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Title: vacuum tubes, plug boards. Still very slow and used fo


1
Introduction to Operating Systems
  • Yücel Saygin
  • Some of these slides are based on your text book
    and on the slides prepared by Andrew S. Tanenbaum

2
Early Computers
  • Charles Babbage (1791-1871) designed the first
    true digital computer called the analytical
    engine.
  • That was purely mechanical and intended to do
    math operations
  • The engine was supposed to be made of brass, and
    steam powered
  • He did not actually built the machine but
    inspired others in the field.

3
Early Computers
  • Babbage also thought of the concept of software
  • And hired the first programmer (Lady Ada,
    Countess of Lovelace) for his analytical machine

4
Current Computer Systems
  • A computer system consists of
  • hardware
  • system programs
  • application programs

5
What is an Operating System
  • It is the software that enables us to use the
    hardware
  • It is a resource manager
  • Allocates system resources such as I/O devices,
    CPU etc
  • Schedules different jobs etc

6
History of Computinghttp//www.computerhistory.or
g/
  • Hewlett Packard was founded in 1939 by  David
    Packard and Bill Hewlett,
  • Their first product, the HP 200A Audio Oscillator
  • Walt Disney Pictures ordered eight of the 200B
    model to use during the creation of the movie
    Fantasia.

7
History of Computinghttp//www.computerhistory.or
g/
Konrad Zuse Zuse Z3
  • Computer wars
  • Germany vs Britain

Alan Turing The bombe
8
History of Operating Systems (2)
  • First generation 1945 - 1955
  • vacuum tubes, plug boards
  • Still very slow and used for scientific
    calculations
  • No OS was needed
  • Programs were entered by setting some switches

9
A Famous Remark!
  • "I think there is a world market for maybe five
    computers."
  • Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM - 1943

10
History of Operating Systems (2)
  • Second generation 1955 1965
  • transistors, batch systems
  • Universities started to buy computers (spending
    millions of dollars)
  • Punched cards were used
  • To run a job (a program or a set of related
    programs) first punch it and give the deck to the
    operators and wait for the output (batch
    operation)
  • Computers were single user

11
History of Operating Systems (3)
  • JOB card specifies
  • the max runtime in minutes
  • The account number to be charged
  • The programmers name
  • FORTRAN card tells the operating
  • System to load Fortran compiler
  • RUN means run the program with
  • The following data
  • END end of job
  • Structure of a typical Fortran Monitoring System
    job a 2nd generation operating system

12
History of Operating Systems (1)
  • Early batch system
  • bring cards to IBM 1401 machine (good at card
    reading)
  • read cards to tape
  • put tape on IBM 7094 which does computing
  • put tape on IBM 1401 which prints output offline

13
Famous Remarks
  • "I have traveled the length and breadth of this
    country and talked with the best people, and I
    can assure you that data processing is a fad that
    won't last out the year.
  • The editor in charge of business books for
    Prentice Hall - 1957

14
History of Operating Systems
  • Third generation 1965 1980
  • Integrated Circuits
  • Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems
    Division of IBM, 1968, commenting on the
    microchip
  • "But what ... is it good for?"

15
History of Operating Systems
  • Third generation 1965 1980
  • Integrated Circuits and multiprogramming
  • IBMs System/360 mainframe computer with a
    standard architecture designed to handle both
    scientific and commercial computing

16
History of Operating Systems
  • Third generation 1965 1980
  • OS/360 was the operating system of System/360
  • First the single task Primary Control Program
    was introduced
  • Then Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of
    Tasks
  • Finally Multiprogramming with a Variable number
    of Tasks
  • In multiprogramming, multiple jobs are in the
    memory and when a job finishes another can start
    immediately while the free memory partition is
    being reloaded

17
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Multiprogramming system
  • three jobs in memory 3rd generation

18
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • The concept of spooling was introduced by 3rd
    generation operating systems
  • They loaded the programs from cards to disk, and
    whenever a job is finished and a memory partition
    was available, it is loaded directly to memory.
  • Third generation OSs were still not interactive,
    i.e., whenever there is an error, programmers
    would realize it after a couple of hours.
  • This problem lead to timesharing systems where
    the user has an online terminal

19
History of OS
  • MULTICS, another third generation OS introduced
    the concept of client server computing and
    influenced other OS
  • MULTICS (father of all modern OS) led to the
    development of UNIX
  • UNIX (1970, ATT) became popular with companies
    and government agencies, and people started to
    develop their own UNIX OS
  • IEEE developed a standard for UNIX, called POSIX
    to prevent chaos.
  • POSIX defined a standard set of system call
    interface that conformant UNIX systems should
    support.

