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Stem cell research through its history, applications, advantagesdisadvantages and controversy

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Stem cell research through its history, applications, advantages ... People opposed to the research believe that taking stem cells from embryos is murder ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem cell research through its history, applications, advantagesdisadvantages and controversy


1
Stem cell research through its history,
applications, advantages/disadvantages and
controversy
  • By
  • Chad Moore, Darko Kovac, Eric Fisher, and Matt
    Crews

2
What is a stem cell?
  • An undifferentiated cell that can be programmed
    for future use.
  • Derived from a human embryo
  • Building block for an organism

3
The Process
4
History
  • Relatively new branch of research (started in
    1990s)
  • In 1800s scientists identified cells as building
    blocks
  • 1900s discovery of blood cell origins in bone
    marrow
  • 1996 first animal cloned (Dolly the sheep)

5
History
  • Dolly the sheep
  • Medical complications and premature aging linked
    to a age of the parent cell
  • Questions were raised about the future of a
    project
  • Other animals cloned

6
History
  • 1990s the debate over the research begins
    worldwide
  • 1998 Wisconsin University isolated stem cell from
    the human embryo
  • 1999 research found that cells are cancer free
  • Same year congress bans use of human embryo in
    research

7
History
  • 2000 Japanese government submits human cloning
    laws with severe consequences
  • European Parliament cuts funding to any stem cell
    research University
  • Scientists use pig eggs and human cells in
    cloning legal since it is not 100 human
  • Scientists programmed stem cell into insulin
    producing cell that can reverse diabetes
  • Dolly the sheep dies from lung and arthritis
    complications in February of 2003

8
Controversy
  • Religious debate- Is it morally right?
  • Are scientists playing God?
  • Are the reasons for the research justified by its
    cost?
  • Is saving lives worth destroying others?
  • Should scientists be allowed to decide the limits
    of this research?

9
Controversy
  • People opposed to the research believe that
    taking stem cells from embryos is murder
  • Anti-abortionists stand firm on this principle
  • Churches are divided some are for the research
    and some arent
  • U.S. Roman Catholic Bishops oppose the research
    as immoral, illegal and unnecessary
  • The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations
    approve they believe that An isolated
    fertilized egg does not enjoy the full status of
    personhood

10
Controversy
  • Are the results that could possibly arise from
    this research worth the death that it causes?
  • Scientists say that most of the embryos used in
    research are destined to be discarded anyway and
    no one seems to mind that.
  • Scientists yearn for the embryos so that they may
    be able to help mankind

11
Engineering Aspects
  • Types of Stem Cells
  • Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Two Methods
  • Engineers receive embryos from IVF clinics and
    culture the cells
  • Engineers isolate stem cells from fetal tissue of
    terminated pregnancies.

12
Stem Cells from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
  • Take normal animal egg cell and remove nucleus
  • Material left behind in egg cell contains
    nutrients and energy producing materials
    necessary for development
  • Somatic cell put next to egg cell and fused

13
Process
14
Adult Stem Cells
  • Found in some types of adult tissue
  • Originally thought that no pluripotent stem cells
    in humans, but research may prove otherwise
  • Mouse muscle stem cells have grown neurons
    instead of muscle
  • Engineers must isolate, purify, and grow cells in
    a large quantity
  • Easier to use because there would be no risk of
    rejection

15
Current Research
  • Focused on how cells differentiate
  • How genetic and environmental signals trigger
    cells

16
Application
  • Heart Disease
  • Generic stem cells grown into cardiac cells
  • Hearts grown from stem cells (no rejection)
  • Diabetes
  • Islet Cells do not produce insulin
  • Transplant pancreas or islet cells
  • Cancer
  • Cancer cells resemble stem cells
  • Tell cells to stop dividing
  • Cell Failure

17
Stem Cell Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Lower risk of disease relapse
  • More effective than bone marrow transplant
  • Less painful process for donors
  • Lower risk of getting viruses and diseases
  • Cheaper than bone marrow transplant
  • Disadvantages
  • Unsure of long term success
  • Continuing research could make price higher than
    bone marrow transplant
  • Many steps before getting correct genetic
    compound
  • for contamination of the cord blood with blood
    from the mother
  • graft-versus-host disease
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