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Pacem in Terris


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Title: Pacem in Terris

  • Encyclical of Pope John XXIII
  • On Establishing Universal Peace in Truth,
  • Justice, Charity, and Liberty
  • April 11, 1963
  • Presented by Patrick and Gail Flanagan
  • December 18, 2010

  1. Historical Background 1961-1964
  2. Biography of Pope John XXIII
  3. Order between Individuals and Public Authorities
  4. Relations between States
  5. Relationship of Men and of Political Communities
    with the World Community
  6. Pastoral Exhortations
  7. What Does This Mean to Us Today?

Historical Background1961-1964
  • April 17 Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 12 Yuri Gagarin 1st man to orbit the
May 5 Alan Shepard 1st American to go into
  • August 13 the Berlin Wall is erected

  • Aug- Nov 20 -The Cuban Missile Crisis

February 20 John Glenn is 1st American to orbit
the earth
  • October 11 Pope John XXIII opens the 2nd
    Vatican Council
  • Song of the Year Moon River (Mancini/Mercer)

  • Jan 22 France and West Germany sign treaty of
    co-operation ending 4 centuries of conflict
  • April 11 Pacem in Terris

June 3 Pope John XXIII dies
June 21 Pope Paul VI elected
August 28 March on Washington / I Had A Dream
  • November 22

  • 15000 military advisors in Viet Nam
  • LA Dodgers sweep NY Yankees in World Series
  • Grammys ROY I Left My Heart in SF SOY, What
    Kind of Fool am I
  • Billboard Top 5 songs Sugar Shack, Hes So Fine,
    Dominique, Hey Paula, My Boyfriend s Back

(No Transcript)
Biography of Pope John XXIII
Who was Pope John XXIII?
  • Born 11/25/1881 Angelo Giuseppe Roncali in
    Bergamo, Italy to a family of sharecroppers
  • Ordained 1904 became secretary to new bishop of
    Bergamo where he gained broad understand the
    problems of the working class
  • 1921 called to Rome to re-organize the Society
    for the Propagation of the Faith
  • 1944 became first permanent observer of the Holy
    See at UNESCO.

Who was Pope John XXIII? (Contd)
  • 1953 became Cardinal-Patriarch of Venice
  • 1958 called to Rome for conclave to elect a pope
    while working on correcting proofs of the
    synodal Acts of his first diocesan Synod
  • 10/20/1958 Elected Pope Took name of John in
    honor of the precursor and beloved disciple
  • Was a rebel/revolutionary - not an intellectual
    or theologian - Pope of modernization

Major Accomplishments ofPope John XXIII
  • Annulled Sixtus IV limitation of College of
    Cardinals to 70 in three years became 87
  • 1960 Held a Diocesan Synod for Rome revise
    Code of Cannon Law
  • 1962 Convoked Vatican Council II
  • Elevated Pontifical Commission for Cinema, Radio
    and Television to curial status
  • Approved new code of rubrics for the Breviary and

Major Accomplishments (Contd)
  • Appointed first rep to the Assembly of the World
    Council of Churches held in New Delhi in 1961
  • 1962 Awarded Peace Prize by International Balzan
  • Died June 3, 1963 - Newspaper drawing of the
    earth shrouded in mourning caption A Death in
    the Family (Pope only 5 years)
  • Reputation for his warmth and holiness in the

Order betWeen MEN
  • Each individual man is a person
  • Endowed with intelligence and free will
  • These rights are universal and inviolable and
    altogether inalienable (9)
  • Man has the right to live, to bodily integrity,
    and to means necessary for proper development of
  • He has the right to food, clothing, medical care,
    rest and necessary social services (11)
  • Each person has the natural right to be
    respected (12)

  • The natural right to culture
  • General education
  • Technical or professional training
  • A system for more gifted members of society to
    engage in more advanced studies (13)
  • The right to be able to worship God in accordance
    with his own conscience
  • Pope Leo XIII true freedom most truly
    safeguards the dignity of the human person
  • The right to chose the kind of life which appeals
    to them to found a family or embrace the
    priesthood or the religious life (12)

