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Emergency Training Simulation Design

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Title: Emergency Training Simulation Design


1
Emergency Training Simulation Design
Art Hendela President, Hendela System
Consultants, Inc. www.hendela.com art.hendela_at_hend
ela.com Mihai Moldovan New Jersey Institute of
Technology

2
Uses of Games and Simulators
  • Teaching - principles, methods, skills,
    supplementary material
  • Training allow dress rehearsals with easy reset
  • Operations explore, test, and plan operational
    parameters

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Uses of Games and Simulators - Continued
  • Research hypothesis testing
  • Therapy behavioral testing, evaluation, and
    drug treatment
  • Entertainment have fun and relax (sounds
    good! )

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4
Basic Design Philosophies
  • According to Gartner Groups Clark Aldrich
    (2001)
  • Use Authentic Scenarios
  • Force quick decisions
  • Provide lots of options
  • Repetition and choices help it sink in
  • Customize to the culture

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Metaphors the basis for learning events
  • Use the 3 C model to help develop your metaphors
  • Create
  • Connect
  • Combine

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Special Purpose Simulators Defined
  • Custom built tool by an experienced model builder
  • Uses a data driven model of a specific system
  • The user is allowed to modify model parameters in
    order to run tests and get his/her results

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7
Simulation Language History
  • Fortran The mother of all mathematical modeling
    languages (1956)
  • Algol influenced Cs development (1960)
  • GPSS IBMs General Purpose System Simulator
    (1961)
  • Dynamo used first for USAF logistics
  • APL A Programming Language all mathematical
    symbols.

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Simulation Language Microsaint
  • Developed for modeling human-based complex
    systems
  • Used for analysis of resource utilization,
    maintenance procedures, military personnel
    performance
  • Utilizes the Task Network Model to answer what if
    questions

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MicroSaint Application- Human Factors
  • Simulation is new to Human Factors/Ergonomic
    studies
  • Used by industry and the military to find optimal
    work teams
  • Helped design Armys Comanche Helicopter

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Simulation Design High Level Architecture
  • Former simulations used Monolithic design
    techniques to create one large model
  • High Level Architecture (HLA) is used for newer
    distributed simulations comprised of sub-models

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High Level Architecture Traffic Flow Example
Traffic Light Models
Traffic Management System
Visualization
Simulation Cars
Simulation Pedestrians
Simulation Traffic Lights
Runtime Infrastructure (RTI)
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Simulation Application-Healthcare for the poor
  • Partnership of Immunization Providers (PIP) used
    three steps to create simulation to improve
    clinic performance
  • Create Workflow data acquisition tool
  • Break data into functional relationships
  • Create simulation model of ideal operation
  • Input is made simple for the staff

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Simulation Application-Healthcare for the poor 2
  • Five key areas are identified
  • Check-in,
  • Waiting Room/pre exam
  • Exam
  • Check-out and Charting
  • Post-checkout

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Simulation Application Satellite Terminal
Control
  • Simulation of a direct control of satellite
    ground terminal
  • Runs on WIN NT-based laptop
  • Employed with 3rd party tools, packages and
    components
  • Designed to simulate one control terminal

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Simulation Application Railroad
  • TRAINSET is a real-time railroad simulator
  • Designed with layout editor, state display,
    control programs
  • Automatic Control Interface (ACI) establishes the
    connection

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Simulation Application Simulated Fire
  • Virtual Environment allows safe recreation of
    scenarios.
  • Building designs are evaluated from the viewpoint
    of fire safety
  • 3-D designs allow for the ability to
    walk-through the building.
  • Integrates NISTs Consolidated Model of Fire and
    Smoke Transport (CFAST) with Berkeley
    Architectural Walkthrough (Walkthru).

