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New Technologies Being Applied to Aquaculture: Advances and Dangers

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Aquaculture is making huge advances in production ... Almost all aquaculture is more sustainable than commercial fishing. Introduction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Technologies Being Applied to Aquaculture: Advances and Dangers


1
New Technologies Being Applied to Aquaculture
Advances and Dangers
  • Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. President World
    Aquaculture Society
  • Professor University of Arizona, Tucson,
    Arizona, USA
  • Visiting Professor Asian Institute of
    Technology, THAILAND
  • Busan, KOREA
  • July 2004

2
Overview
  • Advances in biology, production technology,
    processing and marketing
  • Problem areas in future expansion
  • Recommendations of how to proceed

3
Introduction
  • Aquaculture is making huge advances in production
  • Dozens of species of plants and animals are grown
    profitably
  • Aquaculture products continue to provide more
    seafood
  • Almost all aquaculture is more sustainable than
    commercial fishing

4
(No Transcript)
5
Introduction
  • Aquaculture is adopting technologies from a
    variety of fields
  • These include biological sciences, water quality,
    chemistry, medicine, optics, physics,
    communications, and even marketing

6
Biological Sciences
  • Genetics conventional breeding, quality
    markers, gene mapping (salmon, shrimp, tilapia,
    carp genome projects), rapid sequencing
    technologies, future GMOs
  • Traditional selective breeding programs in Japan,
    US, China, Korea, Norway, Brasil, Thailand, and
    Philippines

7
Genetic Improvements in Salmon and Tilapia
(From Mair, G., 2002)
8
The YY male technology
(GMT)
(From Mair, G., 2002)
9
Biological Sciences
  • Better understanding of nutrition, feeding
    behavior and physiology
  • Understanding of reproductive biology
  • Better knowledge of endocrine systems and
    developmental biology
  • Research into microbiological (algae and
    bacteria) communities of aquaculture production
    units.

10
Water Quality
  • Lower cost and better accuracy for monitoring and
    testing of water quality
  • Labs on chips
  • Improved and lower cost mechanical and biological
    filters
  • Better ability to use chemicals to adjust water
    quality

11
Water treatment
  • Improved ozone units
  • Better membrane filtration
  • Lower cost screen filters
  • Improved floating bed bead bio-filters
  • Ion exchange units

12
Chemistry and Drugs
  • New organic and inorganic compounds available to
    the industry
  • Low cost, rapid instrumentation
  • Better ability to use chemicals to adjust water
    quality and drugs to treat diseases

13
Communications, direct observations and remote
sensing
  • Hand-held computers and smart phones for data
    acquisition and analysis
  • Low cost digital microscopes and submersible
    cameras.
  • Ability of divers to communicate underwater and
    to shore.
  • Wireless and satellite technology

14
Internet impacts
  • Sharing of research and production results for
    individual researchers and farming groups
  • Rapid, on-line delivery of scientific papers
  • Lower cost and more rapid delivery of production
    inputs (equipment, feed, fingerlings and seed)

15
Advanced Production systems
16
Large Scale Integrated Farms
17
New Cage Designs
18
Cages for open ocean species
19
Bivalve rearing
20
Intensive Raceway Systems
21
Improved processing
22
Improved marketing
  • Better packaging and presentation
  • Higher quality and consistency of product
  • Better year round pricing
  • More advertising, generic and branding
  • More avenues for marketing

23
Problem Areas
  • Environmental Impacts
  • Protectionism
  • Competition with other resource users
  • Competition with wild seafood
  • Competition with other food suppliers (beef,
    pork, chicken)
  • Over capacity (overproduction and lack of proper
    marketing)

24
Environmental constraints on conventional shrimp
culture
  • Loss of mangroves and other coastal vegetation.

25
(No Transcript)
26
Environmental Imperialism ???
  • Imposition of one countries environmental ethics
    on another
  • Imposed by economic boycotts

27
Conflicts with other resource users
  • Competition for land and water resources
  • Complaints about sea cages, bivalve farms, and
    other in water production from boaters and
    fishermen
  • Complaints about visual pollution
  • Concerns over wild and aquaculture stock
    interactions (genetics and diseases)

28
Protectionism
29
Competition with wild seafood
30
Protectionism
  • Shrimp fishers in US
  • Salmon fishers in EU and US
  • Crayfish fishers in US
  • Catfish farmers in US
  • Tilapia farmers in Mexico
  • Target 6 countries
  • Target Norway, US, Canada, Chile
  • Target China
  • Target Vietnam
  • Target - China

31
SolutionsEnvironmental aspects
  • Address environmental concerns, make farms more
    sustainable
  • Polyculture systems
  • Integrated with irrigated farming
  • Use more plant proteins and fishery by-products
  • Treat effluents
  • Find new markets for waste products

32
Shrimp and Seaweeds
  • Gracilaria and shrimp production in Hawaii

33
Laminaria, Porphyra and Fish/Bivalves in Korea
  • Seaweed Research Center of NFRDI in Wando, Korea
  • Korea US Aquaculture http//www.lib.noaa.gov/kor
    ea/
  • Presentations at WAS 2004

34
Shrimp and halophytes
35
SolutionsCompetition with wild seafood
  • Advertise advantages of farm-raised
  • Develop new product forms
  • Describe environmental advantages of aquaculture

36
SolutionsCompetition with other foods
  • Advertise health aspects
  • High protein low fat
  • Low carbohydrates
  • Omega 3 fatty acids

37
SolutionsProtectionist aspects
  • Education of consumers and competitors
  • Most protectionism is mutually destructive
  • Use political connections
  • Find new markets for products and new product
    forms

38
SolutionsOver capacity (overproduction and lack
of marketing)
  • Increase directed marketing and advertising
  • Switch some production to other species.
  • Lower production costs

39
SolutionsOver capacity (overproduction and lack
of marketing)
  • Develop niche markets
  • Organic markets (with certifications)
  • Local markets (farm stores, municipal markets,
    government programs)

40
Local advertising
41
Solutions
  • Processing and "value-adding" will intensify in
    producing countries

42
Increasing direct retail sales
43
Alternative products from wastes and by-products
  • Fish meals and fertilizers
  • Fish skin leather
  • Fish sticks and other by-products
  • Fish scale flowers

44
Thank you
  • Questions?
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