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CANARIE Gigabit Internet to every citizen of Catalunya

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Title: CANARIE Gigabit Internet to every citizen of Catalunya


1
CANARIE Gigabit Internet to every citizen
of Catalunya
  • http//www.canarie.ca

Bill.St.Arnaud_at_canarie.ca
2
Outline
  • What will drive broadband new applications or
    competition?
  • The Reality of Broadband
  • Some possible models for Gigabit to the Citizen
  • Customer Owned networks a new way of looking at
    networking
  • Third Wave of the Internet

3
CANARIE Inc
  • Mission To facilitate the development of
    Canadas communications infrastructure and
    stimulate next generation products, applications
    and services
  • Canadian equivalent to Internet 2 and NGI
  • private-sector led, not-for-profit consortium
  • consortium formed 1993
  • federal funding of 300m (1993-99)
  • total project costs estimated over 600 M
  • currently over 140 members 21 Board members

4
Historical Look at Rate of Growth of
Telecommunications
70
60
VCR
50
Cable TV
PC
40
Penetration of households

30
Telephone
20
10
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
Years after market introduction
Source Scientific American August 1993
5
Penetration vs Price
16
14
12
10
Cost of per capita income
8
Telephone
6
PC
VCR
4
Cable
2
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
Penetration of Households
Source Scientific American August 1993
6
Real Cost vs Penetration
Telephone
VCR
Cable TV
PC
Internet?
Extrapolated from Scientific American data
7
What will drive Broadband Applications or
Competition?
  • Once a technology is perceived as having broad
    utilitarian value, price, as opposed to features
    or applications drive penetration
  • Every year the PC has new applications
  • But the biggest driver for widespread PC in the
    home is low cost
  • What is the driver for low cost?
  • COMPETITION

8
What is competition?
  • Market structures and dynamic competition
    http//itech.fgcu.edu/faculty/bhobbs/bds7/sld001.h
    tm
  • Herfindahl index sum of square of market share
  • Monopoly 0.6
  • Oligpoly 0.2 0.6
  • Perfect Competition
  • Current duopoly of DSL and Cable modems is
    actually a monopoly market
  • Characteristics price increases and decreased
    service levels over time

9
The reality
  • Most people who have DSL and cable modems are
    quite satisfied
  • Those who cannot get either are mad as hell and
    are not going to take it anymore
  • So far there is only one identifiable application
    that requires speeds greater than 1.5 Mbps
  • Downloading movies see www.Movielink.com
  • Takes 4 hours to days to download one MPEG movie
  • DVD movie in excess of 5 GigaBytes may take days
  • Next generation of DSL and cable modems will only
    have bandwidth capacity up to 50 Mbps
  • There is no business case for FTTH with current
    telco centric business models
  • Trapped by take up economics

10
A growing trend
  • There is a clear trend in all formerly monopoly
    services to move to competitive services
  • Electrical distribution systems
  • Separation of transmission costs versus power
    costs from competitive suppliers
  • Gas distribution systems former regulated
    monopolies (unbundling is well underway)
  • Telecom is the last bastion of monopoly operation
    where services and infrastructure are provided by
    same company
  • Government policy makers are going to have
    increasing input on future broadband access
    technologies to insure competition

11
Why government intervention?
  • Private sector competition in an open competitive
    level playing field is the best vehicle for
    producing innovation and lowering costs.
  • As much as possible governments should not
    intrude into the marketplace.
  • Sometimes government intrusion in the marketplace
    is warranted if there are significant benefits to
    the economy and society where otherwise to do
    nothing would be to do harm
  • Bridges displace private sector ferry service
    operations
  • Free trade disrupted business plans of many
    private sector companies
  • Opening up of long distance competition disrupted
    business plans of incumbent telcos
  • Governments have also have a critical role to
    balance off interests of private property owners
    versus social benefits delivery of enabling
    infrastructure such as electricity, telephone,
    cable, etc