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Simulated Fire CFAST Design
  • Environment composed of
  • Rectilinear 3-D regions called volumes
  • Interconnection portals called vents
  • Differential equations are solved to create the
    flow and exchange of gases between the volumes

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Simulated Fire Walkthru Design
  • Walkthru adds properties and objects not found in
    the basic CFAST simulation. These include
  • Wall Specifications such as thickness and
    material
  • Furniture characteristics such as mass,
    materials, chemistry, and combustion details.

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19
Simulation Application Submarine Combat
Threats/ Targets
Mission Requirements
Info Processing
Decision Functions
Action Systems
Sensors
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20
Simulation Application Multiprocessor
Applications
  • S3E2S CAD environment for specification,
    simulation, and synthesis of embedded electronic
    systems
  • Combines analog parts, digital hardware, and
    software.
  • Mixes control dominated and data dominated
    behavior of electronic devices

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21
Simulation Application Power Generation
  • Interest in power grid simulation high in light
    of potential black outs and terrorist threats
  • STAR used for a variety of power generation
    simulation
  • Electrical Grid
  • Electrical Generator
  • Steam Turbine
  • High Voltage Regulation

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22
Simulation Application Hospital Emergency
Command System
  • Four areas in which the system needs to provide
    control and mobilization communications,
    personnel, equipment and mobility
  • Five phases in a hospital emergency detect,
    dispatch, deploy, deliver and disperse
  • Simulation program has been prepared in a modular
    manner
  • Results showed improvements in emergency response
    time when using the system

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23
Simulation Application Design of a Submarine
Voyage Training Simulator
  • The simulator consists of three parts Operation
    Panel, Display Panel and Interface Cabinet
  • System modeling motion modeling and navigation
    devices modeling
  • Complex software design differential equations,
    database management, 3D animation, PID
    controller, real-time communication
  • Results showed that simulator could describe the
    regulation of submarine movement and maneuvering
    correctly and completely

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24
Simulation Application Inflight Software
Simulation of the Harpoon Missile
  • Harpoon missile anti-ship missile that can be
    launched from submarines, surface ships and
    aircrafts
  • Built by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics
    Corporation
  • HACLCS Harpoon Aircraft Command and Launch
    System
  • Two modes for launch computer and line-of sight

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Simulation Application Inflight Software
Simulation of the Harpoon Missile 2
  • Two launching modes normal and abnormal
  • Simulation function provides the operator with
    the capability to simulate selection and release
    of missiles
  • Simulation capabilities include initialization
    controlling and operating conditions, selection
    simulation, tableau update simulation, aim point
    update simulation, MGU update simulation, FTP
    update simulation, release simulation

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26
Simulation Transaction Cycle of Agents and
Web-based Gaming Simulation for International
Emissions Trading
  • ASIA agent-based Java framework (Artificial
    Society with Interacting Agents)
  • Layered structure application layer, social
    layer, agent layer, Java virtual machine
  • Greenhouse gas emission trading simulation
  • Web applications for gaming

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27
Simulation An Environment Simulator for the
FDNY Computer Aided Dispatch System
  • MICS System Management and Information Control
    System
  • Environmental simulator an integral part of the
    MICS
  • Six modes of operation alarm receipt, decision
    dispatch, display/fallback, notification, status
    monitoring and management
  • Results showed that the required performance of
    the MICS system was more than adequately met

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28
Simulation Simulation Study of a Hospital
Automated Materials Handling System
  • ACT Automated Cart Transport system to be
    implemented in the hospital
  • There is a need for studying a number of issues
    manpower requirements, number of needed
    transporters, interfacing with other personnel
    using the system, scheduling
  • A simulation is the best way to analyze all these
    factors

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29
Simulation Simulation Study of a Hospital
Automated Materials Handling System 2
  • Two modeling concepts
  • Breaking down the system activities into
    identifiable event elements
  • Use a dynamically changing list of future events
  • WIDES Wisconsin Discrete Event Simulator
  • The system had four main components the
    database, the scheduler, the simulation program
    and the output
  • Conclusion a feasible schedule of deliveries
    has NOT been achieved

