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The American Revolution

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Title: The American Revolution


1
The American Revolution
  • Reading Chapter 7

2
Introduction
  • The War Great Britain expected to win.
  • Americans had several advantages
  • Space.
  • Distance.
  • Important International Allies.
  • Holland, France, and Spain.
  • Expected to profit from Britains troubles.
  • France would help change the path of history
    (Yorktown).
  • All Americans had to make a choice.

3
The First Two Years Battle For Boston
  • British General Thomas Gage
  • Located in Boston.
  • Royal Governor of Massachusetts.
  • Boston was surrounded by American encampments.
  • Grew following Concord and Lexington.
  • Did not have the equipment to drive the British
    from Boston.
  • Not even a single canon.
  • May 1775
  • Benedict Arnold
  • Green Mountain Boys and Ethan Allen
  • Capture canons and artillery from Fort
    Ticonderoga (NY).

4
The First Two Years Battle For Boston
  • June 1775
  • General Gage issued proclamation
  • Amnesty to rebels who surrendered.
  • Armed rebels are traitors.
  • Colonists expanded their fortifications outside
    Boston.
  • June 17, 1775
  • British ships pounded Breeds Hill with canon
    fire.
  • William Howe led 2,400 troops to take the hill.
  • Ordered frontal attack.
  • Near massacre of British soldiers.

5
The First Two Years Battle For Boston
  • June 17, 1775, cont
  • Americans ran out of ammunition.
  • Fled.
  • British charged up the hill.
  • Bayoneted the few remaining rebels.
  • British suffered more casualties than in any
    other battle of the American Revolution.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill.

6
Washington Takes Charge
  • June 3, 1775
  • George Washington arrived at Cambridge (Mass) to
    take command of his army.
  • Disgusted
  • No discipline.
  • Men fired muskets at random.
  • Used muskets to start fires.
  • Used muskets to shoot at geese.
  • Dirty and smelly.
  • Open latrines.
  • But not surprised.
  • These men were not soldiers.
  • Chaos created by fear, boredom, excitement,
    homesickness.

7
Washington Takes Charge
  • George Washington sets things straight
  • Reorganized militia units.
  • Replaced incompetent officers.
  • Strict moral codes
  • No profanity.
  • Worship attendance required.

8
1776 The British Strategy
  • Reorganizing and making plans.
  • Learned of Arnolds victory at Ticonderoga.
  • Laid plans to evacuate Boston.
  • March 1776
  • Thomas Gage leaves for Nova Scotia.
  • General William Howe takes command.
  • Governor of Canada assures him that Canada is
    loyal to the crown.
  • Set out to locate loyalist hotbeds in America.
  • New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Carolinas.
  • Overestimated number of loyalists.
  • Tried to win over Americans who were undecided or
    wavering.
  • Abuses on American citizens by British and
    Hessian troops made this difficult.
  • Moved War south in 1776.

9
1776 The British Strategy
  • Southern campaign goes badly for the British.
  • Coordinating troops and supply lines was
    difficult.
  • Early 1776
  • North Carolina.
  • Not enough British troops could be brought in to
    support Loyalists.
  • Defeated at Battle of Moores Creek (Feb. 1776).
  • British moved to South Carolina.
  • Abandoning North Carolina loyalists.

10
1776 The British Strategy
  • June 1776
  • Generals
  • Henry Clinton
  • Charles Cornwallis
  • Ready to attack South Carolina.
  • Port of Charleston.
  • Fleet of 50 ships and 3,000 men.
  • High tide stranded troops on islands.
  • British cannon fire could not penetrate colonial
    defenses.
  • British end southern campaignfor now.
  • Loyalists denounced, mobbed, imprisoned, tortured.

11
Escape from New York
  • General William Howe
  • Preparing massive invasion of New York.
  • July 1776
  • British sailed into New York Harbor.
  • Largest expeditionary force of the 18th century.
  • 30,000 troops (1/3 were Hessians).
  • Outnumbered population of New York.
  • Howe did not want to attack Americanspaused.

12
Escape from New York
  • General George Washington
  • Rushed army from Massachusetts to defend New
    York.
  • August 22, 1776
  • British advance began.
  • Moved toward Brooklyn neck of Long Island.
  • Continental Army broke and disintegrated.
  • Retreated to Manhattan Island.
  • Attacked on September 15.
  • Retreated towards north and followed by British.
  • Harlem Heights
  • Continental Army has a victory.
  • Still in retreat.
  • British stopped advancing.

13
Battle of Trenton
  • General Howe (British)
  • Established winter quarters in New York.
  • General Washington
  • Too nervous to establish winter quarters.
  • Troop enlistments about to end.
  • Needed to turn things around Needed a target.
  • Trenton, New Jersey.
  • 3,000 Hessians at garrison.
  • December 24, 1776
  • Washington and his troops crossed the icy
    Delaware River.

