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Title: ALAN - HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY-NUTRITION AND BEHAVIOUR


1
NUTRITION AND BEHAVIOR
  • By
  • Alan Sabu Thomas
  • PG Clinical Psychology

2
FOOD
  • Food is any substance or materials eaten or drunk
    to provide nutritional support for the body or
    for pleasure. It usually consists of plant or
    animal origin ,that contains essential nutrients,
    such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins,
    or minerals, and is ingested and assimilated by
    an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth,
    and maintain life.

3
FUNCTIONS OF FOOD
  • GROWTH
  • REPAIR
  • ENERGY
  • PROTECTION FROM DISEASE

4
COMPONENTS OF FOOD
  • CARBODHYRATE
  • PROTEIN
  • FAT
  • FIBRE
  • WATER
  • TRACE ELEMENTS

5
BODY MASS INDEX
  • Body mass index is used to measure the healthy
    body size. The body mass index (BMI), or Quetelet
    index, is a heuristic measure of body weight
    based on a person's weight and height. Though it
    does not actually measure the percentage of body
    fat, it is used to estimate a healthy body weight
    based on a person's height, assuming an average
    body composition.
  • Underweight - from 16.5 to 18.4
  • Overweight - from 25 to 29.9
  • Obese Class I - from 30 to 34.9
  • Obese Class II- from 35 to 39.9
  • Obese Class III- over 40

6
BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS AND ASPECTS OF EATING
  • Although infants do not begin life with a choice
    of foods, some of the most obvious reflexes at
    birth are those associated with eating. Infants
    learn to associate eating with security and
    relief from anxiety, tension, and distress.
    Later, children eat in conformance to cultural
    and familial standards. These ingrained meanings
    attached to the roles of food in society suggest
    reasons that food habits can be changed only with
    difficulty.
  • Although the choice of certain foods as opposed
    to others may greatly affect nutritional status,
    food selection includes multiple environmental,
    cultural, genetic, social, and sensory variables
    that interact in complex ways. One exception
    appears to be an innate preference for foods that
    are sweet. This preference is acquired in early
    childhood and continues throughout life.
  • Selection of foods for nutritional or health
    reasons is a learned behavior. Infants have not
    been shown to have an inborn ability to select a
    balanced, nutritious diet. Variety of foods
    available has an important effect on food
    consumption the more the available foods are
    varied, the more of them people will eat.
  • Behavior change is a key element in reducing the
    risk for chronic disease. Eating behaviors are
    acquired over a lifetime, to change them requires
    alterations in habits that must be continued
    permanently - beyond any short-term period of
    intervention.

7
OBESITY
  • Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in
    the body. The cause of obesity is quite simple -
    fat accumulates when more calories are consumed
    than are expended.
  • Obesity is often a familial disorder, obese
    parents tend to produce obese offspring. Obesity
    is more common among women than among men, and
    its prevalence increases with age but decreases
    among individuals of higher socioeconomic status
    and greater levels of physical activity.
  • Once obesity is established, food choices and
    caloric intake are no longer normal, and
    personality differences between obese and
    normal-weight individuals may be due to results
    of physiologic changes, social discrimination, or
    dieting.
  • Disparagement of body image affects a larger
    percentage of obese persons than nonobese persons
    who characteristically dislike their own bodies.
    Such feelings are closely associated with
    self-consciousness and impaired social
    functioning.
  • Although weight reduction ought to confer great
    benefits upon obese persons and be simple to
    accomplish, clinical experience has shown obesity
    to be remarkably resistant to treatment. The
    basis of weight reduction is deceptively simple
    Establish an energy deficit by consuming fewer
    calories than are expended or expending more
    calories than are consumed. Most such treatment
    is carried out under the direction of nonmedical
    groups and counsellors in programs that pose some
    hazard and are of uncertain long-term
    effectiveness.
  • Treatment measures should be specified and
    outcomes evaluated treatment should be
    individualized and treatment effectiveness
    should be assessed. Behavioral weight control
    programs usually include group participation at
    weekly meetings for periods of two months or
    more, and involve techniques of stimulus control,
    eating behavior, reward, self-monitoring,
    nutrition education and physical activity.
  • Obese patients who participate in regular peer
    group meetings following the completion of formal
    treatment maintain their weight loss better than
    those who do not participate in such meetings.

8
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
  • Anorexia nervosa is a condition characterized by
    extreme weight loss, amenorrhoea, and a
    constellation of psychological problems that have
    been described as the relentless pursuit of
    thinness
  • Typical symptoms of the disease include
    depression and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, it
    is not clear if these psychiatric problems
    preceded weight loss or occur as a result of
    semistarvation. Depression is often the first
    visible sign of anorexia nervosa. Abnormal
    hormonal patterns characteristic of starvation
    also
  • The clinical features of anorexia nervosa are
    personality characteristics such as rigidity or
    perfectionism, fear of obesity preceding the
    onset of the disorder, and the symptoms of
    starvation accompanying it. Serious body image
    disturbance is common, manifested by a lack of
    recognition of the severe emaciation and a belief
    that one is too fat. Individuals are often
    preoccupied with food, thinking about it much of
    the time, and often engaging in bizarre eating
    rituals.

