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Unit II TISSUES

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Title: Unit II TISSUES


1
Unit II TISSUES
Biology 220 Anatomy Physiology I
  • Chapter 4
  • pp. 114-143

http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/index.html h
ttp//medicine.creighton.edu/medschool/VideoAtlas/
Cart.202620Bone20Tissue20source/webstuff/Fibr
ocartiage203.html
E. Gorski/ E. Lathrop-Davis/S. Kabrhel
2
Definitions and Types
  • Group of cells with similar origin and function
  • 4 types
  • Epithelial tissues cover surfaces, line
    cavities, form secretory parts of glands
  • Connective tissues connect other tissues
    support, protect transport (blood) insulate
    (fat)
  • Muscle tissues movement
  • Nervous tissue coordinates activities by
    recognizing and responding to stimuli (changes in
    environment) transfer information

3
Epithelial Tissues
  • Features
  • Closely packed cells with little extracellular
    matrix
  • Not innervated (receptors found in connective
    tissue underlying them)
  • Highly able to regenerate (mitotic cell division)
  • Avascular (no blood vessels blood supplied by
    underlying connective tissue)
  • Polarized
  • Cells joined by cell junctions

4
Epithelial Tissues Polarity
Lumen
http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/epi/c_24.html
5
Cell Junctions
  • Desmosomes
  • aka. anchoring junctions
  • loose connections
  • help maintain integrity of epithelial tissue
  • allow materials to pass between cells
  • Tight junctions
  • tight seals between cells prevent movement of
    substances between cells

Fig. 3.4, p. 71
Gap Junctions - allow transfer of chemicals
including ions from one cell to another adjacent
cell important to communications between some
neurons
6
Classification of Epithelial Tissues
Based on number of layers
shape of cells
Fig. 4.1, p. 116
7
Types of Epithelial Tissues
  • Simple Tissues
  • Simple Squamous
  • Simple Cuboidal
  • Simple Columnar
  • Pseudostratified Columnar
  • Stratified Tissues
  • Stratified Squamous
  • Stratified Columnar
  • Stratified Cuboidal
  • Transitional

8
Simple Epithelial Tissues
  • Simple squamous epithelium
  • Filtration, exchange of materials, secretion
  • Locations
  • kidneys (glomerulus filtration of solutes from
    blood)
  • lungs (alveoli exchange of gases between blood
    and air)
  • endothelium (lining of blood and lymphatic
    vessels, heart)
  • mesothelium (serous membranes of ventral body
    cavity)

http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/epi/c_3.html
9
Simple Epithelial Tissues
  • Simple cuboidal epithelium
  • Secretion and absorption
  • kidneys (controllable change of materials between
    blood and urine)
  • glands (secrete chemicals into ducts or blood)

http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/epi/d_9.html
  • Modifications
  • Cilia (movement of materials e.g., uterine
    tubes)
  • Microvilli (increase surface area for absorption
    small intestine)
  • Goblet cells (secrete mucous lubrication)

http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/epi/d_14.html
10
Simple Epithelial Tissues
  • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  • secretion
  • all cells rest on basement membrane, but nuclei
    at different levels give the appearance of being
    multilayered
  • cilia (respiratory system -- moves mucus upward)
  • goblet cells (respiratory system -- secrete mucus
    that traps airborne particles)

11
Stratified Epithelial Tissues
Defined by the shape of the outer cells
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • protection against abrasion
  • Keratinized (epidermis of skin)
  • contains keratin (water-proof protein) that
    protects against water loss
  • Non-keratinized (mouth, esophagus, vagina, anus)
  • lacks keratin water may be lost across these
    surfaces

http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/epi/d_29.html
12
Stratified Epithelial Tissues
13
Transitional Epithelium
http//neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campbell/epith
elium/wp_frame.htm
14
Connective Tissues (CT)
  • Features
  • generally, well-innervated and highly vascular
    (except cartilage)
  • consist of relatively few cells embedded in large
    amount of extracellular (outside the cell) matrix
  • each type of CT has its own associated cell
    type(s) and matrix

15
Connective Tissues (CT)
  • Classification
  • is based on structure (type of matrix ground
    substance, type and amount of fibers and cells)
    and function
  • cells each CT group has its own associated cell
    type(s)
  • -blast mitotically active (produce new cells
    e.g., fibroblasts, osteoblasts)
  • -cyte mature cell (e.g., adipocytes,
    osteocytes)
  • all connective tissues arise from an embryonic
    form called mesenchyme

16
Connective Tissues Matrix
  • Matrix consists of ground substance and fibers
  • Ground substance thick (generally), amorphous
    (undefined structure), non-staining interstitial
    fluid (generally) consistency varies from
    rock-hard (bone) to watery fluid (plasma)
  • Fibers -- proteins of differing structure (and
    function)
  • collagenous -- most abundant strong resists
    pulling tension composed of thick strands of
    collagen
  • reticular -- fine strands of collagen forming
    continuous network around blood vessels, soft
    organs, basement membrane
  • elastic -- consists of elastin stretch and
    recoil without breakage found in skin, lungs,
    blood vessels

17
Connective Tissues
  • Types of connective tissues
  • Connective tissue proper
  • A. Loose connective tissue
  • - areolar, adipose, reticular
  • B. Dense connective tissue
  • - dense regular, dense irregular
  • Cartilage
  • A. Hyaline cartilage
  • B. Elastic cartilage
  • C. Fibrocartilage
  • Bone
  • Blood