20
History of OS
  • Tanenbaum wrote a version of UNIX called MINIX
    with POSIX support for educational use.
  • A Finnish student Linus Torvalds wrote a free
    production of MINIX called ?

21
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Fourth generation 1980 present
  • personal computers were developed after LSI
    (Large Scale Integration) circuits were invented.
  • First Microcomputer
  • Intel 8080 CPU attached 8-inch floppy disk
  • First disk based OS CP/M (Control Program for
    Microcomputers)
  • In 1980s IBM designed the IBM PC and contacted
    Bill Gates for an operating System

22
Famous Remark
  • There is no reason anyone would want a computer
    in their home.
  • Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of
    Digital Equipment Corp. - 1977

23
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Bill Gates suggested IBM that they should look at
    CP/M (one of the the most successful OS for
    microcomputers at that time, by Gary Kildall)
  • The biggest mistake of all
  • Kindall refused to sign a non-disclosure
    agreement
  • IBM went back to Bill Gates and signed a contract
    with him to write an OS for their new home
    computer
  • MS-DOS was based on QDOS, the "Quick and Dirty
    Operating System" written by Tim Paterson of
    Seattle Computer Products,
  • QDOS was based on Gary Kildall's CP/M
  • Microsoft bought the rights to QDOS for 50,000

24
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Early MS-DOS was very primitive but later
    versions included advanced features taken from
    UNIX
  • The early OS for microcomputers were based on
    users typing in commands from the keyboard
  • Doug Engelbart from SRI invented the Graphical
    User Interface (GUI) with windows, icons, menus,
    and mouse.

25
Famous Remark
  • We don't see Windows as a long-term graphical
    interface for the masses.
  • A Lotus Software Development official, while
    demonstrating a new DOS version - 1989

26
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Steve Jobs saw the value of GUI in a PC and
    developed the Apple computer with GUI (Apple
    Macintosh) in his garage.
  • He is also the co-founder of Pixar which has
    created very successful animated films Toy Story
    A Bug's Life Toy Story 2 Finding Nemo
    Monsters.

27
History of Operating Systems (4)
  • Microsoft developed a GUI-based system called
    Windows which originally ran on top of MS-DOS
    (just as a GUI to DOS)
  • Windows 95 and 98 were real GUI based operating
    systems still based on 16 bit Intel assembly
    language
  • Windows NT is 32-bit rewrite from scratch version
    of Windows 98.
  • Windows 2000 (Windows NT version 5.0), Windows Me.

28
Interesting TV Series
  • Pirates of Silicon Valley
  • Available in information center as VHS

29
The Operating System Zoo
  • Mainframe operating systems
  • Room-size computers
  • High I/O capacity
  • Offers
  • batch processing (no interaction, such as large
    reports)
  • Transaction processing (small requests)
  • Timesharing (multiple users sitting in front of
    clients)

30
Famous Forcast
  • Popular Mechanics, forecasting the relentless
    march of science, 1949
  • "Computers in the future may weigh no more than
  • 1.5 tons."

31
The Operating System Zoo
  • Server operating systems
  • Offer services like print, file, or web
  • UNIX, Windows 2000, Linux
  • Multiprocessor operating systems
  • Parallel computing
  • Personal computer operating systems
  • Single user with a good GUI, such as Windows 98,
    Windows 2000, Macintosh OS, Linux

32
The Operating System Zoo
  • Real-time operating systems
  • E.g. industrial process control systems where
    each job must be completed in the specified time.
  • Hard real-time (nuclear reactor control systems)
    or soft-real time systems (e.g multimedia
    systems) depending on the acceptance of missing
    deadlines
  • Embedded operating systems
  • Real-time systems with some resource constraints
    like memory, CPU, power.
  • Smart card operating systems
  • Extremely primitive OS running on credit card
    sized devices with a CPU.

