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Update in Veterinary Medicine

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Not one test is 100% reliable for detecting TB in zoo animals ... Inserting endotracheal tube too deeply. Anesthetic Monitoring. Heart Rate. Peripheral pulses ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Update in Veterinary Medicine


1
Update in Veterinary Medicine
  • Dr. Maria M. Crane
  • Zoo Atlanta

2
Overview of Discussion
  • Medical management of captive orangutans
  • Preventative Medicine
  • Anesthesia Protocols
  • Vaccinations
  • TB testing
  • Current Health Issue

3
Preventative Medicine
  • Quarantine 30 to 90 days
  • - 120 days or longer if wild caught
  • Physical Examinations
  • Frequency 12 24 months
  • Palpation of the animals abdomen,
    musculoskeletal system, rectal palpation,
    thoracic auscultation, and exam of eyes, ears,
    oral cavity and urogenitial system

4
Dental Exams
  • Oral cavity exam
  • Dental prophylaxis
  • Remove tartar calculi
  • Periodontal disease
  • Tooth problems
  • Cavities, fractures
  • Dental radiographs

5
Periodontal Disease
6
Blood Collection
  • Sites brachial, saphenous or femoral veins
  • Complete blood count
  • Serum chemistry panels
  • Serum banking

7
Blood Collection
  • Lipid panel
  • Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL
  • Thyroid hormone testing
  • Viral serology
  • Blood typing
  • Cardiac isoenzymes

8
Urinalysis
  • Collection clean catch or sterile urinary
    catheterization
  • Data on bladder health, kidney function
    diabetes
  • Complimentary with CBC serum chemistry profiles

9
Diagnostic Imaging
  • Radiographs
  • Thoracic, abdominal, dental
  • Ultrasound
  • Abdominal, reproductive
  • Endoscopy
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Gastroscopy
  • Computed Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Gastroscopy

10
Radiographs
11
Abdominal Ultrasound Exam
12
Reproductive Ultrasound Exam
13
Bronchoscopy
14
Vaccinations
  • Based on history and exposure risks
  • Current vaccination recommendations for humans
    and animals
  • Hand-raised neonates naïve juveniles

15
Vaccinations
  • Minimal Vaccines Recommendations
  • Polio
  • Tetanus
  • Measles
  • Additional Vaccines
  • Rabies
  • Influenza A B
  • West Nile Virus
  • Hepatitis B

16
Additional Vaccinations
  • Hand-raised
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Hepatitis B
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b
  • Geriatric
  • Pneumococcal vaccine

17
Parasite Control
  • Fecal examinations
  • Direct exam, floatation sedimentation
  • Frequency
  • 2 4 times a year
  • Fecal culture sensitivity
  • Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter
    spp., E. coli strains, Yersinia spp.

18
Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Significant cause of morbidity and mortality in
    domestic and wild animals worldwide
  • Zoonotic disease
  • Potential problems with TB
  • Restriction of animal movement
  • Issues associated with human health
  • Euthanasia of potentially healthy animals

19
Tuberculosis
  • TB complex comprised of pathogenic Mycobacterium
    spp.
  • M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum,
    M. microti and M. pinnipedii
  • Orangutans M. tuberculosis M. bovis
  • M. avium atypical mycobacterial

20
TB Testing
  • Guidelines for testing based on standards
  • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
  • Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Animal Health Committee of AZA (AHC)

21
Problems with TB testing
  • Orangutans non-specific reaction
  • Not one test is 100 reliable for detecting TB in
    zoo animals
  • Routine screening and clinical evaluation of
    suspect cases requires multiple tests

22
Mycobacterial Testing
  • Intradermal test with old mammalian tuberculin
  • Thoracic radiographs
  • Gastric, tracheal or bronchoalveolar lavage
  • CS ( 8 weeks or )
  • acid fast stain

23
Additional Mycobacterial Testing
  • Serologic tests
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • ELISA
  • Multiantigen-print immunoassay
  • MAPIA
  • Detect antibodies
  • Immunoassays
  • Primagam
  • Cell-mediated response
  • Cytokine production
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA
    probes
  • Identification of mycobacterium species
  • Test culture-negative samples

24
Necropsy
  • Standardized Necropsy Report for Great Apes
  • Gross examination and histopathology
  • Bacterial culture if infection suspected
  • Collect Blood bank, viral serology,
  • toxicology
  • Send Reports to Vet advisor Pathology advisor

25
Chemical Immobilizations
  • Injectable anesthetics for inductions
  • Ketamine alone
  • Ketamine combined with Midazolam, Diazepam,
    Butorphenol or Medetomidine
  • Tiletamine/zolazepam or Telazol
  • Gas Anesthesia
  • Isoflurane or Sevoflurane

26
Intubation
  • Intubation to provide gas anesthesia for longer
    procedures
  • Problems
  • Laryngospasm
  • Inserting endotracheal tube too deeply

27
Anesthetic Monitoring
  • Heart Rate
  • Peripheral pulses
  • Respiratory - rate depth
  • Body temperature

28
Anesthetic Monitoring
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Electrocardiography
  • Blood Pressure
  • End-tidal Capnography
  • Intravenous catheter fluid therapy

29
IV catheter
30
Fluid Therapy
31
Current Health Issues
  • Respiratory Disease
  • Airsacculitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Sinusitis

32
Airsacculitis
33
Airsacculitis
34
Airsacculitis Surgery
35
Marsupialized Air Sac
36
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Failure
  • Fibrosing Cardiomyopathy
  • Risk Factors ?
  • Genetics
  • Blood pressure
  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Stress
  • Age related

37
Gastrointestinal Problems
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Obesity

38
(No Transcript)
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