista was complete.
With the Reconquista complete, Spain could now
focus on sea exploration.
Columbus was given a crew of 90 men and three
ships, The Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.
10
Pinta
Santa Maria
Nina
11
Unified, Spain could now complete the
Reconquista, or reconquest that was begun 700
years earlier. This was the recapturing of Spain
by Spanish Christians to drive the Muslims or
Moors out. In 1492, the Moorish stronghold of
Granada in southern Spain fell, and the
Reconquista was complete.
With the Reconquista complete, Spain could now
focus on sea exploration.
Columbus was given a crew of 90 men and three
ships, The Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.
Columbus sailed form Palos, Spain to the Canary
Islands. He then sailed westward into the open
seas.
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Unified, Spain could now complete the
Reconquista, or reconquest that was begun 700
years earlier. This was the recapturing of Spain
by Spanish Christians to drive the Muslims or
Moors out. In 1492, the Moorish stronghold of
Granada in southern Spain fell, and the
Reconquista was complete.
With the Reconquista complete, Spain could now
focus on sea exploration.
Columbus was given a crew of 90 men and three
ships, The Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.
Columbus sailed form Palos, Spain to the Canary
Islands. He then sailed westward into the open
seas.
Columbus primary means of navigation was Dead
Reckoning, in which a sailor used the speed, time
traveled, and direction to determine position.
14
Columbus also used a new form of navigation
developed by the Portuguese called Celestial
Navigation which used heavenly bodies such as the
sun, moon and stars to determine latitude.
15
In celestial navigation, a quadrant was used.
The navigator would find a star and align the
star along the top of the quadrant. A weighted
string indicated the number of degrees above the
horizon the star was. Using this information,
the navigator can calculate his latitude.
Quadrant
16
Columbus also used a new form of navigation
developed by the Portuguese called Celestial
Navigation which used heavenly bodies such as the
sun, moon and stars to determine latitude.
At this time there was no reliable way of
determining longitude.
At sea, Columbus kept two diaries. One contained
the actual distance his fleet had traveled. The
other kept a false record in which he
underestimated the distance traveled. He did
this because he feared that it would cause fear
in his men to know they were so far from home.
Columbus had reason to fear his men. On several
occasions his crew was near mutiny, or rebellion.
After 70 days at sea and 2,400 miles traveled
land was spotted.
17
Columbus made landfall on an Island he called San
Salvador, or Holy Savior, in the present-day
Bahamas. Columbus believed he had found India.
Columbus then explored other islands in search of
Cipango. He found the islands of Cuba and
Hispaniola.
On Christmas Eve, the Santa Maria ran aground and
Columbus started a colony there, which he called
La Navidad. He then returned to Spain with the
Nina and Pinta.
Columbus returned to Spain with news that he had
reached India. He also brought back many items
he had found on his voyage including six Native
Americans.
Columbus returned to America three more times.
He started several colonies and explored the
Islands of the Caribbean Sea and the northern
coast of South America.
18
In his later voyages he never found the same
success he found in his first voyage. Columbus
was made governor of the colony of Santo Domingo,
but was later replaced and arrested. Many of the
honors he had received were stripped from him.
Columbus and died without knowing he had
discovered the New World of the Americas.
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