18
Connective Tissue Proper
  • Two subclasses A. Loose connective tissues
  • B. Dense connective tissues
  • Defined by
  • fiber content varies with type of tissue
  • ground substance hyaluronic acid
    (hyaluronidase - enzyme)
  • classification depends on type, amount,
    orientation of fibers
  • A. Loose CTs
  • Areolar CT
  • all three types of fibers
  • fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells
  • water and solute reservoir
  • associated with most epithelial membranes
  • forms lamina propria of mucous membranes
  • forms papillary layer of dermis

19
Connective Tissue Proper A. Loose CTs (cont)
20
Connective Tissue Proper B. Dense CTs
Provide strength and elasticity
21
Connective Tissue Proper B. Dense CTs (cont)
  • Dense Irregular CT
  • fibers irregularly arranged
  • resists tension in many directions
  • lower dermis, perichondrium, periosteum, and
    fibrous capsules around some organs (kidneys,
    testes, heart fibrous pericardium

22
Cartilage
  • Features
  • avascular
  • perichondrium dense irregular CT surrounding
    cartilage supplies blood (brings
    nutrients/oxygen, removes wastes)
  • lack innervation
  • cells chondroblasts (during cartilage
    formation) and chondrocytes (mature) found in
    openings called lacunae (lacuna)
  • Types
  • A. Hyaline Cartilage
  • B. Elastic Cartilage
  • C. Fibrocartilage

23
Cartilage A. Hyaline
  • most abundant
  • collagen fibers make it strong, yet pliable
    (fibers not visible)
  • tip of nose, trachea, epiphyseal plate (growing
    bone), much of the fetal skeleton, articular
    cartilage

24
Cartilage B. Elastic Cartilage and C.
Fibrocartilage
25
Cartilage Comparison
  • Two types of cartilage are seen here what are
    they?

http//medicine.creighton.edu/medschool/VideoAtlas
/Cart.202620Bone20Tissue20source/webstuff/Fib
rocartiage203.html
26
Blood
  • Features
  • cells cell fragments (suspended in liquid
    matrix plasma)
  • leukocytes white blood cells WBCs
  • erythrocytes red blood cells RBCs and
  • platelets (cell fragments)
  • contains solutes (ions, nutrients, wastes) and
    suspended substances (e.g., large proteins)
  • fights disease (WBCs)
  • transports substances (e.g., nutrients, wastes,
    hormones, respiratory gasses)

27
Bone
  • forms the skeletal system (along with cartilage)
  • Functions
  • provides support,
  • leverage for movement (muscle attachment),
  • protection,
  • hemopoiesis ( hematopoiesis) blood cell
    formation
  • Features
  • cells in hard matrix (calcium and magnesium
    carbonate and phosphate salts) collagen fibers
    and other proteins
  • Types
  • spongy bone (plates of bone called trabeculae)
  • compact bone
  • based on osteon (formerly Haversian system)

28
Compact Bone
http//medicine.creighton.edu/medschool/VideoAtlas
/Cart.202620Bone20Tissue20source/webstuff/Den
se20Bone20Hav20Sys203.html
29
Muscle Tissue
  • Features
  • high rate of metabolic activity when active
  • highly vascular (needs good supply of oxygen and
    nutrients when active)
  • structure specialized for contraction to produce
    movement of body parts (including movement of
    materials through tubes)
  • cells muscle fibers
  • Types
  • A. Skeletal
  • B. Cardiac
  • C. Smooth

30
Muscle Tissue A. Skeletal Muscle
  • attached to bones
  • movement of skeleton voluntary control of
    sphincters
  • striated (banding pattern), voluntary,
    multinucleate (develops from union of cells)

31
Skeletal Muscle/Tendon Comparison
  • Compare the skeletal muscle (m) with the tendon
    (t) tendon is composed of dense regular CT

http//www.usc.edu/hsc/dental/ghisto/musc/c_15.htm
l
32
Muscle Tissue B. Cardiac Muscle
33
Muscle Tissue C. Smooth Muscle
  • no visible striations, involuntary, uninucleate
  • walls of hollow organs, including blood vessels

34
Nervous Tissue
  • Features
  • specialized for recognizing environmental changes
    (stimuli receptors sensory function)
  • integrates sensory inputs and motor outputs
  • controls motor outputs (muscle contraction,
    glandular secretion

35
Nervous Tissue
36
Epithelial Membranes
  • Features
  • Consist of epithelial tissue and CT
  • Three types
  • A. Serous Membranes
  • B. Cutaneous Membrane
  • C. Mucous Membranes

37
Epithelial Membranes A. Serous Membranes
  • Consist of simple squamous epithelium
    (mesothelium) areolar CT
  • Secrete serous fluid (lubricates to prevent
    friction and allow freer movement)
  • Line ventral body cavity (except pelvic cavity)
  • parietal layer - lines wall of cavity
  • visceral layer - overlies organs

38
A. Serous Membranes (cont)
  • Three ventral body cavities with a serosa
  • pericardium surrounds and covers heart
  • pleura overlies lungs and line thoracic cavity
  • peritoneum lines abdominal cavity and covers
    organs
  • Inflammation of serosa due to irritation and/or
    disease
  • in pleural cavity (pleurisy)
  • in abdominal cavity (peritonitis)
  • in pericardium (pericarditis)

39
Epithelial Membranes B. Cutaneous Membrane
  • forms skin
  • consists of
  • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    (epidermis)
  • connective tissue (dermis)
  • areolar CT papillary layer, and
  • dense irregular CT reticular layer)

40
Epithelial Membranes C. Mucous Membranes
  • line body cavities open to the outside (digestive
    tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract,
    urinary tract)
  • mostly non-keratinized stratified squamous
    epithelium (or stratified columnar) or simple
    columnar (absorptive areas of gut)
  • wet membranes (bathed in secretions-mucus,
    urine)
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