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30
Simulation Modeling with the Microsaint
Simulation Package
  • Microsaint a discrete-event simulation software
    package for building models that simulate
    real-life processes
  • Model development
  • Task timing information
  • Conditions for execution
  • Beginning/ending effects
  • Task sequencing
  • Used successfully in the manufacturing industry
    and in the health care industry

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Simulation Simulation Interoperability with the
Microsaint Simulation Software and COM Services
  • COM services developed as a new feature for
    Microsaint
  • COM services allow communication between
    Microsaint and other software applications
  • Examples of COM Services application
  • Course of Action Training Tool (CATT)
  • Combat Automation Requirements Testbed (CART)

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32
Simulation Perspectives on Simulation using GPSS
  • GPSS General Purpose Simulation System a
    popular simulation modeling language
  • Offers a rich set of semantics and yet it is
    sparse in syntax
  • GPSS is a multi-vendor language
  • Some versions provide built-in graphic and
    animation features
  • Some languages have GPSS embedded

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Simulation Perspectives on Simulation using
GPSS 2
  • Five misconceptions about GPSS
  • GPSS is inherently slow
  • To do anything sophisticated in GPSS, HELP blocks
    must be used to combine GPSS models with FORTRAN
    routines
  • GPSS is trivial to learn
  • Modeling difficulties arise more frequently due
    to language shortcomings than due to lack of
    modeler expertise
  • GPSS is batch oriented

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Simulation Medical Education as a Model for
Simulation Education
  • Two models of simulation application research
    model and practice model
  • Parallel between medical education and simulation
    education
  • Curriculum proposal
  • Basic course work mathematics, statistics,
    probability, stochastic models, optimization and
    simulation modeling
  • Additional coursework accounting, business
    management, marketing, logistics, Info Systems
    management, computing, communication and
    technical writing

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Simulation A Microcomputer Based Simulation
Model for a Military Scheduling Application
  • Study tries to determine the manpower
    requirements for an army orders processing
    operation
  • Model development
  • Arrivals
  • Service
  • Queue
  • Results of the simulation model showed that
    overall processing time can effectively be
    reduced by designing the processing system on the
    basis of the queue size of the orders and the
    number of clerks

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Simulation - An Introduction to the Simulation of
a Multiple CPU Military Communications System
  • Design effort to extend the capabilities of
    Armys operational telecommunication system
  • Resulting system Pentagon Consolidated
    Telecommunications Center System (PCTCS)
  • Extensible Computer System Simulation (ECSS II)
    language was used to simulate the new PCTCS
    system
  • ECSS II was found to be a powerful tool for
    simulating military message processing systems

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Simulation Barriers to Implementing Simulation
in Health Care
  • Barrier 1 A natural resistance to the
    unfamiliar
  • Rule 1 Get everybodys fingerprints on the
    knife
  • Barrier 2 The industrial time and motion
    study stigma
  • Rule 2 Educate others and avoid the industrial
    vernacular

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Simulation Barriers to Implementing Simulation
in Health Care 2
  • Barrier 3 The poorly conducted simulation
    study
  • Rule 3 Dont wind your toys too tight
  • Barrier 4 politics, personalities, over
    confidence, misunderstanding , ambition, poor
    data collection etc.
  • Rule 4 Dont build barriers build bridges

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Simulation A Tutorial on Simulation in
Healthcare Applications and Issues
  • Computer simulation models conform both to system
    structure and to available system data
  • Simulation supports experimentation with systems
    at relatively low cost and little risk
  • Variation matters
  • Simulation experiment results conform to unique
    system requirements for information

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Simulation A Tutorial on Simulation in
Healthcare Applications and Issues 2
  • Simulation application in healthcare can be
    classified into four categories
  • Public policy
  • Patient treatment process
  • Capital expenditure requirements
  • Provider operating policies