12
How to introduce competition
  • Open Access, Structural separation or
    Facilities based competition?
  • Road ways are examples of competition through
    structural separation while parallel railways are
    examples of facilities based competition
  • To date telecom regulators have focused on
    facilities based competition and open access
  • Facilities based competition has been very
    successful in the long haul
  • Open access has been the alternative solution for
    the last mile
  • But has had poor track record
  • Mistaken belief that wireless can compete
    effectively with fiber
  • If fiber is a natural monopoly, particularly in
    last mile suburban areas, then structural
    separation maybe more important than facilities
    based competition

13
One Possible Model
  • Municipal Condominium Fiber Network using fiber
    ROW and fiber facilities facilitated by municipal
    government
  • Governments partner with private sector to build
    condominium fiber networks to all public sector
    buildings
  • Government achieves social goal of affordable
    bandwidth to all public sector buildings
  • Condominium fiber allows many competitors to own
    strands of fiber into the neighbourhood
  • Cost of construction is shared amongst all
    participants
  • Structural separation between ownership of fiber
    cable and ownership of individual strands
  • But facilities based competition between owners
    of individual strands
  • A change from the traditional telecom model where
    value of services is enhanced because of monopoly
    control of infrastructure

14
The need for ADco
  • Lawrence J. Spiwak, COMMUNICATIONS WEEK
    INTERNATIONAL, Opinion US Competition Policy --
    The Four Horsemen of the Broadband Apocalypse
    (01 April 2002).
  • http//www.phoenix-center.org/commentaries/CWIHors
    emen.pdf
  • PHOENIX CENTER POLICY PAPER NO. 12 Why ADCo? Why
    Now? An Economic Exploration into the Future
    Industry Structure for the "Last Mile" in Local
    Telecommunications Markets. pdf file
  • http//www.phoenix-center.org/wps.html

15
Municipal Condo Architecture
Fiber Splice Box
Carrier Owned Fiber
School board or City Hall
Central Office For Wireless Company
Cable head end
Telco Central Office
Condominium Fiber with separate strands owned by
school and by service providers
Colo Facility
School
School
802.11b
Average Fiber Penetration to 250-500 homes
VDSL, HFC or FTTH
Business
16
What is condominium fiber?
  • Several next generation carriers and fiber
    brokers are now arranging condominium fiber
    builds
  • IMS, QuebecTel, Videotron, Cogeco, Dixon Cable,
    GT Telecom, etc etc
  • Organizations such as schools, hospitals,
    businesses, municipalities and universities
    become anchor tenants in the fiber build
  • Each institution gets its own set of fibers on a
    point to point architecture, at cost, on a 20
    year IRU (Indefeasible Right of Use)
  • One time up front cost, plus annual maintenance
    and right of way cost approx 5 of the capital
    cost
  • Fiber is installed and maintained by 3rd party
    professional fiber contractors usually the same
    contractors used by the carriers for their fiber
    builds
  • Institution lights up their own strands with
    whatever technology they want Gigabit Ethernet,
    ATM, PBX, etc
  • New long range laser will reach 120 km
  • Typical cost is 25,000 (one time for 20 years)
    per institution

17
Lanaudière
Sorel-Tracy
Lionel-Groulx
Montreal Public Sector Condominium Networks
Marie-Victorin
Rosemont
Montmorency
Maisonneuve
Ahuntsic
Édouard-Montpetit
Bois-de-Boulogne
Vers Québec
St-Laurent/Vanier
Champlain
Vieux-Montréal
Gérald-Godin
Dawson
John-Abbott
André-Laurendeau
18
Halifax Condo Fiber Build
Private fibre optic network 12-15 km 350,000
build 150,000 engineering Links all major
universities, hospitals, research centers and
some schools Connects to CAnet4 at Nova Scotia
GigaPOP
19
South Dundas
IROQUOIS
MORRISBURG
20
ORION
21
RISQ Fiber Network
Network
450 Km
OC-12
MAN
Scale 100 Km
250 Km
Dark fiber
Leased bandw.
22
Level 3 provides dark fiber for California
Research Network
23
Villages Branches
  • Quebec Government to provide 75m funding to help
    schools, businesses and municipalities acquire
    condo fiber networks
  • Private sector to build and manage condo networks
  • Individual point to point strands within cable
    are owned by institutions through 20 year IRUs