33
Computer Architecture
  • Evolution
  • Charles Babbage
  • Difference Engine, automatically calculated the
    logarithmic tables etc
  • He did not implement it cause he found another
    idea, the analytical engine
  • His difference engine was reconstructed from his
    drawings in 1990s by a team at London Science
    Museum from iron, bronze and steel, consisting of
    4000 components, and weighing 3 tons
  • performed its first sequence of calculations in
    the early 1990's and returned results to 31
    digits of accuracy,
  • But, each calculation requires the user to turn a
    crank hundreds, sometimes thousands of times
    (body building while running a program)

34
Computer Architecture
  • Evolution
  • Charles Babbage
  • Analytical Steam Engine (intended to work with
    steam power)
  • was intended to use loops to control an automatic
    calculator, which could make decisions based on
    the results of previous computations.
  • This machine was also intended to employ several
    features subsequently used in modern computers,
    including sequential control, branching, and
    looping.
  • was never completed cause he would come up with
    another idea to improve his machine

35
Computer Architecture
  • Computers of Today
  • It is evident that the machine must be capable
    of storing in some manner not only the digital
    information needed in a given computation, but
    also the instructions which govern the actual
    routines to be performed on the numerical data
  • Von Neumann computer architecture
  • Based on the idea that the machine has a fixed
    set of electronic parts whose actions are
    determined by a variable program
  • Hardware in Von Neumann computer
  • CPU (Arithmetic Logic Unit Control Unit)
  • Memory Unit
  • I/O Devices
  • Busses to interconnect the other components

36
Computer Hardware
Monitor
Bus
  • Components of a simple personal computer

37
CPU
  • Brain of the computer
  • ALU (Arithmetical- Logical Unit)
  • CU (Control Unit, fetch-execute-decode
    instructions)
  • Has a certain set of instructions it can
    recognize and execute
  • Basic CPU cycle
  • Fetch the next instruction
  • Decode it to determine its type and operands
  • Execute it
  • ..
  • Programs are list of instructions executed by the
    CPU
  • When the computer powers up, CU of CPU starts the
    fetch-decode-execute cycle
  • Instructions may be OS instructions or other
    programs

38
CPU
  • //Assembly language that does a b c
  • load R3, b // Copy the value of b from memory to
    R3
  • load R4, c // Copy the value for c from memory to
    R4
  • Add R3, R4 // sum placed in R3
  • Store R3, a // store the sum into memory cell a

010010111110
3046
3050
Fetch Unit
PC
3054
3054
3058
Decode Unit
Load R4, c
IR
Exec Unit
Main Memory
39
CPU
  • Registers hold key variables and temporary
    results
  • They are faster to access than the main memory
  • Special Registers
  • Program Counter contains the memory address of
    the next instruction to be fetched
  • Instruction Register contains the current
    instruction
  • Stack pointer points to the top of the current
    stack in memory
  • Program status word contains condition bits set
    by comparison instructions, and control bits
  • Instructions are about loading an instruction to
    registers and manipulating the registers and
    memory locations

Registers
Program Counter
Stack Pointer
Program Stat Word
General Register1
General Register 2
40
Registers and OS
  • OS should be aware of the registers that keep the
    current state of a running program
  • When OS stops running a program it should save
    all the registers to restore the current state of
    the program later on

41
CPU Modes
  • A bit in PSW controls the mode
  • Kernel (supervisor) Mode
  • CPU can execute every instruction in its
    instruction set
  • CPU can use every feature of the hardware
  • OS runs in kernel mode
  • User Mode
  • Only a subset of instructions can be run
  • And a subset of hardware features are accessed
  • Generally all instructions involving I/O and
    Memory protection are disallowed in that mode
  • To obtain OS services, a user program must make a
    system call that traps into kernel mode and
    invokes the OS
  • Trap instruction switches from user mode to
    kernel mode and starts the operating system
    (system calls and errors such as division by zero
    causes trap instructions)

42
Mode (supervisor/user)
Trap Table
S
trap
Trusted code
SUPERVISOR
USER
43
Pipelining
  • Parallelize the fetch, decode, execute sequence
  • Three stage pipeline While executing
    instruction N, decode instruction N1, and fetch
    instruction N2
  • What happens when a conditional branch occurs in
    an instruction?