9
BULIMA
  • Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by
    recurrent episodes of binge eating in which large
    amounts of food are consumed over a short period
    of time. These episodes are usually terminated by
    abdominal pain, self-induced vomiting, sleep, or
    the appearance of another person on the scene.
  • Bulimia occurs among persons of normal weight but
    is present in half the patients with anorexia
    nervosa. The severity of binge eating ranges from
    occasional episodes of morbid overeating at a
    party to the severe form of the disorder, bulimia
    nervosa, in which the vomiting or purging follows
    frequent episodes of binge eating.
  • There are many similarities between persons with
    anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Both occur
    primarily in young women, although bulimia occurs
    in slightly older individuals, both may relate to
    the current preoccupation with thinness and
    dieting.
  • The symptoms of depression in the majority of
    bulimic patients and the presence of biologic
    markers of depression suggest that bulimia may
    represent a variant of mood disorder. Treatment
    of bulimia is cognitive-behavioral and
    pharmacologic. Behavioral treatment include
    modification of the behavioral program designed
    for obese patients and a combination of
    cognitive-behavioral and insight-oriented
    approaches.

10
PICA
  • Pica is the intentional and compulsive
    consumption of non-food substances. It occurs
    worldwide and is common among people of either
    sex and of all ages and races. Pica is often
    associated with nutritional deficiencies or
    toxicities, and is of special concern among young
    children and pregnant women.
  • Geophagia is the consumption of earth and clay.
    Amylophagia is the consumption of starch and
    paste, and pagophagia is the eating of ice. The
    fourth category includes the consumption of ash,
    chalk, antacids, paint chips, plaster, wax, and
    other substances.
  • People appear to be driven to consume these
    substances by nutritional deficiencies, but pica
    is not necessarily correlated with poor
    nutritional status. The nutritional hazards most
    frequently associated with pica are lead
    poisoning and iron deficiency anaemia .

11
HYPOGLYCEMIA
  • Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) can occur either
    after a fast (fasting hypoglycaemia) or several
    hours after the consumption of a meal (reactive
    hypoglycaemia). Many individuals have symptoms of
    weakness, confusion, and irritability after
    eating sugars or other carbohydrate foods.
  • True reactive hypoglycaemia is diagnosed when
    symptoms of sweating, tremor, anxiety, and
    irritability occur at the same time as the
    documented low blood sugar level. Such a
    diagnosis may indicate the early presence of a
    disease such as diabetes.

12
HYPERACTIVITY
  • Hyperactivity is a childhood problem often
    discussed in relation to nutrition. This
    condition is characterized by problems of
    inattention, excessive motion, impulsivity,
    learning disabilities, and related problems of
    conduct.
  • Food additives, especially artificial dyes and
    colours , can cause hyperactivity.

13
NUTRITION
  • Nutrition science investigates the metabolic and
    physiological responses of the body to diet. With
    advances in the fields of molecular biology,
    biochemistry, and genetics, the study of
    nutrition is increasingly concerned with
    metabolism and metabolic pathways the sequences
    of biochemical steps through which substances in
    living things change from one form to another.

14
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUTRITION AND BEHAVIOUR
  • The relationship between nutrition and behavior
    is two-fold. First, nutritional factors have a
    significant effect on behavior and this is
    particularly relevant for the prevention and
    treatment of behavioral problems of dogs and
    cats. Second, the nutritional status and health
    of animals may be affected by their behavior

15
AUTISM
  • The role of mercury, other vaccine-related
    toxins, toxic metals, toxic chemicals found in
    mothers milk, pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines and
    other sources, can all contribute. Intestinal
    dysbiosis and food allergies also play a
    significant role in many cases. These children
    can do extremely well on a nutritional balancing
    program.

16
CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND ZINC -THE BIOCHEMICAL
SEDATIVES FOR HYPERKINESIS AND MANY LEARNING
DISABILITIES
  • Calcium raises the threshold at which nerves
    cells fire, thus reducing the irritability or
    sensitivity of the nervous system. A person
    whose tissue calcium level is low is prone to
    nervous irritability. Zinc is another
    anti-stress nutrient. Zinc deficiency is
    associated with emotional instability. Magnesium
    is another powerful sedative. Magnesium sulfate
    is routinely given to patients during heart
    attacks as a sedative medication.

17
OCD-OBESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER
  • This is commonly associated with copper
    imbalance, manganese toxicity and perhaps other
    biochemical imbalances.
  • As these improve, often the symptoms of OCD also
    improve a lot.