14
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15
Battle of Trenton
  • Battle of Trenton
  • Hessians not expecting trouble.
  • Drunk.
  • Early morning of December 25, 1776
  • Washington attacks!
  • Dazed, hung over, and confused, the Hessians
    surrendered.
  • Washington did not lose one soldier.
  • Much needed victory.
  • Washington followed victory with plea to troops.
  • Half re-enlisted.
  • The Continental Army would live to fight another
    day.

16
Battle of Princeton
  • January 1777
  • Washington crossed into New Jersey.
  • Confronted the British.
  • Bravery of Washington.
  • British retreated.
  • Washington charged after them.
  • Trenton and Princeton victories
  • Raised the morale of the Continental Army.
  • Winter quarters (77) at Morristown, NJ.

17
Battle of Princeton
  • Washington knew
  • The war was still an up hill battle.
  • Spring the British would go for Philadelphia.
  • Washingtons requests for supplies
  • Met with delay.
  • July 1777
  • William Howe sails up Chesapeake Bay.
  • To Philadelphia.
  • Congress fled as news of Howes plans spread.

18
Philadelphia!!
  • South of Philadelphia
  • Brandywine Creek.
  • Americans attempt to stop British advance.
  • Fail.
  • Philadelphia
  • British experience no major resistance when
    occupying the city.
  • British occupy the American capital.

19
Gentleman Johnny in New York
  • British General John Burgoyne (Gentleman Johnny).
  • Plan to sever New England from other colonies.
  • Burgoyne to go south from Montreal.
  • Anther group from east with Iroquois warriors.
  • Howe would come in from New York.
  • The three would meet at Albany, NY.
  • Thus isolating New England.
  • Giving British chance to crush rebellion.

20
Gentleman Johnny in New York
  • Problems with Burgoynes plans
  • No understanding of terrain.
  • Overestimated Iroquois support.
  • Howe never informed of plans.
  • Still in Philadelphia (not New York).
  • Plan in action
  • Burgoyne left Montreal July 1777.
  • Retook Fort Ticonderoga.
  • Terrain slowed advance to snails pace.
  • Food and supplies ran low.
  • Attacked by Ethan Allen and Green Mountain Boys.
  • Reach Albanyalone and stranded.
  • September1777 Planned retreat north.
  • Forced to surrender on October 17, 1777.
  • To American force led by Horatio Gates.

21
Winter of 1777 Valley Forge
  • News of Burgoynes surrender
  • Gave a powerful boost to American confidence.
  • Gave a major blow to British confidence.
  • General George Washington
  • Knew the victory was not the end of the war.
  • Winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
  • Sent urge requests for money to support Army.
  • Congress ignored the Generals pleas. Why?
  • Confident in a short war.
  • Broke.

22
Spring at Last
  • Spring 1778 brought several changes
  • Washingtons army better trained.
  • Baron von Steuben.
  • General William Howe called back to England.
  • Replaced by Henry Clinton.
  • Immediately laid plans to abandon Philadelphia.
  • The French formally recognized the independence
    of the United States of America.
  • Did not immediately alter the situation.

23
Stalemate!!
  • Following the defeat of John Burgoyne at
    Saratoga.
  • The British used a more cautious approach.
  • Due to the absence of French naval ships.
  • The Americans held back a bit.
  • Stalemate!!!

24
Stalemate!!
  • Henry Clinton
  • Aware of the dangers of French support for
    colonies.
  • Main supply line to British in Philadelphia was
    the Delaware River.
  • This would be an attractive target for French
    ships.
  • Spring 1778
  • British were on the march out of Philadelphia.
  • East through New Jersey to New York.

25
Stalemate!!
  • George Washington
  • Determined to take advantage of British retreat
    from Philadelphia.
  • Sent Charles Lee to fight the British.
  • At Monmouth in New Jersey.
  • Lees leadership was a disaster.
  • Washington took over.
  • Americans drove the British back.
  • The Battle of Monmouth (June 28, 1778)
  • Not a decisive victory for Washington.
  • A good recovery from certain defeat.

Molly Pitcher
26
Stalemate!!
  • Following Monmouth
  • Charles Lee was discharged from the Army.
  • The Continental Army was inactive.
  • The Continental Army suffered from discipline
    problems.
  • Mutinies.
  • Desertions.
  • Washington to von Steuben
  • The prospect, my dear Baron, is gloomy

27
Stalemate!!
  • War moved West and South.
  • The West
  • Fall/Winter of 1778
  • Deadly Indian attacks.
  • Western Kentucky and Virginia.
  • Promoted by the British.
  • Indian allies to the British would remain a
    serious problem in the backcountry.

