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Bridges: Past, Present, and Future

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Kingston-Rhinecliff Bridge, NY. Arch Bridges ... Golden Gate Bridge,CA. Brooklyn Bridge, NY. Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure. After Failure ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bridges: Past, Present, and Future


1
Bridges Past, Present, and Future
  • Dr. Lisa Spainhour
  • Dept. of Civil and Environmental Eng.
  • FAMU-FSU College of Engineering

2
What Defines a Bridge?
  • Four main factors define a bridge
  • Span (simple, continuous, cantilever)
  • Travel surface (deck, pony, through)
  • Form (beam, arch, truss, etc.)
  • Material (timber, concrete, steel)

3
Bridge BasicsSpan Types
4
Bridge BasicsTravel Surface
5
Bridge BasicsTypes
  • Five main types of bridges
  • Beam bridge
  • Truss bridge
  • Arch bridge
  • Cable-stayed bridge
  • Suspension bridge
  • Bridges may combine different types

6
Beam Bridges
  • Simple span top surface in compression, bottom
    in tension
  • Cantilever span top in tension, bottom in
    compression
  • Best for spans cross a long distance

7
Beam BridgesTypes
8
Beam BridgesExamples
Pony plate girder bridge
Stone footbridges
9
Beam BridgesExamples
I-540/I-70 Interchange, NC
Lincove Viaduct, NC
I-44, 16th St. Overpass, OK
10
Truss Bridges
Cantilever truss
Simple truss
  • Overall behavior like a beam with less material
    in the middle
  • Each member either in tension (e.g. bottom chord)
    or compression (e.g. top chord)
  • Rigid because bar ends pinned into triangles
  • Best for spans

11
Truss BridgesTypes
12
Truss BridgesExamples
Baihe Bridge, China
Stillwater Bridge, MN
Smithfield Street Bridge, PA
Bridge No. 1482, MN
13
Covered Truss Bridges
Stone Mt. Covered Bridge, GA
Germantown Covered Bridge, OH Inverted bowstring
truss (1870s)
Town lattice truss (1830s)
14
Cantilever Truss Bridges
Kingston-Rhinecliff Bridge, NY
Firth of Forth, Scotland (1890)
15
Arch Bridges
  • Under load, ends try to move outward, require
    strong abutments or ties to resist spreading
  • When supported at ends, arch is in compression
  • Best for spans of 1000 to 2000.

16
Arch BridgesTypes
17
Arch BridgesExamples
The Pont du Gard Aqueduct, France (Ca. 100 AD)
Thomas Aqueduct, MD (1835)
Rio Cobre Bridge, Jamaica (1800) Wrought-Iron
Ties, Cast-Iron Deck
18
Arch BridgesConstruction
New River Bridge, WV
Natchez Trace Arch, TN
19
Tied Arch BridgesExamples
Bayonne Bridge, NJ
Willamette River Bridge, OR
I-64 Ohio River Bridge, IN
20
Suspension Bridges
  • Cables (thousands of steel wires) under tension
  • Towers under compression
  • Require anchorages at ends to resist span
    deflection, bending of towers
  • Best for spans of 3000.

21
Suspension BridgesExamples
Menai Suspension Bridge, United Kingdom
(1826), Removed from service in 1940
Luding Iron-chain Bridge, Over Dadu River,
China (1705-06)
22
Suspension BridgesExamples
Humber Bridge, England
Brooklyn Bridge, NY
Golden Gate Bridge,CA
23
Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure
Galloping Gertie
After Failure
Approach Span, After Failure
Replacement Bridge
24
Cable-Stayed Bridges
  • Cables under tension
  • Towers, deck under compression (w/post-tensioning)
  • No end anchorages, require less cable, and are
    faster to build than suspension bridges
  • Best for spans of 1000 to 3000.

25
Cable-Stayed BridgesExamples
Clark Bridge, IL
Sunshine Skyway, FL
Puente del V Centerario Seville, Spain
Normandy Bridge, France
26
Cable-Stayed BridgesExamples
Footbridge, Aarhus, Denmark
Santarem-Almeirim Bridge, Portugal
Salzburg, Austria
27
Cable-Stayed BridgesExamples
Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, Over
Charles River Boston, MA
28
Bridge BasicsMaterials
  • Past
  • Stone
  • Timber
  • Iron
  • Present
  • Steel
  • Steel-Reinforced Concrete
  • Prestressed Concrete
  • Future
  • Those with asterisks
  • Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs)
  • ???

29
Bridge MaterialsFRP
Wickwire Run Bridge, West Virginia
No-Name Creek Bridge, Kansas
30
FootbridgesEntirely FRP
Fiberline Bridge, Denmark
Parsons Bridge, Wales
Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland
31
Modern Timber Bridges
  • Gluelam Beams Arches
  • Short lengths of treated wood bonded with epoxy
  • Stiff, strong components
  • Custom designed off-site
  • Natural, aesthetic appearance

Keystone Wye Bridge, South Dakota, 1968
Unknown
32
Modern Timber Bridges
  • Stress-Laminated Bridge Decks
  • Short lengths of treated wood run lengthwise
  • Steel or FRP rods crosswise through holes in deck
  • Stressing the rods puts steel in tension, timber
    in compression. Creates strong, stiff deck.

Wisconsin River Bridge
Steel rod anchorage
33
Summary/Questions
  • Four main factors define a bridge
  • Span (simple, continuous, cantilever)
  • Travel surface (deck, pony, through)
  • Form (beam, arch, truss, etc.)
  • Material (timber, concrete, steel)
  • Each is suitable for different sites/conditions
  • What factors affect the selection/design of a
    bridge?
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