44
Computer Hardware Review (2)
  • (a) A three-stage pipeline (three instructions
    processed in 1 cycle)
  • (b) A superscalar CPU (with multiple execution
    units)

45
Pipelining
Execute N Decode N1 Fetch N2
Fetch N
Execute N1 Decode N2 Fetch N3
Decode N Fetch N1
Execute N2 Decode N3 Fetch N4
Instruction N
Instruction N 1
Instruction N2
Instruction N3
Instruction N 4
One CPU Cycle
46
Memory Hierarchy
  • Magnetic Tape
  • backup purposes and for storing very large data
    sets.
  • One dimensional, only sequential access is
    possible
  • Reliable (no tape crashes, or time based data
    corruption)
  • Was the main data storage medium of the past
  • Optic CDs
  • Faster than tape
  • Used for permanent storage (now rewritable)

47
Memory Hierarchy
  • Magnetic disks
  • are faster than tapes and CDs
  • They are the main storage medium these days
  • Data stored in concentric cylinders
  • Disk head moves in discrete steps
  • Each position of the disk head identifies a track
    (divided into multiple sectors, typically 512
    bytes)
  • Rotates continuously with a certain speed (e.g.
    10000 rpm)

48
Computer Hardware Review (4)
Structure of a disk drive
49
Disk StructurePicture is from
http//www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/lesson6/lesson6-3
.htm
  • Track is a sequence of bits on a circular region
    on the surface of the plate
  • A surface with 3 tracks

50
Disk StructurePicture is from
http//www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/lesson6/lesson6-3
.htm
  • A track consists of a set of sectors defined with
    a magnetic marking and and ID number
  • Cluster is a collection of sectors

51
Disk StructurePicture is from
http//www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/lesson6/lesson6-3
.htm
  • Cylinder is the collection of tracks with the
    same radius
  • Addressing 1) CHS (Cylinder-head-sector) used
    in most IDE drives
  • 2) LBA (Logical Block
    Address) used in
  • SCSI and advanced
    IDE drives
  • Disk Cache (Buffer) Frequently used data is
    stored in the RAM of the Hard Disk to improve
    read performance

52
Disk Access
  • Data Transfer Rate (DTR) The rate at which bits
    are read from disk and sent to the controller
  • Rotational Latency The avg time to locate a bit
    on a track
  • Seek time Avg time for locating the track

53
Disk Formatting
  • Low Level formatting dividing the disk into
    tracks and sectors (usually Hard Disks are
    already formatted)
  • Partitioning
  • divides the disk drive into logical drives (C D
    E) (using fdisk command in DOS)
  • Every disk drive has a primary partition (say C)
    plus some extended partitions
  • High Level Formatting Preparing drive
    partitions for the OS by creating a root
    directory, creating a FAT etc.

54
DiskCapacity
  • Depends on
  • Number of sides used,
  • How close the bits are (denser the better)
  • Number of tracks on disk
  • 2. And 3. determine the bits/square-inch
  • Early hard disks were 40 MB
  • Nowadays hundreds of GB

55
File System
  • File system enables us to store and access data
    on various storage systems
  • FAT16 (DOS and Windows 3.x)
  • FAT32 (Windows95 and higher, FAT16 can be
    converted to FAT32 )
  • NTFS (Windows NT, not compatible with FAT16 or
    FAT32)
  • Disk is addresses by clusters (collection of
    sectors, ex 512x4 bytes, can be more for larger
    disks)

56
Memory Hierarchy
  • Disks and tapes are mechanical devices, therefore
    they are slow compared to (RAM and Cache)
  • Main Memory (Random Access Memory)
  • Volatile
  • Much Much faster than magnetic disks but more
    expensive too
  • Cache
  • Faster than RAM and more expensive
  • CPU requests first go to cache, and if they are
    there (cache hit) then fine, if not there (cache
    miss) then RAM is accessed
  • There can be multiple cache levels
  • Cache is divided into cache lines (usually 64
    bytes at each line)

57
Memory Hierarchy
  • Registers
  • They are the fastest accessible memory locations
  • Placed at the CPU.
  • They are usually of size 32 bits, or 64 bits
    depending on the CPU type

58
Memory Hierarchy
  • Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • Write once, read many times
  • Low level I/O cards
  • Code for starting the computer
  • Electrically Erasable Rom (EEPROM)
  • Non volatile
  • Flash RAM
  • Non volatile

59
Memory Hierarchy
  • CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
  • Volatile but can be sustained with mother board
    battery for years.
  • May give checksum errors when being corrupted
  • Very small, 64 bytes.
  • Holds the current time and date, configuration
    parameters (like which disk to boot from etc.)

