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Colonial North America Part II


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Title: Colonial North America Part II

Colonial North America Pt. 2
  • Reading
  • Chapter 5 (read)
  • Chapter 4 (review)

Native America
  • Adapted and changed.
  • Incorporated
  • Firearms
  • Metal tools
  • Learned to build log homes
  • Engaged in fur trade.
  • Developed a dangerous dependence.
  • Continued to assert their independence.
  • Played European powers against each other.

Native America
  • 1701 Iroquois
  • British allies.
  • Signed treaty of neutrality with French.
  • Exploited vulnerabilities of two powers.
  • Became a major power broker during the early

Native America
  • The South
  • Maneuvered between the interests of
  • England
  • Spain
  • France
  • The West
  • Acquired horses (Spanish).
  • Enabled them to hunt buffalo herds more
  • Nomadic Plains hunters
  • Arose as large numbers of Native peoples moved
    onto the Plains during the 1700s.

Native America
  • Faced serious challenges
  • Growth of British colonies.
  • Westward push of English.
  • Spread of European diseases.

New Spain
The Spanish
  • New Spain (map next slide)
  • Large Spanish speaking population.
  • Capital Mexico City.
  • Included modern day
  • Florida.
  • Fierce fights with English and Natives.
  • Reduced presence to forts (ex St. Augustine).
  • Established friendly relations with runaway
    African slaves.
  • New Mexico.
  • Isolated from New Spain (like Florida).
  • Subsistence agriculture.
  • Expanded as settlers followed the valleys and

The Spanish
  • French activity in the Mississippi Valley
  • Caused Spanish to
  • Create military posts on the fringes of
  • Establish Franciscan missions among Natives of
  • 1750
  • Settlement of San Antonio had become the center
    of a developing frontier providence (Texas).
  • Colonial outposts settled in modern Arizona.
  • California
  • Conversion of Natives to Catholicism.
  • Subjecting them to Spanish rule.
  • Putting them to work raising the subsistence
    needed for a small civil/military establishment
    (hold province).

New France
The French
  • New France
  • Used trade with local Natives and alliances to
  • Colonies.
  • Military posts.
  • Settlements that extended from the mouth of the
    St. Lawrence River through the Great Lakes, down
    the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Placed missionaries/traders in Native communities
    on Mississippi River.
  • Established communities of farmers all the way
    down to Baton Rouge, Natchez, and New Orleans.
  • Grew wheat Sent to sugar plantations (map pg.

New England
New England
  • Life in New England.
  • Established Church.
  • Puritan Congregations governed towns.
  • Adult male church members were freemen of towns.
  • Selected minister, voted on his salary, elected
    local men to various town offices.
  • Little distinction between church and state.

New England
  • Life in New England.
  • Puritan theology and life dominated.
  • No religious freedom.
  • Established a society where their version of good
    theology would be supreme.
  • New England showing Old England how it should be
  • King Charles II
  • Act of Toleration 1661.
  • Ordered an end to religious persecution of
    dissenters in New England.
  • Religious freedom to dissenters (except
  • New England reluctantly accepted the Act.
  • Protestant churches allowed to meet openly in New

New England
  • Challenges
  • Residents left established towns to form new
  • 1730s
  • Puritan communities had taken up most of the
    available land of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and
    Rhode Island.
  • Isolated areas left from local Native
  • Wampanoag, Narragansett, and Pequot.
  • New England reached the limit of its land supply.

The Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies
  • New York
  • Ethnically diverse population.
  • Puritans, Baptists, Quakers, Catholics, Jews,
    African Americans (slave and free).
  • New York City
  • One of the fastest growing cities in Colonial
    North America.
  • Still, the colony (overall) struggled to attract
    new colonists.
  • Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, and Maryland
    grew faster.
  • Farmers/merchants exporting abundant produce
    through the port of Philadelphia.
  • Church and government (two most important
  • Colonial officials appointed justices of the
    peace to provide judicial authority in the
    country side.

The Middle Colonies
  • Property owning farmers
  • Selected their own local officials.
  • Communities were bound together by kinship and
    economic relations between neighbors.
  • More loosely bound communities than in New
  • Land was sold in individual lots.
  • Farmers dispersed themselves.
  • Villages gradually developed at crossroads (with
    little/no planning).

The Backcountry
The Backcountry
  • Mid 1700s
  • Population moving west (map pg. 112).
  • Backcountry of Pennsylvania Virginia.
  • First great pioneer treks that would take white
    pioneers into the continental interior.
  • Pioneers held no legal title to land (swatters).
  • Delaware Shawnee lands.
  • Viewed pioneers as a threat.
  • Created tensions between English and Natives.

The South and slavery
The South and slavery
  • Reading Chapter 4.
  • Tobacco
  • John Rolfe early 1600s.
  • Set the rhythms of work and play in Chesapeake.
  • Determined
  • Where a planter would live and how he lived.
  • Planting, tending, harvesting, and drying the
    leaves took almost ten months out of the year
    (late winter late fall).
  • Between time Caught up on chores.
  • Repaired buildings and equipment.
  • Built new cabins and sheds.
  • Cut timber and firewood.
  • Social life Quick engagements and marriages.