  • The family must be regarded as the natural,
    primary cell or human society
  • The interests of the family must be taken into
    very special consideration in social and economic
    affairs (16)
  • Man has the inherent right to be given the
    opportunity to work but allowed the exercise of
    personal initiative in the work chosen (14)
  • They are entitled to a wage that is determined
    with the precepts of justice (17)
  • The right to own private property but this
    entails a social obligation (21-22)

  • Mankind is by nature a social creature and has
    the right to meet, form associations and
    organizations to achieve his objectives. These
    groups are essential to safeguarding his personal
    freedom and dignity. (23-4)
  • Because a person is a citizen of a particular
    state, this does not take away his membership in
    the human family and, therefore, when needed, he
    has the right to emigrate to other countries and
    take up residence there. (25)
  • Personal dignity involves the right to take an
    active part in public life and make a
    contribution to the common welfare of fellow
    citizens. (26)

  • Our rights are legally protected, and each person
    has his own inalienable right to judicial
    security. (27)
  • These rights and duties derive their origin,
    their sustenance, and their indestructibility
    from the natural law, which in conferring the
    one, imposes the other. (28)
  • In human society the natural right gives rise to
    a corresponding duty in others. The duty, that
    is, recognizing and respecting that right. (30)
  • Since men live in society, each individual must
    contribute to create a civic order in which
    rights and duties are observed. Society must
    provide men with abundant resources. (31-33)

  • Everyone should act on their own initiative,
    conviction and sense of responsibility. There is
    nothing human about a society that is welded
    together by force. It is merely an obstacle to
    their freedom. (34)
  • Society must be based on truth, guided by
    justice, respectful of the rights of others with
    each person doing their duty. Human society
    thrives on freedom. (35)
  • We must think of human society as being primarily
    a spiritual reality. (36)
  • The order which prevails in human society is
    wholly incorporal in nature. (37)

  • Such an order universal, absolute and immutable
    in its principles finds its source in the true,
    personal and transcendent God. (38)
  • There is a progressive improvement in the
    economic and social conditions of working men.
  • Women are gaining an increasing awareness of the
    natural dignity. (41)
  • Soon no nation will rule over another and none
    will be subject to an alien power. (42)
  • Doctrinally and theoretically, no form of
    approval is being given to racial discrimination.

RELATIONS between Individuals andPublic
  • There is no power but from God. (28)
  • God has created men social by nature
  • Every civilized community must have a ruling
    authority (someone to rule and others to obey)
  • Every man has a duty to voluntarily contribute to
    the common good
  • The ruling authority has its source in nature and
    has God for its author (46)
  • All men are equal in natural dignity and cannot
    force internal compliance on another (48)
  • Attainment of the common good is the purpose of
    the public authority (54)

  • The common good is something which affects the
    needs of the whole man, body and soul (57)
  • Measures taken to implement the common good must
    help man to attain perfect happiness in his
    immortal soul (59)
  • The principal duty of every public authority is
    to safeguard the inviolable rights of the human
    person and facilitate the performance of his
    duties (60)
  • Any government refusing to recognize human rights
    or acting in violation of them would be lacking
    in binding force (61)

  • A principal duty of any government is the
    supervision and coordination of mens respective
    rights in society (62)
  • Political, economic and cultural inequities
    become more widespread when governments fail to
    take appropriate action (63)
  • Public authorities must give considerable care to
    social services such as transportation, housing,
    medical care, and must provide insurance
    facilities to maintain a decent standard of
    living and sharing of cultural benefits (64)

  • No matter how large the influence of a State may
    be on the economy, the state can never deprive
    the individual citizen of his freedom. The state
    must augment his freedom while guaranteeing the
    protection of everyones personal rights (65)
  • It is not possible to dictate what form a
    government should take due to differences in
    circumstances and conditions of the people (67)
  • There should be, however, a precise legal
    framework providing for official functions of
    government but also for the mutual relations
    between citizens and public officials (68)

