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Climate Change and Biodiversity Saadullah Ayaz

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Title: Climate Change and Biodiversity Saadullah Ayaz


1
Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity
Saadullah Ayaz IUCN- Pakistan
2
BIODIVERSITY AND IUCN
  • IUCN believes that conserving biodiversity
    involves addressing (i) species and their
    sub-populations (ii) genetic diversity
    and (iii) ecosystems. Hundreds of projects are
    underway around the world aimed at saving species
    and ecosystems and providing the knowledge needed
    for successful conservation action. IUCN's
    biodiversity conservation work is carried out by
    its various programmes including Water, Forests,
    Marine, Species, Ecosystem Management and
    Protected Areas. The following IUCNs global
    programme cater for biodiversity concernsIUCN
    Species ProgrammeIUCN Global Marine
    ProgrammeIUCN Water ProgrammeIUCN Forest
    Conservation ProgrammeIUCN Ecosystem Management
    ProgrammeIUCN Protected Areas Programme
  • http//www.iucn.org/what/tpas/biodiversity/solutio
    ns/

3
CLIMATE CHANGE AND IUCN
  • IUCN believes that conserving nature can help
    reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) and
    help us adapt to the impacts of climate change
  • IUCNs work puts nature at the centre of climate
    change solutions in hundred of programmes and
    projects across the world
  • IUCNs Climate Change Network coordinates and
    facilitates climate change work across the
    Unions programmes, commissions and member
    organizations. IUCNs UN Observer Status offers a
    unique position at key international
    decision-making fora, including the United
    Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
    (UNFCCC)
  • http//www.iucn.org/what/tpas/climate/

4
IUCN AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
  • The Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) Thematic
    Group of IUCNs Commission on Ecosystem
    Management (CEM), promotes the science and
    practice of Ecosystem-based Adaptation.
  • Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is the use of
    biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of an
    overall adaptation strategy to help people to
    adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.
  • EbA aims to maintain and increase the resilience
    and reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and
    people in the face of the adverse effects of
    climate change.

5
IUCN- PEOPLE AND LIVELIHOODS
  • IUCN introduced Community-based Risk Screening
    Tool - Adaptation and Livelihoods
  • (CRISTAL)
  • CRISTAL can reduce impacts of climate change on
    community livelihoods
  • First tested in IUCN project in Mali
  • (Inner Delta of the Niger River)
  • Made available by IUCN for wider global use
  • (Aliou.Faye_at_iucn.org)

6
IUCNS GUIDELINES FOR PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLES
  • IUCN developed Guidelines for Applying the
    Precautionary Principle to Biodiversity
    Conservation and Natural Resource Management
  • Responding to uncertainty (also relevant to
    climate change)
  • www.pprinciple.net

7
CC AS DRIVER OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS
  • A comprehensive assessment of the links between
    ecosystem health and human well-being, climate
    change is likely to become the dominant direct
    driver of biodiversity loss by the end of the
    century
  • (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2007)
  • Projected changes in climate, combined with land
    use change and the spread of exotic or alien
    species, are likely to limit the capability of
    some species to migrate and therefore will
    accelerate species loss
  • (CBD, 2009)
  • The impacts of climate change on biodiversity
    are of major concern to the UN Convention on
    Biological Diversity (CBD). The Convention also
    recognizes that there are significant
    opportunities for mitigating climate change and
    adapting to it, while enhancing the conservation
    of biodiversity
  • Source Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
    (2001)
  • .

8
BIODIVERSITY AND CC NEXUS
  • The links between biodiversity and climate
    change run both ways biodiversity is threatened
    by climate change, but proper management of
    biodiversity can reduce the impacts of climate
    change
  • Biodiversity and Ecosystem (including forests,
    wetlands and oceans) play a role in climate
    regulation and impacts regional and global
    climate changes)
  • The changing climate has become a major driver
    of biodiversity loss and threatens its role as a
    source of essential goods and services

9
BIODIVERSITY AND CC NEXUS
  • adaptation for biodiversity Adaptation
    measures are
  • needed to protect biodiversity, to enable the
    widest range of biodiversity to survive and
    adapt, and to meet legal duties for biodiversity
    protection.
  • biodiversity for adaptation Biodiversity can
    also play
  • an integral part in adaptation measures for
    other sectors, such as coastal protection by salt
    marshes.
  • Source UN Convention on Biological Diversity
    (2001)

10
IMPACTS OF CC ON BIODIVERSITY
IMPACTS
EXAMPLES
11
IMPACTS OF BIODIVERSITY ON CC
EXAMPLES
IMPACTS
12
CC THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
  • Impacts on production of ecosystems
  • Shrinking habitats (forests and wetlands)
  • Desertification
  • Damage to aquatic ecosystems (coral reefs,
    fisheries)
  • Shifts in the natural world (climate change
    impacts at least 420 physical and biological
    processes),
  • - Upward migration of plant and animal species,
  • - Disappearance of some plant and animal species
    in certain areas,
  • - Impact on breeding behavior,
  • - Change in growing season of plants and
    agriculture crops,
  • - Species extinction (some 25 of mammals and
    12 of birds are threatened).