24
Condo Fiber Costs - Examples
  • Des Affluents Total cost 1,500,00 (750,000 for
    schools)
  • 70 schools
  • 12 municipal buildings
  • 204 km fiber
  • 1,500,000 total cost
  • average cost per building - 18,000 per building
  • Mille-Isles Total cost 2,100,000 (1,500,000
    for schools)
  • 80 schools
  • 18 municipal buildings
  • 223km
  • 21,428 per building
  • Laval Total cost 1,800,000 (1,000,000 for
    schools)
  • 111 schools
  • 45 municipal buildings
  • 165 km
  • 11,500 per building

25
Typical Payback for school (Real example des
affluents north of Montreal)
  • Over 3 years total expenditure of 1,440,000 for
    DSL service
  • Total cost of dark fiber network for 75 schools
    1,350,000
  • Additional condominium participants were brought
    in to lower cost to school board to 750,000
  • School board can now centralize routers and
    network servers at each school
  • Estimated savings in travel and software upgrades
    800,000
  • Payback typically 8 16 months
  • Independent Study by Group Secor available upon
    request

26
Reduction in the number of servers
27
Big Cost Saving in VoIP for schools
  • Many schools are using dark fiber to enable VoIP
    telephones to each teachers desk
  • Also free phones in hallways for kids to all kids
    in other scholl
  • With dark fiber only cost is the one VoIP phone
    itself
  • VoIP gateway to PSTN is located at school board
    office
  • Most teachers have never had a telephone in their
    classroom
  • Has a bigger impact than multimedia,
    tele-learning etc
  • Schools are ripping out old copper telephone
    systems and leaving one copper telephone for
    emergency purpose
  • For more details http//www.canarie.ca/press/publi
    cations/pdf/workshop99/schweikhardt.pdf
  • But allows exciting new learning tools for
    schools - Laval

28
Benefit to Cities
  • If city builds and owns conduit can be revenue
    generator
  • Yet saves carriers money
  • Accelerates opportunity for information society

29
Condo fiber for Business
  • Significant reduction in price for local loop
    costs
  • No increase in local loop costs as bandwidth
    demands increase
  • Ability to outsource LAN and web servers to
    distant location as LAN speeds and performance
    can be maintained over dark fiber
  • Access to lower cost competitive service
    providers at carrier neutral hotels
  • New entrants cannot afford high cost of building
    out their own fiber networks
  • Examples
  • Colgate-Palmolive build in Cincinnati
  • Nortel, Cisco, Govt depts in Ottawa
  • Lehman Brothers in NY
  • Ford in Detroit

30
Benefits to Carriers
  • For cablecos and telcos it help them accelerate
    the deployment of high speed internet services
    into the community
  • Currently deployment of DSL and cable modem
    deployment is hampered by high cost of deploying
    fiber into the neighbourhoods
  • Cable companies need fiber to every 250 homes for
    next generation cable modem service, but
    currently only have fiber on average to every
    5000 homes
  • Telephone companies need to get fiber to every
    250 homes to support VDSL or FSAN technologies
  • Wireless companies need to get fiber to every 250
    homes for new high bandwidth wireless services
    and mobile Internet
  • It will provide opportunities for small
    innovative service providers to offer service to
    public institutions as well as homes
  • For e-commerce and web hosting companies it will
    generate new business in out sourcing and web
    hosting

31
BOEING BUILDS PRIVATE NATIONWIDE OPTICAL NETWORK
  • Boeing awarded an estimated US20 million
    contract to Nortel Networks to build a private
    nationwide optical network based on DWDM and next
    generation SONET. Plans call for the deployment
    of OPTera Long Haul 1600 Optical Line Systems and
    OPTera Metro 3500 Multiservice Platform in
    multiple cities across the country.
    http//www.nortelnetworks.com/corporate/news/newsr
    eleases/2002c/07_23_02_boeing.html