18
BIPOLAR DISORDER
  • Individuals with bipolar or manic-depressive
    disorder often have an underlying imbalance of
    slow oxidation and often copper imbalance. In
    addition, they often have a four highs pattern on
    a hair test or others indicating extreme stress.
    The combination of these two traits leads to the
    common pattern of days of high energy followed by
    a period of very low energy and depression. This
    can be corrected in most cases with nutritional
    balancing science in a relatively short time of
    months, usually, and with relatively little
    difficulty if one is willing to follow the
    program carefully.

19
SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Copper imbalance, mercury toxicity, manganese
    toxicity, cadmium toxicity and other imbalances
    are associated with schizophrenias. Most respond
    beautifully to balancing the body chemistry.
    Results can be fast, but may take longer if a
    person is far out of balance.
  • Copper and Schizophrenia. Joan, age 18, was a
    patient in Scottsdale Camelback Hospital with a
    diagnosis of schizophrenia. She responded poorly
    to medication and psychotherapy. Tissue mineral
    testing revealed a copper level of 40 mg, about
    15 times normal. Joan was placed on a diet and
    nutritional supplements to reduce tissue copper.
    Copper imbalance is quite common but goes
    undiagnosed because the tissue mineral test is
    not often done.

20
SEIZURES AND EPILEPSY
  • Nutritional balancing programs have helped many
    people with epilepsy and seizures even when
    medical tests have failed to detect an obvious
    cause for the seizures, and even when drug
    therapy has not worked at all.

21
OTHER TOXIC METALS AND MENTAL HEALTH
  • Copper is involved in numerous emotional and
    psychological disorders and random symptoms such
    as anxiety, mind racing, mood swings,
    irritability and others. This is because copper
    is a very bioactive mineral, especially in
    relation to the nervous system. It is associated
    with stimulation of the biogenic amines,
    epinephrine, nor epinephrine and dopamine. It is
    also involved in serotonin, monoamine oxidase
    (MAO) and other extremely powerful
    neurotransmitter substances and chemicals that
    influence nervous activity.

22
  • Lead. Thousands of children in the United
    States are affected by lead poisoning. Lead can
    cause mental retardation and hyperactivity in
    children, and violent behavior in adults.
  • Mercury.Mercury accumulates in the brain, where
    it can cause severe behavior changes. Silver
    amalgam fillings, fungicides and paints are
    sources of mercury.
  • Aluminum. Hair levels of aluminum are
    increasing rapidly in the American population.
    Research links excess aluminum with Alzheimer's
    disease and other dementias. Aluminum is
    acquired by drinking soda and beer from aluminum
    cans, and from anti-perspirants, anti-acids,
    table salt, cosmetics, salted foods, tap water,
    aluminum cookware and perhaps occupational
    exposure. It can be removed from the body if
    detected early enough.
  • Cadmium. The Journal of Learning Disabilities,
    Vol. 18, 10, 1985, pp. 609-612 reported that
    among 980 male U.S. Navy recruits entering basic
    training, a significant correlation was found
    between hair cadmium levels and behavior
    problems. "The three subjects with the highest
    cadmium level all displayed serious behavior
    difficulties in recruit training".

23
OTHER NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES AND BEHAVIOUR
  • B-complex vitamins are essential for proper
    nervous system functioning. Many people report
    more energy and less depression when they take
    thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3) and
    pyridoxine (B6). Pantothenic acid (B5) also helps
    energy production. Two other members of the
    B-complex family, choline and inositol, act as
    natural tranquilizers. Many other nutrients can
    affect behavior. L-Taurine and l-tryptophan have
    a calming effect. L-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine
    can enhance thyroid activity and improve energy
    and mood. There are others as well.

24
HYPERGLYCEMIA AND OTHER DISORDERS
  • Carbohydrate intolerance is a common nutritional
    disorder that produces severe behavior changes.
    Diets high in carbohydrates, and deficiencies of
    manganese, chromium and other minerals are often
    involved. Among the most common symptoms of
    hypoglycemia are confusion, irritability, anxiety
    and at times violence. It is quite simple to
    identify carbohydrate intolerance and correct it
    with diet and food supplements, yet this common
    malady is often overlooked.

25
FOOD INTOLERANCE AND BEHAVIOR
  • Any food can cause reactions that affect the
    nervous system. One possible reason for these
    reactions is that histamine, the chemical that is
    released in allergic phenomena, can be released
    in the brain causing alterations in brain
    chemistry.
  • Brain allergies are often overlooked in the
    search for reasons for anti-social behavior. One
    cause of ADHD is a reaction to allergic foods or
    chemical additives found in childrens foods.
    Dr. Benjamin Feingold, MD pioneered the study of
    food allergies on childrens behavior.
    Depression can also be the result of food
    allergies, or allergies to chemicals in food or
    drinking water.
  •  

26
ANXIETY AND PANIC ATTACKS
  • This is one of the easiest conditions to correct
    using nutritional balancing science. Common
    imbalances include low or high and biounavailable
    calcium and magnesium in the body, low zinc, high
    copper, high levels of toxic metals, and rarely
    other imbalances.

27
  • THANK YOU
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