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Simulation Internet-based Simulation using
Off-the-shelf Simulation Tools and HLA
  • C not suited for developing simulations
  • HLA High Level Architecture
  • Requirements imposed on simulation tools by HLA
    are considerable
  • Requirements derived from the HLA programming
    paradigm
  • Requirements derived from being part of a
    distributed simulation

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Simulation Internet-based Simulation using
Off-the-shelf Simulation Tools and HLA 2
  • Four general solutions for integrating existing
    simulation tools into HLA
  • Re-implementation of the tool with HLA extensions
  • Extension of intermediate code
  • Usage of an external programming interface
  • Coupling via a gateway program

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Simulation - Using Simulation to Reduce Length of
Stay in Emergency Departments
  • Object of the study a medium to large hospital
    in the southeast
  • Simulation software MedModel
  • 10 steps in the project
  • Identify the process to be simulated
  • Define the goals and objectives of the study
  • Formulate and define model
  • Collect data
  • Build the model

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Simulation - Using Simulation to Reduce Length of
Stay in Emergency Departments 2
  • 10 steps in the process (cont)
  • Verify the model
  • Validate the model
  • Set up alternatives for evaluation
  • Run multiple replications on each alterative and
    evaluate results
  • Choose best alternative or combination of
    alternatives

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Simulation A Review of Web-based Simulation
Whither we Wander
  • New software technologies
  • Java is one of the most promising technologies
    for web based simulation
  • Environments and languages for web based
    simulation
  • Simjava
  • DEVSJAVA
  • JSIM
  • JavaSim
  • JavaGPSS
  • Silk
  • WSE

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Simulation A Review of Web-based Simulation
Whither we Wander 2
  • Areas of application
  • Manufacturing
  • Education and training
  • Military applications
  • Scientific applications
  • Other applications

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Training Application- Healthcare Treatment
  • Police are trained to recognize gestures and
    verbal cues regarding mental illness
  • Verbal interaction methods are taught
  • The following are simulated
  • Schizophrenia
  • Paranoia
  • Depression

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Healthcare Treatment Mental Illness Simulator
Language Processor
Virtual Human Visualization Engine
Behavior Engine
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Training Application Multi-ship Air Combat
  • Simulation used as inexpensive way to keep skills
    sharp
  • Live flight limited due to security, flight
    safety, resources, range of flight
  • Pilots train in a F-15 cockpit in a 40 foot dome
    with target projection
  • SIMNET implements multi-user design utilizing
    pilots, weapons controllers, and enemies.

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Training Application Multi-ship Air Combat 2
  • Simulation considered better for training
  • Multi-bogey, four or more
  • Reaction to surface to air missiles
  • Employment of electronic countermeasures/counter-c
    ounter measures
  • Escort tactics
  • All weather tactics
  • Low altitude tactics

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Training Application Multi-ship Air Combat 3
  • Simulator considered worse for
  • Visual outlook
  • Tactical formation
  • Visual identification
  • Mutual support

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Training Application Virtual Patients
  • Virtual human patient developed to train for
    cardiac emergencies.
  • Uses Artificial Intelligence to simulate medical
    conditions
  • Adds 3-D environment to visualize a patient in an
    emergency room.
  • Used to train medical students for cardiac
    emergencies

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Virtual Patients System Design
  • Patients appearance varies based on clinical
    condition
  • Emergency room is filled with virtual nurses to
    execute requests for diagnosis and treatment
  • Complementary examination is carried out to aid
    diagnosis.