32
The Future -CAnet 4?
  • Funded by Govt of Canada for 110m now fully
    operational
  • A network of point to point condominium
    wavelengths
  • Universities and researcher own and control their
    own lightpaths or wavelengths and associated
    cross connects on each switch
  • All lightpaths terminate at switches where
    condominium owner can manage their own portion of
    the switch
  • Owners of wavelengths determine topology and
    routing of their particular light paths
  • Condominium owner can recursively sub partition
    their wavelengths and give ownership to other
    entities
  • Wavelengths become objects complete with
    polymorphism, inheritance, classes, etc Object
    Oriented Networking

33
Customer Owned Networks
  • The customer owns the infrastructure (dark fiber,
    switches and wavelengths) while the carrier
    provides the service and network management
  • Relieves the carrier of huge capital cost of
    infrastructure and gives customer greater
    flexibility in choice of service provider and
    control of the network
  • Very similar parallel to evolution of computer
    industry from the centrally managed time share of
    the 1960s to the customer owned mini-computer of
    the 70s and the PC of the 80s
  • Today telecom is largely a service industry much
    like time share computing of the 60s
  • Asset based telecom puts customer in control and
    ownership of the network
  • Asset based telecom started with the same people
    who brought you the Internet our universities
    and research centers

34
CAnet 4 Architecture
CANARIE
GigaPOP
ORAN DWDM
Carrier DWDM
Edmonton
Saskatoon
St. Johns
Calgary
Regina
Quebec
Winnipeg
Charlottetown
Thunder Bay
Montreal
Victoria
Ottawa
Vancouver
Fredericton
Halifax
Boston
Chicago
Seattle
New York
CAnet 4 node)
Toronto
Possible future CAnet 4 node
Windsor
35
Whats next
  • Customer owned fiber/wavelength networks liberate
    the customer to use new applications and create a
    whole new business sector liberated from the
    artificial constraints of the current telecom
    business model leading to the…
  • The Third Wave of the Internet

36
The three waves
  • The first wave of the Internet consisted
    primarily of text and data services such as
    e-mail and FTP.
  • The second wave was the web which improved ease
    of use and facilitated the transfer of images,
    sound and video.
  • The third wave is the integration of
    applications, p2p networking, open source,
    distributed computing enabled by next generation
    web services, semantic web and high speed
    networks

37
Todays Network
The network is subservient to the computer
The application is tightly bound to the OS
Network
Application
Application
User
User
OS
OS
The network is a mechanism for applications to
communicate with each other
Data
Data
38
Third Wave Network
Application and data exist on the network and are
uncoupled from any specific machine or location
Third Wave
Third Wave
Network
OS
OS
The computer is subservient to the network
Application and Data
Third Wave
OS
Data
39
What is the Third Wave?
  • Before the Web on-line information was only
    available through a small number of information
    providers who charged high fees
  • Compuserve, Dialogic, etc
  • The Web allowed millions of creators of
    information to make it easily accessible to all
    others at very low cost, bypassing the
    information middleman
  • The Third Wave proposes to extend the WEB
    paradigm to processes, applications and content
  • Third Wave is about creation of tools and
    applications (i.e. services) in variety of fields
    such as eLearning, eBusiness, eScience, eHealth,
    etc that can make these services easily available
    to all others
  • At there are millions of web sites, there will be
    millions of Third wave services
  • Elements of the Third Wave
  • Open Source, Web services, Semantic web,
    Distributed computing, Peer to peer, Grids,
    Agents, Java Spaces, Creative Commons
  • Third Wave is more than web services as typified
    by Microsoft .Net or IBM Websphere
  • These are equivalent to the old Compuserve model
    with portals and ASPs

40
Third Wave and science
  • Science used to about test tubes, wet labs and
    big instruments
  • But increasingly science is moving to networks
    and computers
  • Science is now longer bound by bricks and mortar
    or geography
  • NSF has announced Cyber Infrastructure
    initiative
  • https//worktools.si.umich.edu/workspaces/datkins/
    001.nsf
  • DOE SciDAC Scientific Discovery through Advanced
    Computing
  • http//www.er.doe.gov/feature_articles_2001/august
    /SCIAC/SciDAC_announcement.htm
  • Recognition that more and more science is network
    and computationally based
  • Grids using web services will be foundation of
    this new research methodology
  • Some early examples….

