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Target Inquiry:

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15. Are Atoms Destroyed by Chemical Reactions? ... 22. Why do Exploding Fireworks Emit Light? 11. Learning Cycles in Chemistry ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Target Inquiry:


1
Strategies, Materials, and Resources for High
School Inquiry Activities Ellen J.
Yezierski Chemistry Department Grand Valley State
University yezierse_at_gvsu.edu
2
Teaching Standards
  • Teachers of science guide and facilitate
    learning. In doing this, teachers encourage and
    model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well
    as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data,
    and skepticism that characterize science.
  • NRC (1996) National Science Education Standards
  • Inquiry requires students to integrate scientific
    knowledge with reasoning skills to actively
    develop their understanding of science.
  • NRC (1996) National Science Education Standards
  • Better prepares students to contribute to a
    society that is becoming more dependent on
    scientific and technological innovations.
  • National Commission on Mathematics and Science
    Teaching for the 21st Century (2000)
  • Science teaching and learning should reflect the
    way that scientific knowledge is constructed and
    revised.
  • Science should not be viewed as a set of absolute
    facts, but rather as a set of tools to help us
    understand our world tools which are being
    constantly revised and improved.
  • Kuhn, T. (1996) The structure of scientific
    revolutions, 3rd edition

3
Inquiry is
  • complex
  • more than hands-on experiences
  • how scientists do science
  • content dependent
  • not adequately defined by a set of 4 or 5 steps
  • defined by a wide range of activities

4
Harwood, W. (2004). A new model for inquiry.
Journal of College Science Teaching, 3(7),
29-33. Harwood, W. (2004). An activity model for
scientific inquiry. The Science Teacher, 71(1),
44-46.
5
Defined by NSES
  • Teaching Standard A Teachers of science plan an
    inquiry-based
  • science program for their students (NRC, 1996, p.
    30).
  • Essential features of Classroom Inquiry (NRC,
    2000, p. 25)
  • Learners are engaged by scientifically oriented
    questions.
  • Learners give priority to evidence, which allows
    them to develop and evaluate explanations that
    address scientifically oriented questions.
  • Learners formulate explanations from evidence to
    address scientifically oriented questions.
  • Learners evaluate their explanations in light of
    alternative explanations, particularly those
    reflecting scientific understanding.
  • Learners communicate and justify their proposed
    explanations.

6
Common Barriers to Inquiry Instruction
  • Teacher preparation programs
  • Teachers experiences as students
  • Inadequate in-service education
  • Poor access to inquiry materials
  • assessments
  • Lack of science research experience
  • Low confidence in content knowledge
  • Curriculum constraints

7
Resources for Teachers
  • Continuing Education
  • Workshops Consult NSTA Reports and nearby
    university course offerings
  • M.Ed. - Target Inquiry http//www.gvsu.edu/targeti
    nquiry
  • Lab Manuals and Activities
  • POGIL Materials (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry
    Learning)
  • http//www.pogil.org
  • http//www.pogil.org/materials/labs.php
  • Learning Cycles (pre-curser to guided inquiry
    labs)
  • Case-Study Materials http//www.sciencecases.org/

8
Resources for Teachers
  • Lab Manuals and Activities, continued
  • Stacy, A. M. (2006). Living by Chemistry. Key
    Curriculum Press Emeryville, CA.
  • Lechtanski, V. L. (2000). Inquiry-Based
    Experiments in Chemistry. American Chemical
    Society Washington, D.C.
  • Bauer, Birk, Sawyer (2005). Laboratory Inquiry
    in Chemistry. Brooks/Cole Belmont, CA.
  • Publications
  • Llewellyn, D. (2005). Teaching High School
    Science Through Inquiry. Corwin Press Thousand
    Oaks, CA.

9
Learning Cycles in Chemistry
  • Chemistry A Critical Thinking Approach
  • Anton E. Lawson and James P. Birk
  • Supported by the National Science Foundation
    under Grant No. TPE-9054933
  • 1. What Questions Can be Asked about Matter?
  • 2. Is Water a "Pure" Material?
  • 3. What Happens When Food Coloring and Detergent
    are Put in Milk?
  • 4. How Can Matter be Classified?
  • 5. How Much Salt and Air are in the Emir's Sand?
  • 6. How Much Gold is in Paddy's Pool?
  • 7. How Were Alien Monoliths Sorted?
  • 8. What is Energy?
  • 9. How Can a Burning Candle Cause Water to Rise?
  • 10. What Causes Molecules to Move?
  • 11. Why Does Oil Float on Water?
  • 12. Why Do Hot-Air Balloons Rise?

