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Europe after World War I. World War I caused the deaths o


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Title: Europe after World War I. World War I caused the deaths o

Exploring American HistoryUnit VIII- Boom Times
and Challenges
  • Chapter 26 Section 1
  • The War Begins

The Clouds of War (0336)
Europe after World War I
  • World War I caused the deaths of millions and the
    destruction of numerous cities and farms. The
    European economy was in ruins.
  • The Treaty of Versailles left many European
    nations unhappy.
  • France thought the treaty was too easy on
  • Italy had been on the winning side of the war but
    was ignored during the peace talks. They had
    hoped to gain territory.
  • Germany was most affected by the Treaty of
  • Germany gave up control of some of its land,
    including some important industrial areas.
  • German was forced to pay reparations to other
    countries, which led to a period of severe
  • The Weimer Republic was not a strong government.
  • It faced opposition from the Communists and the
    far right.
  • The German military was greatly reduced in size
    and power.

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Germany after WWI 148
The War Begins
  • The Big Idea
  • The rise of aggressive totalitarian governments
    led to the start of World War II.
  • Main Ideas
  • During the 1930s, totalitarian governments rose
    to power in Europe and Japan.
  • German expansion led to the start of World War II
    in Europe in 1939.
  • The United States joined the war after Japan
    attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941.

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Main Idea 1 During the 1930s, totalitarian
governments rose to power in Europe and Japan.
  • Several European countries moved towards
    totalitarianism, a political system in which the
    government controls every aspect of citizens

  • Benito Mussolini gained complete control of Italy
    in 1922.
  • Rule based on fascism, a political system in
    which the state or government is seen as more
    important than individuals.
  • In the mid-1930s, began working to expand

  • Adolf Hitler took advantage of public anger over
    effects of Treaty of Versailles to gain power.
  • A member of the National Socialist Party, or
  • Became chancellor in 1933 and seized all
    government power
  • Blamed others for Germanys problems, including
    Jews and Communists

Benito Mussolini
  • Benito Mussolini led the Italian government by
  • His vision of a strong, orderly Italy was
  • He encouraged the use of violence against
    Socialists and Communists, whom many Italians
    blamed for the chaos of postwar Italy.
  • He gained wide support for his views.
  • Angry over the Treaty of Versailles, he founded
    the National Fascist Party.
  • Fascism stressed the glory of the state the
    rights and concerns of individuals were of little
  • Established a dictatorship that allowed no other
    political parties
  • Had total control over daily life in a
    totalitarian regime

Italy (0057)
Third Reich
  • Official designation for the Nazi Party's regime
    in Germany from January 1933 to May 1945. The
    name reflects Adolf Hitler's conception of his
    expansionist regime which he predicted would
    last 1,000 years as the presumed successor of
    the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806, the First Reich)
    and the German empire under the Hohenzollern
    dynasty (1871-1918, the Second Reich).

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Adolf Hitler
  • Adolf Hitler was an Austrian who entered German
    politics because he was angry over the Treaty of
  • Joined a small political party called the
    National Socialists, or Nazis
  • Tried to seize power in Germany by force in 1923
    revolt failed and he was sent to prison
  • From prison, wrote Mein Kampf a book that
    outlined his political ideas
  • Believed in the racial superiority of the German
  • Blamed the Jews for many of Germanys problems
  • Hitler became Germanys chancellor in 1933.
  • Set up a totalitarian dictatorship
  • Secretly began to build up the German military

Adolph Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party
Jesse Owens and the Berlin Olympics of 1936
  • Summer Olympics in Berlin provided Hitler with an
    opportunity to show the world the greatness of
    the German people (The Master Race) and the
    inferiority of certain other groups such as
  • The U.S. Olympic team included many African
    American athletes, such as Jesse Owens.
  • Owens captured gold medals in the 100 and 200
    meter Dashes, the Long Jump and a relay. Living
    proof that Hitlers views on race were wrong.
  • Germany did not learn the lesson of Owens
    example. Hitler preached a message of hate,
    anger and false pride which would rule in Germany.

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The Soviet Union and Japan
  • Joseph Stalin became dictator of the Soviet Union
    by 1928.
  • Communist ruler
  • Terrorized those he saw as political enemies,
    killing or imprisoning millions of Soviet citizens

Soviet Union
  • Group of military leaders slowly gained complete
    control of government.
  • By 1930s, had more influence than the Japanese
  • Wanted to build a large Japanese empire in East
  • Invaded China and killed hundreds of thousands

Russia (0115)
Japan (0051)
1931 Japanese Aggression in Manchuria (0153)
The Rise of Totalitarianism
  • Explain Under Fascism, which is more important,
    individuals rights or the state?
  • Compare- How were the governments of Italy,
    Germany, and the Soviet Union similar at the
    beginning of World War II?
  • Evaluate How do you think Japans strong
    military leaders influenced the emperor?

Main Idea 2German expansion led to the start of
World War II in Europe in 1939.
  • Hitler dreamed of avenging Germanys defeat in
    World War I.
  • Violated the Treaty of Versailles
  • Rebuilt German military
  • Invaded neighboring Rhineland in 1936
  • Germany signed an alliance with Italy and formed
    the Axis Powers.
  • Japan later joined this pact.