28
The War Goes South
  • Fall of 1778
  • British start moving troops from New York to the
    South.
  • December 1778
  • British launch an attack on Savannah, Georgia.
  • Savannah surrendered.
  • Resistance in Georgia collapsed.
  • Late 1779
  • Henry Clinton sailed for Charleston, SC.
  • Charleston fell to British control in May of
    1780.
  • The Americans lost the major city of the South.
  • Expensive victory for the British.

29
The War Goes South
  • After the victory at Charleston
  • Henry Clinton returned to New York.
  • Left Charles Cornwallis in charge.
  • 8,000 regulars.
  • To conquer South Carolina.
  • Charles Cornwallis
  • Joined by loyalists.
  • Many had been fighting since the British
    abandoned the South in 1776.
  • Victory at Charleston increased number of
    loyalist guerrillas.
  • A bloody civil war started.
  • Ambushes, arson, and brutality.

30
The War Goes South
  • Summer 1780
  • Loyalists controlled the South.
  • Americans also used guerrilla fighters in the
    South.
  • Francis Marion (Swamp Fox)
  • Recruited black and white men to join his band of
    raiders.
  • Harassed Cornwalliss army.
  • Cut British lines of communication between
    Charleston and inner South Carolina.

31
The War Goes South
  • When fighting broke out between the loyalists and
    patriot guerrillas
  • Very few rules of war were honored.
  • October 1780
  • Battle of Kings Mountain.
  • Patriot guerrillas surrounded loyalists.
  • Killed them one by one.
  • Civilians terrorized.
  • Farms and homes plundered.

32
The War Goes South
  • Southern Continental Army
  • General Horatio Gates.
  • Very little success against Cornwallis.
  • Gates humiliated at Camden (SC).
  • Washington replaced Gates with Nathanael Greene.
  • Greene takes command
  • Unable to confront Cornwallis head on.
  • Negotiated with several Tribes and got support of
    all but Creeks.
  • Split his military
  • Sent 600 troops to western South Carolina.
  • Command Daniel Morgan.

33
The War Goes South
  • Daniel Morgan
  • Cornered by British on open meadow The Cowpens.
  • Had led the British on a chase across the
    roughest South Carolina countryside.
  • British were tired and frustrated.
  • Americans chose to fight.
  • British fled.
  • Returned to main army under the command of
    Greene.
  • Important lesson learned.

34
The War Goes South
  • General Cornwallis tries to attack Greenes
    forces
  • Green led the British on a long, exhausting
    chase.
  • March 1781
  • Guildford Courthouse (NC).
  • Americans forced to withdraw.
  • British loses were high.
  • Cornwallis headed to Wilmington to recover.
  • Cornwallis realized
  • The southern patriots were too strong.
  • Loyalist support fading.
  • Heads to Virginia.

35
The War Goes South
April 1781.Green Street in Fayetteville
Harmony Hall PlantationWhite Oak, NC.
36
Treason and Triumph
  • Washingtons army
  • Strained by months of idleness.
  • Disheartened by Benedict Arnolds treason
  • Fall 1780.
  • Plotted to hand West Point to the British.
  • Harsh blow to Americans.

37
Treason and Triumph
  • May 1781
  • Washington meets with French Naval Commander
    Rochambeau.
  • Washington pushed to attack New York.
  • Rochambeau
  • Proposed moving against British in Virginia.
  • Admiral de Grasse and his fleet already in route
    to Chesapeake Bay.
  • Washington had no choice.
  • July 6, 1781 March to Virginia begins.

38
Treason and Triumph
  • Charles Cornwallis
  • Unaware of American/French force.
  • Fought local Virginia militia units.
  • When he learned of Washington/Rochambeaus
    approach
  • Settled in port of Yorktown.
  • Prepared for serious battle.

39
Treason and Triumph
  • New York
  • General Henry Clinton.
  • Learns of Cornwallis situation.
  • Sends small number of ships to help.
  • Too little, too late.

40
Treason and Triumph
  • September 1781
  • French/American forces in Virginia.
  • De Grasses navy arrives in Chesapeake Bay.

41
Treason and Triumph
  • French ships unloaded canon fire on British
    position at Yorktown.
  • Washington directed a steady barrage of artillery
    fire against the British position at Yorktown.
  • British troops dazed.
  • October 17, 1781
  • Cornwallis surrendered.

42
Continental General Benjamin Lincoln
43
Treason and Triumph
  • Fighting continued for another year.
  • Various locations.
  • British occupations of New York, Charleston, and
    Savannah continued.
  • Yorktown convinced the British that victory was
    out of reach.
  • March 4, 1782
  • Parliament votes to end the War.
  • Independence was won.

44
End of Lesson
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