The South and slavery
  • Search for a viable labor source
  • Cheap enough to ensure profits.
  • Indentured servants
  • Poverty and despair drove them from England to
    the Chesapeake as servants.
  • 1680s
  • Economic recovery in England slowed the flow of
    young Englishmen to the Chesapeake tobacco
  • England gained control over the African slave
  • Dramatic shift in tobacco labor
  • Servants to slaves.
  • Early 1600s Small number of Africans in
  • Prior to 1660s status unclear (slave or

The South and slavery
  • 1660s (forward)
  • Increasing number of African-Americans elicited
    different (and harsher) treatment than white
  • Blacks became servants for life (i.e.slaves).
  • Discrimination made into law.
  • Racist attitudes and economic advantages of a
    slave labor force to shape law.
  • Slave Codes.
  • 1662 Virginia makes slavery hereditary.
  • Ensured natural growth of slavery in the colony.

The South and slavery
  • How did slaves get to America?
  • African slavers
  • Armed with European weapons.
  • Captured men/women.
  • Marched to coast.
  • Delivered them in chains to European ships along
    the west coast of Africa.
  • Captives died on march. Other chose suicide.
  • Middle Passage
  • Nightmare of death, disease, suicide, and mutiny.
  • Casualties included white crew
  • Benin, West Africa White mans grave

The South and slavery
  • Loss of African lives far more dramatic.
  • Slavers were breeding grounds for
  • Yellow fever
  • Scurvy
  • Malaria
  • Dysentery (bloody flux)
  • Small pox
  • Measles
  • Typhus
  • 18 of all Africans who boarded the slavers in
    Africa died on the Middle Passage.

The South and slavery
  • Once in Americas
  • Seasoning
  • Adapted to their new lives as slaves.
  • Had to do what they could to maintain culture and
  • African American culture and sense of community
    grew slowly.
  • Until 1720s.
  • Many slaves worked alone (with slave master
  • Worked in very small groups (2 or 3).
  • Isolation made creation of distinctive slave
    community difficult.
  • On larger plantations, constant new arrivals made
    community development difficult.

The South and slavery
  • New arrivals
  • Had to be taught English.
  • Given time to adapt.
  • Over time, a slave community was created.
  • Wove together and reshaped African and European
    traditions into an African-American culture.

The South and slavery
  • Early 1700s
  • Chesapeake colonies
  • Biracial society.
  • African Americans and European Americans lived
    with very different expectations and constraints.
  • Planters (with slaves)
  • Lived well off tobacco.
  • More modest farmers
  • Impossible to compete with planter elite.
  • Poor Virginia Marylanders moved west.
  • New immigrants avoided plantation society
  • Merchants/craftspeople avoided costal Chesapeake.
  • Few towns/cities.
  • Lacked a sense of community life.
  • Chesapeake remained rural.

The South and slavery
  • The lower South
  • Rice.
  • Created a plantation society.
  • Dominated by the wealthiest colonists.
  • South Carolina and Georgia.
  • Cultivation of Rice
  • Depended on slave labor from the start.
  • 60 of S.C. population were slaves (mid 1700s).
  • Slaves concentrated on large plantations.
  • Little to no contact with white society.
  • Developed Creole culture.
  • Languages mixed with basic English African.

The South and slavery
  • Forms of resistance
  • Distinctive language, religion, family,
    community a form of resistance.
  • Work slowdowns.
  • Fake sickness.
  • Property theft.
  • Damaged property.
  • Runaways.
  • Slave masters feared revolts.
  • Believed some slaves would prefer freedom.
  • Feared slavery would cost them their property and

The South and slavery
  • Rumors of slave revolts constant.
  • Many plots existed only in the slave master's
  • To reduce likelihood of revolts
  • Armed patrols to police roads and woods.
  • Searched for runaways.
  • Searched for slaves up to no good.
  • Some rebellions did occur
  • Few successful.
  • Stono Rebellion
  • Twenty (or so) slaves gathered at the Stono River
    (near Charleston).
  • Seized guns, gunpowder, headed south.
  • White militias from Charleston put an end to the
  • Rebels killed, captured, executed.
  • South Carolina enacted tough slave codes.

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Film, Prince Among Slaves
Population Growth Social Class
  • British Colonies
  • Period of growth 1700s.
  • Grew faster than New Spain or New France.
  • Why?
  • Higher birth rates.
  • Lowering mortality rates.
  • Immigration.
  • French/Spanish limited immigration.
  • English encouraged immigration.

Population Growth Social Class
  • Trans-Atlantic migration
  • Created ethnic diversity.
  • English.
  • Africans Came as slaves.
  • Scots.
  • Irish.
  • Germans.