10
Learning Cycles in Chemistry
  • Chemistry A Critical Thinking Approach
  • Anton E. Lawson and James P. Birk
  • Supported by the National Science Foundation
    under Grant No. TPE-9054933
  • 13. Are Illegal Drugs Hidden in the Baking
    Supplies?
  • 14. Can You Break the IUPACian Code?
  • 15. Are Atoms Destroyed by Chemical Reactions?
  • 16. How do Atomic Arrangements Change During
    Chemical Reactions?
  • 17. What Happens When Solids and Liquids are
    Mixed?
  • 18. How Many MM'S are in the Jar?
  • 19. How Many Seeds are in the Jars?
  • 20. How Can Molecules React with No Leftovers?
  • 21. What is the Nature of Atoms?
  • 22. Why do Exploding Fireworks Emit Light?

11
Learning Cycles in Chemistry
  • Chemistry A Critical Thinking Approach
  • Anton E. Lawson and James P. Birk
  • Supported by the National Science Foundation
    under Grant No. TPE-9054933
  • 23. What Relationships Exist Among the Elements?
  • 24. What Kinds of Chemical Reactions Occur?
  • 25. Why do Metals Corrode?
  • 26. Why do Liquids Evaporate at Different Rates?
  • 27. Why do Liquids Boil at Different
    Temperatures?
  • 28. How Can You Make Solids Dissolve Fast?
  • 29. Who Wrote the Ransom Note?
  • 30. Why does Stirring Cool Iced Lemonade?
  • 31. Why do Added Chemicals Lower the Freezing
    Point of Water?
  • 32. What Variables Affect Chemical Reaction Rate?
  • 33. What Happens to Water Temperature When
    Chemicals are Added?
  • 34. How Can Household Chemicals be Classified?
  • 35. What Causes the Color Change of a "Bloody"
    Ion Solution?

12
Toward Inquiry-Based Instruction
  • Lab first everything else later
  • Baby steps
  • Remove the data tables
  • Ask students to write the safety rules
  • Launch lab with a discrepant event rather than
    with a question
  • Incrementally shrink the materials section
  • Add errors in the procedure
  • Incrementally shrink the procedure section
  • Nix summaries encourage a results section
  • Llewellyn, D. (2005). Teaching High School
    Science Through Inquiry. Corwin PressThousand
    Oaks, CA.
  • Choose one activity from Harwoods model make it
    a focal point of the revision

13
Harwood, W. (2004). A new model for inquiry.
Journal of College Science Teaching, 3(7),
29-33. Harwood, W. (2004). An activity model for
scientific inquiry. The Science Teacher, 71(1),
44-46.
14
Reforming Our Teaching
  • Set realistic goals for a semester or year
  • Restructure 5 labs this semester
  • Add one performance assessment
  • Have students structure data tables
  • Require one formal laboratory report with a
    results section
  • Consider the curve

Level of student acceptance of inquiry
Llewellyn (2005)
Time
15
Target Inquiry Goals
  • Increase in the frequency and quality of inquiry
    instruction used to teach high school chemistry
    in Michigan and the U.S.
  • Create a network of high school teachers and
    university chemistry educators able to facilitate
    teaching reform in West Michigan and nationally.
  • Develop and maintain a TI web site to nationally
    disseminate the professional development model
    and newly adapted high school chemistry inquiry
    teaching materials.

16
TI Model
17
TI Experiences
  • Chemistry research with faculty mentor
  • Development and piloting of inquiry curriculum
    materials
  • Evaluation of inquiry materials through action
    research project

18
Target Inquiry Web Site
  • http//www.gvsu.edu/targetinquiry
  • New inquiry materials Available Fall 2007
  • Email me for Chemistry A Critical Thinking
    Approach
  • (student and teacher guides pdf files)

19
Acknowledgements
  • The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation 2005
    Special Grant Program in the Chemical Sciences
  • National Science Foundation (ESI-0553215)
  • GVSU
  • Deborah Herrington
  • Faculty Research and Development Center
  • Pew Faculty Teaching and Learning Center
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