13
GLOBAL EXAMPLES
Frogs rely on water to breed, any reduction or
change in rainfall could reduce frog
reproduction. Moreover, rising temperatures are
closely linked to outbreaks of a fungal disease
that contributes to the decline of amphibian
populations The projected rise in sea
levels could cause the disappearance of the
tigers habitat, threatening the survival of the
species in coastal forests of Asia
14
GLOBAL EXAMPLES
  • In Africa, pressures from longer dry periods and
    shrinking living spaces are making elephants
    highly vulnerable to climate change
  • Australias Great Barrier Reef could lose up to
    95 of its living coral by 2050 due to changes in
    ocean temperature and chemistry

15
CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS- PAKISTAN
  • 1. 12th most vulnerable country (Maplecroft 2010)
  • 2. Losing at least 19 of GDP each year (Yale
    University 2005)
  • 3. Emission share 0.8 of worlds total- 135th
    ranking (in 2008)
  • Total emissions 309 million tones CO2 eqv.
  • - comprising of 54 CO2,
  • - 36 Methane,
  • - 9 Nitrous Oxide
  • - 1 other gases
  • The biggest contributor is the energy sector
    with 50 share, followed by the agriculture
    sector (39 share), industrial processes (6
    share) and other activities (5 share).

16
CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • 4. Temperature rise 0.6 to 1.0C, since early
    1900s
  • (IPCC- FAR 2007)
  • Temperature may further increase by 1.1 to 6.4 C
    (GCISC 2009)
  • 1.3- 1.5 C by 2020s
  • 2.5- 2.8 C by 2050s
  • 3.9- 4.4 C by 2080s
  • 2.8- 3.4 C by the turn of the 21st century
  • 6. Decrease in precipitation 10 to 15 in last
    40 years (IPCC 2007)
  • 7. Western Himalayan glaciers will retreat for
    the next 50 years, resulting in decrease of
    river flows by up to 30 to 40
  • (GCISC 2008)

17
BIODIVERSITY FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • 1. Status of Species
  • Higher plants 5700
  • Lower plants (pteridophytes) 189
  • Lower plants (algae, fungi) 5275
  • Mammals 195
  • Breeding birds 668
  • Amphibian and Reptiles 199
  • Fish (fresh and marine) 976
  • Lower animals 6182
  • (including echinoderms, crustaceans, molluscs,
    annelids, and arthropods)
  • Threatened species 73

Source MoEnv., 2010
18
BIODIVERSITY FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • Protected Areas (as of 2010)
  • Number of Protected Areas 224
  • (including 23 National Parks, 97 Game
    Sanctuaries, 104 Game Reserves)
  • Total area under protection 9,852,006 ha.
  • 2. Forest Biodiversity
  • Scrub and Trees on farmlands 4.73 million ha.
    (5.014 of land)
  • Others (coniferous, scrub, riverine and mangrove
    3.5 million ha. (2.7 )
  • 3. Agricultural Biodiversity
  • Canal irrigated land 55,982.39 ha. (19.15 of
    land)
  • Rain- fed 2,739.42 ha. (3.28 of land)
  • Rain water harvested 8,28.05 ha. (0.99 of
    land)

Source MoEnv., 2010
19
BIODIVERSITY FACTS- PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • 4. Livestock Diversity
  • Buffalo breeds 2
  • Cattle breeds 8
  • Yak breed 1
  • Goat and Sheep breeds 53
  • Horse breeds 23
  • Camel breeds 4
  • Indigenous poultry breeds 3

Source MoEnv., 2010
20
CC AND BIODIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN
  • IMPACTS ON FOREST RESOURCES
  • Forest lands in northern mountain areas of
    Pakistan would shift from one biome to another
    (north-ward) which would decrease in the
    productivity of this precious resource
  • Change in specie distribution has been recorded,
    some plant species have gained elevation
  • Lower productivity from forest ecosystems is
    predicted due to change in temperature and water
    regimes
  • Spread of pathogens and diseases become frequent
    and wider
  • Incidences of fire (sub-tropical) have become
    common due to drought
  • Mangrove depletetion due to sea intrusion

21
CC AND BIODIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN (contd)
  • IMPACTS ON FAUNA
  • Shrinkage of habitat is intense
  • Some species of freshwater mollusks and
    amphibians have been found threatened
  • Higher elevation gained by insects (moths and
    butterflies)
  • Habitat of brown bear has warmed up, distribution
    has changed
  • Long-tailed Marmots are recorded to appear early
    from hibernation
  • Drastic decline in population of migratory birds,
    due to depletetion of water bodies and feeding
    habitat
  • Many more we dont know..!!

22
CC- AS AN OPPORTUNITY
  • Population of large mammals (Markhor and Ibex)
    have reportedly been increased due to expansion
    of feeding grounds. Since they have gained
    elevation and hence are protected from human
    influence (conservation value of Markhor US
    80000)
  • Some project interventions have successfully
    introduced fish breeding (cold water) and hence
    helped in conservation of local fish population
    in natural water bodies
  • Agriculture practices (particularly wheat
    cultivation) in northern areas is reportedly
    increasing due to higher temperatures. This is
    transforming agriculture thus promoting
    livelihoods
  • Increased water flows (glacial melt) is
    encouraging for hydro-power generation. IN some
    areas, community based micro hydel system has
    been adopted

23
Transforming agriculture in High altitude areas
24
Development of Micro Hydel in Dir- Kohistan
25
  • "Like water, air and soil, biological diversity
    is the hub of the wheel of life. Destroy it, and
    the wheel, however technologically
    sophisticated,will no longer run"
  • (Anonymous)

26
  • Thanks

Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Clean
Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN
Pakistan Email saad.ayaz_at_iucn.org
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