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Virtual Patients Emotional Design
  • Views are provided at user determined angles
  • Animation shows the patients current state
  • Commands carried out by menus or voice commands
  • Environment becomes busier as situations become
    more critical

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Training Application Tactical Network
Management
  • Communication Network Simulation system (CNS)
    used for tactical training.
  • Operators train in
  • System Configuration
  • Message Response
  • Emergency Situations

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Tactical Network Management - Functions
System Admin
Cots and Utility Software
Application Executive
NMT Functions
Soldier/Machine Interface
Network Planning And Engineering
Battlefield Spectrum Mngmt
WAN Management
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Training Measuring the Effectiveness of
Simulation-Based Training
  • Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  • Analysis of training needs
  • Design of training curriculum
  • Evaluation
  • Development of training curriculum
  • Implementation (delivery)
  • Formulation of an elementary simulation-based
    training effectiveness measure

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Training Firefighter Command Training Virtual
Environment
  • System consists of three main components
  • Virtual Environment
  • Graphical Command Interface
  • NIST Fire Dynamic Simulator
  • Firefighter control
  • Pathfinding
  • Models and animation
  • Realistic fire and smoke
  • Fire simulation
  • Volume compression
  • Fire and smoke visualization
  • Interactive fire and smoke

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Training Developing and implementing a
Comprehensive Training and Incentive Program for
Student Employees in IT
  • Employee skills
  • Demographics of student employees
  • Who to look for in interviews
  • Orientation trainings
  • Tools to aid and supplement training
  • Ongoing or long-term training
  • Tracking student progress
  • Making students want to improve

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Conclusions Strategic directions in Distributed
Simulation
  • Systems operations and management
  • Real-time decision making
  • Combat consultant
  • Aircraft navigation
  • Crowd management
  • Persistent virtual worlds
  • Virtual verisimilitude

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Conclusions Research Challenges in Distributed
Simulation
  • Human behavior modeling
  • Simulation domain architectures
  • Abundant network bandwidth
  • Practical event management techniques

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References
  • Aldrich, Clark, Something about simulations,
    elearningforum.com, July, 2001
  • Alexopoulos, Chritos, et al, A discrete
    simulation application for clinics serving the
    poor, Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation
    Conference.
  • Araten, Michel, Perspectives of the founding
    Fathers, Proceedings of the 1992 Winter
    Simulation Conference.

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References
  • Barnes, Catherine Drury and K Ronald Laughery,
    Jr.Advanced uses for MicroSaint Simulation
    Software. Proceedings of the 1998 Winter
    Simulation Conference, 271-274
  • Bell, Herbert H and Peter M Crane, Training
    Utility of Multiship Air Combat Simulation,
    Proceedings of the 1992 Winter Simulation
    Conference.
  • Brooke, Thomas C, Development of a Distributed,
    Cross-Platform Simulator, SigADA02, December
    8-12, 2002, p 12-21

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References
  • Brown, Richard A. A software testbed for
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    Engineering, Feb 1993, 247-250.
  • Bulowski, Richard and Carlo Sequin, Interactive
    Simulation of Fire in Virtual Building
    Environments, Proceedings of the 24th annual
    conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive
    Techniques, 1997, 35-44.
  • Bulowski, Richard, The Firewalk Project,
    http//www.cs.berkeley.edu/bukowski/wkfire/

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References
  • Carlino, Dominick. Combat System Decision Aids
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    Marcio Oyamada, System Synthesis for
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References
  • Cavazza, Marc and Altion Simo. A Virtual Patient
    based on Qualitative Simulation, Proceedings of
    the 2003 international conference on Intelligent
    ser interfaces, January 2003, 19-25
  • Corsi, S, M Pozzi, G Tagliabue. A new Real-time
    Digital Simulator of the Turbine Alternator Grid
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References
  • Coughlan, Kiran L. and Paul J Nolan. Developing
    Special Purpose Simulators Under Microsoft
    Windows. Proceedings of the 1995 Winter
    Simulation Conference, 969-976
  • Deasy, Joseph O., M. Victor Wickerhauser, Mathieu
    Picard.Accelerating Monte Carlo simulations of
    radiation therapy dose distributions using
    wavelet threshold de-noising, Med Physics,
    29(10), Oct 2002, 2366-2373

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