Adolf Hitler Gains Power
  • The Rhineland
  • Germany could not have troops in an area of the
    Rhine River valley along the French border.
  • This was meant to protect France against a
    possible German invasion.
  • Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland in 1936.
  • France and Britain were unwilling to stop this.
  • The Anschluss
  • In 1938 Hitler tried to unite the ethnic Germans
    of Austria with those of Germany.
  • He tried to force the Austrian government to
    agree to Anschluss union with Germany.
  • When the Austrian government refused, Hitler sent
    troops into the country.
  • No one stopped Hitler.
  • The Sudetenland
  • Hitler began plans to gain control of a
    German-speaking portion of Czechoslovakia.
  • He encouraged the Germans in the area to protest
    the Czech government and then threatened a
    military attack.
  • Neville Chamberlain and others allowed Hitler to
    annex the Sudetenland.

Hitler Sets His Sights on Sudetenland
  • Hitler demanded control of Sudetenland, a region
    of Czechoslovakia.
  • Czechs turned to allies France and Great Britain.
  • Neither wanted armed conflict.
  • Took appeasement approach a policy of avoiding
    war with an aggressive nation by giving in to its
  • Germany was given control over the Sudetenland in
    return for a promise not to demand more land.
    Munich Pact
  • Some, including British admiral Winston
    Churchill, were convinced this would not stop

Munich Pact - Appeasement
  • Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed
    the Munich Pact in Munich, Germany on September
    29, 1938.
  • Hitler demanded for the secession of the German -
    speaking Sudetanland of Czechoslovakia to
  • Looking for any attempt to prevent further
    confrontations with Hitler, Great Britain and
    France accepted Hitlers demands. France and
    Great Britain were devastated by World War I and
    would be willing to do anything to avoid more
  • With Great Britains and Frances acceptance,
    Hitler promised not to claim any other European
  • British Admiral Winston Churchill said this of
    the agreement- The government had to choose
    between shame and war. They have chosen shame
    and they will have war.

Hitler on the march
  • Lebensraum- Living Room, -all people of German
    blood in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.
  • 1938- March- Hitler invades Austria then
    Sudetenland. The Czech hoped other nations would
    aid them- did not happen.
  • Munich Conference- Chamberlain of England,
    Daladier of France met with Hitler and Mussolini
    at Munich, Germany. Sept. 28, 1938 they agreed
    to dismember Czechoslovakia and appease Hitler.
    Chamberlains said, Peace in our time.
  • November 1938- Hitler increases brutal treatment
    of Jews.
  • March 1939- Hitler seizes rest of Czechoslovakia-
    Appeasement failed.
  • April 7, 1939- Italy invades Albania.
  • Isolationists in Congress still block all of FDR
    attempts to aid the allies.

World War II Begins (0103)
Hitler Moves West
  • August 1939 Hitler and Stalin sign
    non-aggression pact.

September 1, 1939 German forces invade Poland
World War II begins.
September 3, 1939 Britain and France, known as
the Allied Powers, declare war on Germany.
Hitler uses a blitzkrieg, or lightning war,
strategy of quick and hard attacks in Poland
Allied Powers are not prepared.
October 1939 Germany and Soviet forces control
Spring 1940 Germany quickly conquers Denmark,
Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
June 22, 1940 France surrenders to Germany, but
French resistance continues.
The Nazis Conquer Western Europe (0202)
  • The German method of attack known as blitzkrieg,
    or lightning war, was made possible by
    technological advances.
  • The development of tanks that could move rapidly
    the use of airplanes, bombs, and paratroopers
    and coordinated radio communication allowed
    German troops to make rapid offensive moves that
    overwhelmed other European countries.
  • The blitzkrieg was successful in the early years
    of the war but was ineffective in later years, as
    the Allies began to use tanks and planes in a
    similar manner.

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Miracle of Dunkirk
A major battle during World War II which lasted
from May 26 to June 4, 1940. A large force of
British and French soldiers were cut off in
northern France by a German armoured advance to
the Channel coast at Calais. Over 330,000 Allied
troops caught in the pocket were subsequently
evacuated by sea to England in Operation Dynamo.
Operation Dynamo - May 27, 1940 (0305)
Battle of Britain
  • Hitler prepared for invasion of Britain.
  • In July 1940 the Luftwaffe, or German air force,
    began attacking British planes and airfields.
  • In August the Luftwaffe began bombing British
  • British Royal Air Force destroyed some 2,300
    Luftwaffe aircraft.
  • Used new technology of radar
  • Hitler cancelled invasion of Britain.

