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SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES - SR REKHA

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Title: SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES - SR REKHA


1
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES
  • By
  • Sr.Rekha

2
Learning disabilities
  • . A learning disability will be evident from
    childhood, and in many cases the cause of the
    learning disability may not be clear. In other
    cases, genetics, chromosomal abnormalities or
    environmental factors may be cited as the cause.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined
    learning disabilities as, a state of arrested or
    incomplete development of mind
  • The term learning disorders, formally refered to
    as academic skills disorders, was introduced by
    the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical
    manual of Mental Disorders.(DSM.1V)
  • DSM.1V includes four diagnostic categories of
    learning disorders Reading disorder, Mathematics
    disorder, disorder of written expression and
    learning disorder not otherwise specified.

3
READING DISORDERS (ICD-10 and DSM-IV codes
F81.0/315.00)
  • Reading disorder is defined as reading
    achievement below the expected level for a
    childs age, education, and intelligence with the
    impairment interfering significantly with
    academic success or the daily activities that
    involve reading. Reading disorder is
    characterized by an impaired ability to recognize
    words, slow and inaccurate reading, and poor
    comprehension.
  • Dyslexia - learning disorder

4
CACSUL FACTERS
  • Reading disorders is a neurobiological disorder
    with a genetic origin.
  • Children who struggle with reading have a deficit
    in phonological processing skills.
  • Some studies have suggested that the plenum
    temporal in the left brain shows less assmmetry
    than the same site in the right brain in children
    with Learning Disorders.
  • Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) studies have
    led some researchers to conclude that left
    temporal
  • blood flow patterns during language tasks
    differ between children with and without
    learning disorders.

5
CLINICAL FEATURES
  • Many errors in oral reading
  • Difficulty in recalling
  • Omissions, additions and distortions of words.
  • Dislike and avoid reading and writing
  • Anger, depression and poor self esteem

6
PROGNOSIS
  • In severe cases and depending on the pattern of
    deficits and strengths, remediation may be
    continued in to the middle and high school years.

7
PREVALANCE
  • The prevalence of reading disorder in the United
    States is estimated at 4 of school age children.
  • From 60 to 80 of individuals diagnosed with
    reading disorder.

8
MATHEMATICS DISORDER(ICD-10 and DSM-IV codes
F81.2-3/315.1)
  • Children with mathematics disorder have
    difficulty learning and remembering numerals,
    cannot remember basic facts about numbers, and
    are slow and inaccurate in computation.
  • Poor achievement in four groups of skills have
    been identified in mathematics disorder
    linguistic skills, perceptual skills,
    mathematical skills and, attentional skills.
  • A variety of terms used Dyscalculia, Acalculia,
    Gerstman syndrome.

9
CAUSAL FACTORS
  • Mathematics disorder partly caused by genetic
    factors.
  • A neurological deficit in the right cerebral
    hemisphere particularly in the occipital lobe
    areas.
  • Causes are thought to be multifractorial, so that
    cognitive, emotional, educational and socio
    economic factors account in varying degrees and
    combinations for mathematics disorder.

10
PROGNOSIS
  • A child with mathematics disorder can usually be
    identified by the age of 8 years. In some
    children, the disorder is apparent as early as 6
    years, in others, it may not be apparent until
    age 10 or later.
  • Children with a moderate mathematics disorder who
    do not receive intervention may have
    complications including continuing academic
    difficulties, shame, poor self- concept,
    frustration and depression. These complications
    can lead to reluctance to attend to school, and
    eventual hopelessness about academic success.

11
PREVALANCE
  • The prevalence of mathematics disorder alone has
    been estimated at proximately one in every five
    cases of learning disorder.

12
DISORDER OF WRITTEN EXPRESSION (ICD-10 and DSM-IV
codes F81.1/315.2)
  • Writing skills that are significantly below the
    expected level for a persons age, intellectual
    capacity, and education as measured by a
    standardized test are characteristics of disorder
    of written expression.
  • The components of writing disability include poor
    spelling, errors in grammar , punctuation and
    poor handwriting.
  • Several decades ago the prevailing view was that
    Dysgraphia did not develop in the absence of a
    reading disorder, but it is know that disorder of
    written expression can occur on its own.
  • Terms used to describe writing disability
    included spelling disorder and spelling Dyslexia.

13
PROGNOSIS
  • In severe cases, a disorder of written expression
    is apparent by age 7, in less severe cases, the
    disorder may not be apparent until age 10 or
    later.
  • Most persons with mild and moderate disorder of
    written expression fare well if they receive
    timely remedial education early in grade school.
    Severe disorder of written expression required
    continual, extensive remedial treatment through
    the late part of high school and oven into
    college.
  • The prognosis depends on the severity of the
    disorder.

14
PREVALENCE
  • The prevalence of disorder of written expression
    is difficult to establish because many studies
    focus on the prevalence of learning disorders in
    general without careful separation into specific
    disorder of reading, mathematics or written
    expression. Disorder of written expression is
    rare when not associated with other learning
    disorders.

15
Learning disorders not otherwise specified
  • Disorder that do not meet the criteria for any
    specific learning disorder. Eg. Spelling skills
    deficit

16
TREATMENTS
  • Reading disorder
  • Direct instruction of various components of
    reading that focus a childs attention the
    connection between speech, sound and spelling.
  • Individual education program.
  • Reading instruction program.
  • Basic reading program.
  • Psychotherapy.

17
  • Mathematics disorder
  • Teaching mathematics concepts with continuous
    practice in solving problems.
  • Flash cards, work book computer games can be
    used.
  • Mathematic instruction including word problems
    rather than only computation.
  • Disorder of written expression
  • Direct practice in spelling and sentence writing.
  • Continuous administration
  • The effectiveness is based on the relationships
    between the child and the writing specialist.

18
  • A study conducted by Margai and Henry on people
    living in poverty. The results confirmed that a
    majority of the people with a learning disability
    came from some socio-economic indicator such as
    poverty, subdivided housing, and lower adult
    educational attainment.
  • Researchers believe that there are more boys in
    special education programs compared to girls.
    Oswald found that 73 of learning disabled
    individuals in special education programs were
    boys.
  • However, the ratio of boys to girls (having a
    learning disability) is equal. In dealing with
    learning disabilities no significant gender
    differences were found in a study of more than
    400 children.

19
  • THANK YOU
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