60
Yet another famous quote!
  • "640K ought to be enough for anybody."
  • Bill Gates, 1981

61
Computer Hardware Review (3)
  • Typical memory hierarchy
  • numbers shown are rough approximations

62
Moores Law
  • The figures in the previous slide reflect the
    state of year 2001, and typical numbers change
    every year.
  • In General Moores Law
  • The observation made in 1965 by Gordon Moore
    (co-founder of Intel)
  • He observed that the number of transistors per
    square inch on integrated circuits had doubled
    every year since the integrated circuit was
    invented.
  • He predicted that this will continue for the near
    future.
  • The pace slowed down a little to 18 months
    (instead of 12) and this is the current
    definition of Moore's Law,
  • Most experts expect Moore's Law to hold for at
    least another two decades.

63
Main Memory
  • It is a sequence of subcells
  • Each subcell can store only two values, 0, or 1
    (one bit)
  • 8 subcells (bits) is a cell 1 byte
  • divided into words (of size 2 or 4 bytes)
  • Byte addressible

64
Compiling, Linking and Loading
  • Each processor has a set of predefined
    instructions that it can understand
  • Ex (Intel 8088) C7 C0 C5 9A
  • This tells the processor to load register AX with
    data 9AC
  • Assembly language defines a set of symbolic
    instructions instead of OpCodes (like C7)
  • Ex (Intel 8088) MOV AX, 9AC5H
  • Load register AX with data 9AC5 (written in
    Hexadecimal format)
  • The programs that you write are too high level
  • A program needs to be compiled into a sequence of
    instructions (Machine Language)
  • Machine Language can be directly fetched, decoded
    and executed by the CPU

65
Multi programming
  • A program needs to be loaded into main memory
    before it can be executed
  • Multiple programs in RAM
  • Problems
  • How to protect programs from one another?
  • How to handle relocation?
  • We do not know which MM location the program will
    be loaded
  • We need to handle the addresses referenced in the
    program
  • Solution
  • Modify all addresses when loading (X)
  • Do it on-the-fly during execution (X)
  • Use base and limit registers ()

66
Multi programming
  • Base register points to the start of the program
    text
  • Limit register tells how large the combined
    program and data are
  • When an instruction is to be fetched
  • Hardware checks to see if the PC (program
    counter) is less than the limit register
  • If so adds it to the base register and sends the
    sum the the Main Memory.
  • Base register contents are added to every memory
    address reference, so program can not reference
    the memory below base register
  • Limit register makes it impossible to reference
    locations above it
  • Both Protection and Relocation problems are
    solved with base and limit registers

67
Computer Hardware Review (5)
  • One base-limit pair and two base-limit pairs

68
I/O Devices
  • An input device transfers data from a mechanism
    like keyboard, mouse, touch screen, or microphone
    into a CPU register
  • CPU will then store the data into Main Memory
  • For Output devices, CPU fetches the information
    from main memory to its registers and transfers
    this information via the bus to an output device
    like screen, speaker, or printer.
  • Communication devices serial and parallel
    ports, infrared transmitter/receivers, wireless
    network cards, network interface cards

69
DISK
PRINTER
PRINTER CONTROLLER
DISK CONTROLLER
CPU
MEMORY CONTROLLER
  • Device controllers have microprocessors,
  • They can work in parallel.
  • They can read/write devices and memory in
    parallel.
  • They can tell CPU when they are done.

MEMORY
70
Interrupts
  • Once a device is started by the device driver,
    the application can not proceed until the
    operation is complete
  • The Device driver can do
  • Polling and busy-waiting (continuously checking
    the flags of the device)
  • Or the device can signal the CPU when it has
    finished its job

71
Interrupts
  • An interrupt request flag is added to CPU and
    control unit checks this flag during each
    fetch-execute cycle.
  • All the device done flags are connected to the
    interrupt request flag using OR logic.
  • When a done flag is set for any device, then
    the interrupt request flag is also set informing
    the control unit of CPU

72
Computer Hardware Review (6)
(a)
(b)
(a) Steps in starting an I/O device and getting
interrupt (b) How the CPU is interrupted
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