The War in Great Britain (0236)
Battle of Britain- Hitler called it Sea Lion
(his plan to invade England)
  • France had fallen so Great Britain was standing
    alone against the Nazi, Winston Churchill called
    their finest hour.
  • Hitler sent bombers to bomb British cites during
    the summer and fall of 1939- the idea was to
    force the British to surrender.
  • Factors in the British favor
  • Ultra- intercepted and decoded Germany secret
  • RADAR- Radio, detecting, and ranging- They knew
    when the Germans are coming and where they would
    be. They could move the small RAF around and
    intercept the German bombers.
  • British still had horrible losses. Even with
    Ultra- Conventry was bombed and many died.
  • Germans forced to postponed the invasion. Loss
    of 2,300 aircraft- but began to use the V-1 and

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American Isolationism (0241)
FDR and neutrality
  • FDR warned America about war and that the US
    could not be a mere spectator. He wanted
    quarantine, but did not get it
  • Pacifists- never go to war for any reason.
  • Isolationists- fence off the New World and keep
    the war out.
  • 5th Columnists- German agents operating inside
    the United States waiting to become active.
  • Nazi sympathizers- Italian and German immigrants
    and American Nazi.
  • Defeatists- We can not possible defeat them.
  • Hate England Crowd such as the Irish.
  • Business as usual- businesses profiting from the
    war. Arms manufacturers and bankers profit
    either way.
  • Appeasers- Give in to Hitlers demands

Germany Expands
  • Recall What did Hitler do that was in violation
    of the Treaty of Versailles?
  • Identify- What was the Sudetenland?
  • Make Generalizations What was Churchills
    opinion of the appeasement strategy of Neville
  • Elaborate- Why do you think Great Britain and
    France pledged to defend Poland, but did not get
    involved in Czechoslovakia?

Germany Expands
  • Identify- Name eight countries that were invaded
    by the Axis Powers?
  • Rate How do you think Churchills words made
    the British people feel??
  • Identify Cause and Effect- How did the RAF
    finally defeat the Luftwaffe?

Main Idea 3 The United States joined the war
after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941.
  • The United States opposed Hitlers actions, but
    refused to enter war.
  • In 1940 President Franklin Roosevelt was
  • In 1941 Roosevelt proposed and Congress passed
    the Lend-Lease Act, allowing the president to aid
    any nations believed vital to U.S. defense.
  • Began sending war supplies and assistance to
    Great Britain, China, and other Allied countries
  • Sent supplies to Soviet Union after Hitler
    invaded it in June 1941

The Lend-Lease Act America Aids Great Britain
Helping the British
  • England out of cash for Cash and Carry. With
    Neutrality law in place FDR could not help the
    English and they would surely lose the war.
  • Lend-Lease- clever plan- we would offer to lease
    (lend) to countries whose defense was considered
    vital to the defense of the U.S. - 1941
  • British would not need cash to get the supplies.

Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • United States protested Japanese invasion of
    French Indochina in July 1941.
  • Japanese military leaders planned large-scale
    attack on U.S. naval fleet at Pearl Harbor in
  • December 7, 1941 Japanese planes attacked Pearl
  • Sank or damaged all of the U.S. battleships
    anchored at Pearl Harbor.
  • More than 2,400 Americans killed
  • Almost 200 airplanes destroyed
  • December 8, 1941 United States declared war on
  • Germany declared war on the United States.

The Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • Defenses
  • U.S military planners believed an attack on Pearl
    Harbor was possible.
  • Forces at the base were unprepared to defend it.
  • No single commander was in charge.
  • Routine defensive steps were not in place.
  • The Attack
  • On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked.
  • Aircraft carriers approached the island of Oahu.
  • War planes loaded with bombs and torpedoes left
    the carriers and destroyed American ships and
  • The attack lasted 2 hours.
  • The Aftermath
  • All 8 battleships were damaged 4 were sunk.
  • Nearly 200 aircraft were destroyed.
  • Some 2,400 Americans were dead.
  • Japan lost only a handful of submarines and fewer
    than 30 planes.

Day of Infamy
  • The choice for the Japanese was limited in their
    eyes- Give up the idea of having an empire or go
    to war with the U.S.- The military leaders of
    Japan choose war,
  • October 1941- General Hideki Tojo came to power
  • Magic- intelligence we received from Japan
    after breaking the Japanese code. We knew they
    would attack, but now where. U.S. navy forces
    put on alert status.
  • Dec. 7, 1941- Pearl Harbor. Perfect surprise,
    and the greatest military disaster in American
    History- 150 American warplanes, 8 Battleships, 3
    Cruisers and 3 destroyers, 70 civilians and 2300
  • Dec. 8, 1941- FDR speech to Congress-

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Dec. 7, 1941 425
Dec. 7, 1941 425
  • WWII- A World Conflict
  • Allied Goals-
  • 1st- Defeat the Germans
  • 2nd- U.S. to postpone the offensive in the
    Pacific and continue an active defense.

The United States Joins the War
  • Recall Which campaign promise was President
    Roosevelt unable to keep?
  • Identify- What strategic program extension did
    the United States make?
  • Interpretation What actions did Roosevelt
    intend to take when told Congress, We must be in
    the great arsenal of democracy?
  • Evaluate- What do you think about the United
    States freeze on Japanese funds to force them to

The United States Joins the War
  • Recall Which time of day did the Japanese
    attack Pearl Harbor?
  • Contrast- What was the USS Arizona in 1941, and
    how does it serve today?
  • Rate Why do you think the Japanese attack on
    Pearl Harbor was considered successful?