  • It is essential that legislators never disregard
    the moral law, constitutional provisions or act
    at variance with the urgent needs of the common
    good (69)
  • Justice must be the guiding principle in the
    administration of the state (69)
  • Justice must be administered impartially and
    judges must not be corrupt and not influenced by
    the solicitations of interested parties (69)
  • For authorities to preserve the states juridical
    in tact, it is essential that they have a clear
    idea of the nature and limits of their own
    legitimate spheres of action. (72)

  • A consequence of mens dignity is their right to
    take an active part in government. This right
    opens to men (and women) a new opportunity for
    service (73-74)
  • A clear and precisely worded charter of
    fundamental human rights must be formulated and
    incorporated into the states general
    constitutions (75)
  • Each state must have a public constitution,
    laying down clear rules relating to the
    designation of public officials, their reciprocal
    relations, spheres of competence and prescribed
    methods of operation (76)

  • The final demand is that relations between
    citizens and public authorities be described in
    terms of rights and duties (77)

Relations between States
  • The same law that governs the life and conduct of
    individuals must also regulate the relations of
    political communities with one another (80)
  • The notion that people when they obtain a public
    office can set aside their humanity is
    inconceivable (81)
  • A ruling authority is indispensible to civil
  • It must follow from moral order itself
  • For power is given you by the LORD, and strength
    by the Most High, who will examine your works,
    and search out your thought.
  • Wisdom 64 (83)

  • Authority regarding relations between States must
    be exercised with the promotion of the common
  • A principle imperative of the common good is the
    recognition of the moral order and the unfailing
    observance of its precepts. (85)
  • Mutual ties between States must be governed by
    truth and the inviolable principle that all
    States are by nature equal in dignity
  • They have the right to exist, to develop, and to
    possess the means and accept a primary
    responsibility for their own development (86)

  • There is no argument for a system where those in
    a position of superiority impose their will
    arbitrarily on others
  • Such people have a greater part in the common
    responsibility to help others reach their higher
    potential (87)
  • The fact is that no one can be superior to other
    people since everyone is equally noble in natural
    dignity (89)
  • Relations between States must be regulated by
    justice (91)
  • States have the right to existence, to self
    development and the means to achieve this

  • It would be criminal for one State to improve
    itself while injuring another nation or using
    unjust oppression (92)
  • Differences between States must be settled in a
    truly human way, not by armed force, deceit or
    trickery (93)
  • The best interests of justice are served by
    public authorities that do their best to improve
    the human condition of minority groups (96)
  • Minorities must enter into association with the
    people in whose midst they are living and learn
    their customs (97)

  • States must further their relationships by
    pooling their material and spiritual resources
    to protect the common good of the State(s) and
    the entire human family (98)
  • Societies must join plans and forces when the
    efforts of other societies cannot achieve the
    desired goals (99)
  • Where we find groupings of people of different
    ethnic origins nothing must be allowed to prevent
    reciprocal relations between them
  • They have the right and duty to carry on their
    lives with others in society (100)

  • Where there is an imbalance in economic and
    agricultural resources nations must enter into
    collaboration to facilitate the circulate goods,
    capital and manpower and where possible bring the
    work to the worker (101-102)
  • States must be open to admitting refugees exiled
    from their homelands (103)
  • These States may not deny the refugees their
    natural rights. All rights of the refugees must
    be recognized (104-105)

  • The current arms race is causing those nations to
    be unable to assist nations that are in need of
    economic and social development (109)
  • The common belief that peace cannot be assured
    without this equal balance of arms is the
    probable cause for this stockpiling of arms
  • Justice, right and reason, and mans dignity cry
    out for a stop to this arms race. True and
    lasting peace can only exist with mutual
    trust (112-113)

