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BriMon: A Sensor Network System for Railway Bridge Monitoring

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Title: BriMon: A Sensor Network System for Railway Bridge Monitoring


1
BriMon A Sensor Network System for Railway
Bridge Monitoring
Mon
Bri
  • Bhaskaran Raman(IIT-Bombay)

Kameswari Chebrolu(IIT-Bombay)
Nilesh Mishra(USC)
Phani Kumar Valiveti(Cisco Systems)
Raj Kumar(Indian Army)
Acknowledgment Prof. C.V.R. Murty, Dr. K. K.
Bajpai (Structural Engineering Lab, IIT-Kanpur)
http//www.cse.iitb.ac.in/silmaril/br/doku.php?id
projbrimon
2
Motivation
  • Aging civil infrastructure
  • Indian Railways consists of 120,000 bridges
    spread over a large geographical area
  • Many in weak and distressed conditions
  • 57 are over 80 years old
  • 26.7 of 577,000 US bridges rated deficient
  • An automated system to track bridge's health is
    of utmost importance.
  • Short term monitoring
  • Long term monitoring

Motivation
Design
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
3
Problem Statement
  • Develop an easy to deploy, low maintenance and
    long-term structural health monitoring system for
    Railway bridges

Easy to deploy Cost effective and faster
deployment Low maintenance Technical expertise
is difficult to get Long-term Useful to monitor
a structure's health over time
Motivation
Design
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
4
(No Transcript)
5
Data Analysis Centre
6
Application Requirements
30-125m
3-axis accelerometers
  • What to measure? Acceleration in 3-axis of motion
  • Frequency components of interest 0.25-20Hz
  • How long to measure?
  • 40 sec of total vibration during and after
    trains passage
  • Time Synchronization
  • Need accuracy of 5ms

Design
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
7
Implications of Requirements
  • 2km bridge can have as many as 200 sensors
  • 6 nodes per span 60m span

Design
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
8
Existing Techniques
  • Visual inspection
  • Mostly wired solutions
  • Equipment is bulky and very expensive
  • Large setup time (few days) for short-term
    monitoring
  • Few wireless solutions
  • Proprietary non scalable solutions
  • Wisden (USC)
  • Golden-gate bridge (UCB)

Image source www.brimos.com
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Design
Motivation
9
Solution Approach
  • Battery operated wireless sensor motes
  • Cheap alternative
  • Easy to deploy and maintain
  • Eliminates hassle of laying cable to route
    data/power
  • No solar panels
  • Expensive and prone to theft
  • Sensors maybe placed under deck in shade

Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Design
Motivation
10
Solution Approach
  • Battery operated wireless sensor motes
  • Cheap alternative
  • Easy to deploy and maintain
  • Eliminates hassle of laying cable to route
    data/power
  • No solar panels
  • Expensive and prone to theft
  • Sensors maybe placed under deck in shade

Key Goal Minimize energy consumption
Tmote-sky/Telosb motes
Dual axis ADXL 203 Accelerometer
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Design
Motivation
11
Challenges
  • Event Detection
  • Cannot predict train arrival
  • To conserve power, sensor nodes have to
    duty-cycle (sleep wake cycle)
  • Remote Access
  • Bridges may not have network coverage to transfer
    data to central server
  • Scalability
  • Can have as many as 200 sensors per bridge
  • Architecture needs to be scalable

Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Design
Motivation
12
Mon
Bri
Accelerometer
Mote
13
Mon
Bri
Event Detection(for data collection)
Multi Channel Data Transfer(to moving train)
Interaction amongst functionalities(time synch,
routing, event detection and data transfer)
14
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Design
Motivation
15
Topology Formation
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
Channel 3
4
5
Channel 5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
16
Time Synchronization
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
Channel 3
4
5
Channel 5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
17
Sleep-Wakeup
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
Channel 3
4
5
Channel 1
Channel 5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
18
Command Control Wakeup
Train Arrival Detection
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
4
5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
19
Vibration Sensing
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
4
5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
20
Data Gathering by individual cluster heads
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
Channel 3
4
5
Channel 5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
21
Sleep-Wakeup
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
Channel 3
4
5
Channel 1
Channel 5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
22
Train Detection
Data Uploading
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
4
5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
23
Sleep-Wakeup
3
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
4
5
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
24
Data Analysis Centre
Send Data to Repository
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
25
BriMon Architecture Event Detection
Span
P
Head node
Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
26
BriMon Architecture Event Detection
Span
P
Head node
  • Tdc max time available between detection of
    oncoming train and data collection

Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
27
Radio Range Measurements
  • Tdc Dd/V
  • Dd is found to be about 400m with 8dBi
    omni-antenna for various speeds

Omni antenna
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
28
Error rate vs. distance between sender and
receiver
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
29
Radio Range Measurements
  • Tdc Dd/V
  • Dd is found to be about 400m with 8dBi
    omni-antenna for various speeds
  • At 80kmph, Tdc 36s
  • Use of 802.11 extends
  • range to 800m
  • Frontier Nodes

Omni antenna
WWW06
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
30
Event Detection
  • Tsl sleep time
  • Tw wake-up time

Tdc Tsl 2Tw
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
31
Event Detection
  • Tsl sleep time
  • Tw wake-up time

Tdc Tsl 2Tw
Tsl
Tw
Tw
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
32
BriMon Architecture Event Detection
Span
Head node
  • Wake-up time (head) Beacon detection time
    clock drift time command propagation time
  • Wake-up time (non - head) 2 clock drift time
    command propagation time

Architecture
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
33
Event Detection Analysis
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
34
Event Detection Analysis
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
35
Event Detection Analysis
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
36
Event Detection Analysis
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
37
Time Synchronization
  • Time synchronization required only within a span
  • Each span is an independent data-span
  • We use same protocol for synchronization as well
    as command issue
  • Flooding with multiple (3) retransmissions on
    each wake up cycle.
  • Error in synchronization is 0.18ms
  • 1-2 clock ticks per hop

Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
38
Data Transfer
  • Long distance wide area wireless links infeasible
  • Many bridges in remote locations
  • Transfer over single hop for 10-20 hops complete
    bridge data presents scalability problems
  • Bridge with 200 sensors generate 1.5MB data
  • 1.5 MB data transferred on single hop 802.15.4
    radio with 80 Kbps takes 2.5 minutes.
  • Contact duration only 72 sec (1.2 min) at 80 Kmph

Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
39
Data Transfer Our Approach
  • Use multiple channels one for each data span
  • Data across spans independent
  • At most 12 nodes per span very scalable
  • Adjacent channels are 7 spans apart with 16
    available channels 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21,
    23, 25, 12
  • Gather data of the span motes to the head mote
  • Transfer data from head mote to train

7 spans
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
40
Mon
Bri
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
41
Data Transfer within Span Routing Issues
  • Outdoor 802.15.4 links can be made to operate in
    stable settings
  • Any simple protocol can be used
  • Centralized 2 Phase routing
  • Neighbour-discovery phase
  • Tree construction phase
  • Average duration of routing tree formation for 6
    nodes 567ms
  • Routing runs infrequently once in few hours or on
    node failure/join

Reference Implications of Link Range and
(In)Stability on Sensor Network Architecture,
WINTECH 2006
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
42
Mobile Data Transfer
  • Achievable data transfer rate using block
    transfer transport protocol on hardware is 46Kbps
    (tested on field)
  • Max data per data span is 693Kbits (12 nodes)
  • Contact duration required is 15sec

Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
43
Throughput Considerations
  • Contact range required for data transfer (in 15
    sec) is
  • 330m at train speed of 80kmph
  • 250m at train speed of 60kmph
  • Our measurements give a contact range of 400m
    (one-side)

Contact Range required contact duration speed
of train
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
44
Throughput Considerations
  • Transfer is possible with enough leeway.
  • Throughput can be further increased via
  • Compression
  • Multiple receivers at head and rear of train
  • Better Hardware
  • Simultaneous operation of flash and radio
  • Bluetooth Radio (1Mbps)

Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
45
Lifetime Estimate
  • Assuming one data collection operation per day
    BriMon can achieve 1.5 years of operation using
    2500mAH batteries

Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
46
Measurements on a Road Bridge
Omni antenna
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
47
Measurements on a Road Bridge
Sink Mote
Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
48
Measurements on a Road Bridge
  • Dominant free vibration frequency of 5.5Hz
  • Amplitude of vibration as high as 100 milli g (30
    milli g for healthy bridges)

Evaluation
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
49
Future Work
  • Deployment on a Railway bridge
  • Extending BriMon to other bridge architectures
  • Current approach focuses on span bridges

Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
Evaluation
50
Conclusions
  • Application specific design
  • Extensive measurement study
  • Novelty of our contributions
  • Event detection mechanism
  • Mobile data transfer
  • Integration with time-synchronization/routing
  • Estimates indicate network can operate without
    intervention for 1.5 years

http//www.cse.iitb.ac.in/silmaril/br/doku.php?id
projbrimon
Conclusion
Motivation
Design
Architecture
Evaluation
51
(No Transcript)
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