41
Virtual Observatory
  • http//www.us-vo.org/
  • Discovery process will rely on advanced
    visualization and data mining tools
  • Not tied to a single brick and mortar location
  • Will cross correlate existing multi-spectral
    databases petabytes in size
  • Web services will integrate data and applications

No new telescopes or radio dishes. Just big
networks interconnecting large databases
42
What is eScience?
  • The ultimate goal of e-science is to allow
    students and eventually members of the general
    public to be full participants in scientific
    discovery and innovation.
  • Uses advanced high speed networks like CAnet 4
    and CANARIEs Third Wave which integrates new
    concepts in distributed computing, peer to peer
    file sharing and web services
  • Will allow increasing number of computationally
    or networked research experiments to be
    seamlessly integrated with the computer
    capabilities of thousands of PCs located at our
    schools and in our homes.
  • High performance computers located at
    universities can be seamlessly integrated with
    eScience distributed computers at school across
    CAnet 4
  • Some early primitive examples…

43
FightAIDS_at_Home
  • Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute
    (TSRI) are using computational methods to
    identify drugs that have the right shape and
    interaction characteristics to fight diseases
    such as AIDS.
  • Once such candidates are identified, they can be
    synthesized in a laboratory, tested according to
    FDA guidelines, and released as prescription
    drugs to benefit the public.
  • Such computations require a vast number of trial
    dockings, testing variations in the target
    protein and the trial drug molecules

44
Folding_at_home
http//www.stanford.edu/group/pandegroup/Cosm/ htt
p//members.ud.com/vypc/cancer/
  • This "virtual supercomputer" uses peer-to-peer
    technology to make unprecedented amounts of
    processing power available to medical researchers
    to accelerate the development of improved
    treatments and drugs that could potentially cure
    diseases.
  • Rapid new discoveries in cancer research

45
Climate Prediction
  • Predict future climate due to greenhouse affect
  • Distribute climate model to thousands of PCs
    worldwide
  • www.climateprediction.com

46
ALTA Cosmic Ray eScience
  • Collaborative scientific research project
    involving the University of Alberta Center for
    Subatomic Research and over 50 high schools
    across Canada in the area of cosmic ray
    detection.
  • Teachers and students actively contribute to the
    physics research while learning about an exciting
    area of modern science. 
  • Distributed computing at schools will be required
    to analyze data from sensors in near real time

47
Neptune eScience Grid
  • Joint US-Canadian project forundersea dark fiber
    network off west coast of USA and Canada
  • Undersea network will connect instrumentation
    devices, robotic submarines, sensors, under sea
    cameras, etc
  • All devices available to students and researchers
    connected to CAnet 4 and Internet 2 networks
  • Distributed computing and data storage devices on
    CAnet 4 and Internet 2 will be used to analyze
    and store data

48

Neptune eScience
  • Fish Surveys
  • Earthquake Research
  • Underwater Laboratory with remote submarines and
    cameras

49
Faulkes Telescope
  • Provide UK schools with access to a research
    class telescope in Hawaii
  • Provides an exciting resource for teachers to use
    via the Web
  • To provide a real-time experience of astronomy,
    through live use of a telescope
  • To allow students to participate in real research
    programs, mentored by professional astronomers
  • Provides other public interest groups, such as
    amateurs, access to high quality astronomical
    data
  • http//www.faulkes-telescope.com/

50
Gigabit to the Home
Colo Facility with RPON
ISP E
ISP C
ISP B
ISP D
Customer owns fiber strand all the way
to Neighborhood Node
Colo Facility
Splice Box
X
X
Up to 15 km
School with dual connections
864 strands
Municipal Condominium Fiber Trunk
51
Self Organizing Networks- RPON
Aggregator
Switch
ISP
Passive Optical Splitter
Neighborhood Node
Active laser at customer premises
Customer Controlled or Owned Fiber
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