  • Relations between States cannot be regulated by
    armed force but by the principles of truth,
    justice and sincere co-operation (114)
  • Nothing is lost by peace everything may be lost
    by war. Pius XII (116)
  • Relations between States must be regulated by the
    principle of freedom (120)
  • In Mater et Magistra We appealed to wealthy
    nations to render assistance to those States
    still in process of economic development (121)

  • The less fortunate States must play a major role
    in their economic development . They are to
    shoulder the main burden of it (123)
  • smaller States cannot be denied their right
    to political freedom, and the adoption of a
    position of neutrality in the conflicts between
    nations Pius XII (124)
  • Wealthier States must have the highest respect
    for less prosperous States national
    characteristics and civil institutions (125)
  • It is becoming more the understanding that
    disputes between nations must be resolved by
    negotiation and agreement (126)

  • By establishing contact with one another, and by
    a policy of negotiations, nations will understand
    that love, not fear must dominate the
    relationships between individuals and between
    nations (129)

Relationship of Men and of Political Communities
with the World Community
  • Each countrys social progress, order, security
    and peace are linked with every other country
  • No State can pursue its own interests in
    isolation from the rest (131)
  • Continual need to promote the universal common
    good of the whole human family (132)
  • Political life in all nations of the modern world
    are unequal to the task of promoting the common
    good of all peoples (135)
  • There is an intrinsic connection between the
    common good and public authority (136)

  • The moral order itself demands the establishment
    of some general form of public authority. This
    authority cannot be imposed by force (137-8)
  • This authority must have as its aim the
    safeguarding and promotion of individual human
    rights (139)
  • This universal authority must evaluate and find a
    solution for ecomonic, social, political and
    cultural problems affecting the universal common
    good (140)
  • The universal authoritys purpose is to create
    world conditions in which the individual states
    authority can carry out their tasks (141)

  • The United Nations Organization (UN) affirms the
    genuine recognition and complete observance of
    all rights and freedoms sought by all peoples and
    nations (142-3)
  • It is our earnest wish that the UN may be able
    progressively to adapt its structure and methods
    of operation to the magnitude and nobility of its
    tasks (145)

Pastoral Exhortations
  • We exhort Our sons (and daughters) to take an
    active part in public life and to work together
    for the benefit of the whole human race as well
    as for their own political communities (146)
  • It is not enough to be illumined by the light of
    faith. We must be involved in the work of these
    institutions to influence them effectively from
    within (147)
  • In order to do this, there must be an apostolate
    of a trained laity to be competent in the
    practice of their profession (148)

  • Because of a separation between faith and
    practice, inner spiritual unity must be restored
    so that faith may be the light and love the
    motivating force of all their actions. (152)
  • Because secular subjects are given higher
    priority than religious subjects, religious
    training is no more than an elementary training.
    Young people must be taught to act in a truly
    moral manner (153)
  • Each of us must contribute to the universal
    common good (155)
  • What has so far been achieved is insufficient
    compared with what needs to be done . . . (156)

  • To achieve these goals, Catholics must cooperate
    with non Catholic Christians and with people who
    may not be Christians (157)
  • In these cooperative relationships, there may be
    incentive for conversion to the truth (158)
  • It is the churchs authority to intervene in her
    sons and daughters external affairs whenever a
    judgment intersects with Catholic teaching (160)
  • Improvement in human institutions is slow and
    deliberate . . . Hot headedness was never
    constructive . . . Pius XII (162)
  • The work and goals above are an enormous task
    which cannot be ignored (163)

  • For peace to be in the world, peace must be in
    the hearts of every man and woman
  • Peace will be in you true, sure, most ordered
    peace. What is that order? God as ruler of the
    mind the mind as ruler of the body. Nothing
    could be more orderly. St. Augustine (165)
  • It is the Churchs duty to devote all of its
    thoughts and care and energy to further the
    common good of all mankind (167)
  • God Himself, must come to mankinds aid with His
    heavenly assistance if human society is to bear
    the closest possible resemblance to the kingdom
    of God. (168)

What does this mean to us today?