Population Growth Social Class
  • British North America
  • Upper-class made up of
  • Large landowners
  • Merchants
  • Prosperous professionals
  • Wealthy planters lived very comfortable lives.
  • Celebrated social mobility.
  • Class system was open.
  • The entrance of newly successful planters,
    commercial farmers, and merchants into the upper
    class was common.

Population Growth Social Class
  • British North America
  • Large lower class.
  • Slaves
  • Servants
  • Poor families
  • 40 of total population.
  • Strong middle class.
  • ½ might have been classified as middle class.
  • Majority were landowning farmers of small to
    moderate means.
  • There were also artisans, craftsmen, and small
  • Enjoyed standard of living higher than the great
    majority of people in England.

Colonial Politics
  • Early 1700s
  • British government assumed that a decentralized
    administration would best accomplish its goals in
    the colonies.
  • Majority of colonies
  • Administered by royally appointed governors.
  • Exceptions
  • Connecticut and Rhode Island.
  • Still held charters.
  • Taxation handled locally through elected
  • Assemblies elected by white men with property.

Religion in Colonial Society
  • End of the 1600s
  • New intellectual movement arose in Europe.
  • The Enlightenment.
  • Emphasized the pursuit of knowledge through
    reason and refused to accept ideas based on
    religion or tradition.
  • Argued that reason, not revelation or church
    tradition, was the true path to knowledge.
  • French thinkers
  • Voltair, Rousseau, etc, were the central figures.
  • Agreed on one major point Nature could provide
    for all human wants.

Religion in Colonial Society
  • In the British Colonies
  • Only the elite had access to the books/essays
    written by enlightenment leaders.
  • Drawn to two aspects of Enlightenment thinking
  • Deism
  • Social Contract

Religion in Colonial Society
  • Deism
  • The belief that God created the universe so that
    it would operate on the basis of logical, natural
    laws, without divine intervention.
  • Denied
  • The existence of miracles.
  • The need for prayer.

Religion in Colonial Society
  • Social Contract
  • John Locke
  • Political essays
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Two Treatises of Government
  • Argued that humans have certain natural rights
    that could not be given away nor taken from them.
  • Unalienable rights.
  • Right to own ones self.
  • Right to own ones labor.
  • Right to own property.
  • In exchange for protection from government people
    agreed (social contract) to obey the laws.

Religion in Colonial Society
  • According to Locke
  • The government receives its authority from the
    people it governs.
  • Government cannot claim a divine right to rule.
  • The people express their will in the government
    through elected assemblies.
  • The government is obligated to (1) Protect its
    citizens and (2) Serve the interest of the
  • If government fails to do these two things
  • The people have the right to rebel.

Religion in Colonial Society
  • Deism
  • Attracted few ordinary colonists.
  • However, many colonists were impressed by the
    growing religious diversity.
  • Religious toleration as a practical option.
  • NOT religious freedom.
  • No colony allowed Catholics to vote or hold
  • Some colonies made it a crime to deny the
  • Established churches went unchallenged
  • In the South (Anglicanism)
  • In the North (Congregationalism)

Religion in Colonial Society
  • While religious diversity was growing
  • The number of colonists who were indifferent to
    matters of religion was also growing.
  • Women very involved in religious matters.
  • Men usually too caught up in their place in the
  • Preaching considered too intellectual.
  • 1720s Most colonists expected very little from
    the churches.

The Great Awakening
  • Charismatic preachers.
  • Denounced obsession with wealth.
  • Condemned the sinfulness and depravity of all
  • Warned of eternal hellfire.
  • Praised the saving grace of Jesus Christ.
  • Revival that sprung from this preaching The
    Great Awakening.

The Great Awakening
  • New preaching style
  • Arrived in the colonies during the 1720s.
  • Two travelling preachers
  • William Tennent
  • Denounced local churches for their lack of
    devotion to God.
  • Established Log College train fiery preachers
    to spread revival throughout the colonies.
  • The revival spread throughout communities.
  • Jonathan Edwards
  • New England congregation
  • 1734 Introduced revival.
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

The Great Awakening
  • George Whitefield
  • Greatest awakening preacher.
  • Former friend of John Wesley.
  • Anglican Church (Church of England).
  • Separated over Calvinism.
  • Came to colonies in 1740.
  • Large crowds gathered to hear him preach.

The Great Awakening
  • Challenges to the Great Awakening
  • Many ministers turned over their pulpits to
    awakening preachers.
  • Many ministered angered by the criticisms of
    their preaching.
  • And by the suggestion that they were not true
  • Opponents
  • Counterattacked.
  • Old Lights (Congregationalist)
  • Old Side (Presbyterian)
  • Supporters
  • New Lights (Congregationalist)
  • New Side (Presbyterian)
    Charles Chauncy

The Great Awakening
  • Awakened believers
  • Left traditional churches.
  • Joined Baptist, Methodists, or Presbyterian
  • The Great Awakening
  • Increased strife and tensions in colonies.
  • Spurred the growth of higher education.
  • New Colleges Princeton and Rutgers.
  • Old Colleges Harvard and Yale.
  • A sense of protest that would lay the foundation
    for the American Revolution.