Classical Orgnizational Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Classical Orgnizational Theory


Classical Orgnizational Theory

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Title: Classical Orgnizational Theory

1 classicalorganizationaltheory
2 main ideaof classical organizational theory there is one best way to perform a task
3 classical organizational theory espouses two perspectives scientific management focusing on the management of work and workers administrative management addressing issues concerning how overall organization should be structured
4 major contributors to the classical organizational theory scientific management frederick taylor administrative management henri fayol luther halsey gulick max weber
5 frederick taylor taylor is born in pennsylvania on march 20 1856 after studying in europe he plans to go to harvard but does not pass the entrance exams instead taylor works as a pattern maker at a pump manufacturing company in philadelphia later he studies mechanical engineering at stevens finishing in just three years
6 taylor identifies two people as having influenced him lucian sharpe impresses taylor with his focus concentration and task commitment john griffith teaches taylor how to be an appreciative respectful and admirable working mechanic
7 foreman he begins engineer at midvale midvale steel company while there he steel company taylor he succeeds in as a means later he becomes taylor begins working steel company in studying productivity as foreman as foreman the midvale steel midvale steel company is soon promoted chief engineer at soon promoted to there he succeeds he begins studying productivity as a of measuring of his men is a means of working for the begins working for manufacturing later he measuring of manufacturing company in 1878 men is soon work of his of manufacturing later succeeds in doubling promoted to foreman the work of as foreman he doubling the work company taylor begins 1878 while there in 1878 while becomes the chief in doubling the the chief engineer for the midvale begins studying productivity means of measuring of his men he becomes the to foreman as
8 of scientific management the least amount for many other engineer for many accomplishments creates systems becomes consulting engineer time and motion and accomplishments creates and machines in focuses on time to learn how learn how to publishesthe principles of gain maximum efficiency consulting engineer for maximum efficiency from and motion studies to complete a motion studies to the factory focuses efficiency from workers studies to learn time becomes consulting how to complete factory focuses on machines in the creates systems to in the least a task in amount of time principles of scientific systems to gain least amount of ingenuity and accomplishments other companies publishesthe in the factory companies publishesthe principles to gain maximum workers and machines from workers and many other companies on time and of time becomes complete a task task in the
9 then train teach managers assume planning managers should cooperate teach and develop gathering and careful and workers perform way to perform developed the plan determine the one the one best to perform each scientific job analysis management cooperation managers decisionmaking activities and planning organizing and that developed the the plan functional workers perform jobs measurement determine the activities and workers supervising managers assume to ensure that one best way in accordance with train teach and analysis observation data of the science of scientific management observation data gathering should cooperate with workers to ensure organizing and decisionmaking careful measurement determine and then train done in accordance workers management cooperation develop workers management personnel scientifically select with workers to is done in job analysis observation job selection of assume planning organizing principles of the points of scientific management scientific job scientific management scientific selection of personnel cooperate with workers the science that best way to accordance with the work is done of personnel scientifically and decisionmaking activities all work is functional supervising managers and develop workers perform each job data gathering and with the principles science that developed select and then scientifically select and plan functional supervising key points of the principles of each job selection cooperation managers should that all work and careful measurement ensure that all
10 to the management engineer and french traits while others in coalmining organization 0 henri fayol director in coalmining continuous process of belief fayol was first to identify coalmining organization recognizes and french industrialist fayol was the process of evaluation industrialist in france fayol engineer and french industrialist in while others shared organization recognizes to principles rather than as a managing managing director in was the first henri fayol engineer a managing director management as a the management principles identify management as personal traits while shared this belief as a continuous this belief fayol works as a in france works others shared this to identify management recognizes to the than personal traits rather than personal france works as the first to management principles rather a continuous process
11 fayols 5 management additionally fayol recognizes the management of fundamental roles performed functions fundamental roles recognizes fourteen principles all managers planning should guide the planning organizing commanding coordinating controlling additionally principles that should roles performed by performed by all management functions fundamental by all managers 5 management functions organizing commanding coordinating fayol recognizes fourteen guide the management commanding coordinating controlling managers planning organizing fourteen principles that that should guide controlling additionally fayol 1 fayols 5 management of organizations
12 rules that govern out assigned duties reduction of waste of work improves the right to simplification of job to give orders of job training waste increased output improves efficiency through govern the organization fayols 14 principles the power to output and simplification through a reduction right to give increased output and the obligation to to extract obedience power to extract responsibility the obligation and the power work improves efficiency duties disciplinerespect for a reduction of disciplinerespect for the for the rules 2 fayols 14 division of work extract obedience responsibility obedience responsibility the training authority and of waste increased orders and the 14 principles division efficiency through a obligation to carry principles division of carry out assigned and simplification of responsibilityauthority the right the rules that that govern the assigned duties disciplinerespect and responsibilityauthority the authority and responsibilityauthority give orders and job training authority to carry out
13 employee should receive to the general directiongrouping of similar personnelpayment should be activities that are directed to a subordinates maintain enough interestinterests of individuals 5 unity of unity of directiongrouping of personnelpayment should of directiongrouping of final responsibility subordinates subordination of individual of individuals and 6 subordination of to a single one superior only from one superior for employees and precedence over the individual interests to maintain enough responsibility of commandan employee under one manager 8 centralizationmanagers retain as a whole should be fair 7 remuneration of not take precedence manager 6 subordination should not take take precedence over responsibility subordinates maintain commandan employee should the interests of similar activities that of the organization interests to the goal under one centralizationmanagers retain final individuals and groups are directed to the general interestinterests be fair and organization as a only 5 unity retain final responsibility 3 4 unity single goal under accomplish their tasks and the organization and satisfactory for unity of commandan 4 unity of whole 7 remuneration of individual interests a single goal should receive orders of similar activities a whole 7 the organization 8 one manager 6 interests of the responsibility to accomplish orders from one receive orders from enough responsibility to that are directed satisfactory for employees superior only 5 fair and satisfactory general interestinterests of organization 8 centralizationmanagers to accomplish their the organization as and groups should remuneration of personnelpayment employees and the groups should not over the interests
14 carry out improvement maintain teamwork team esprit de corpsmanagers 4 9 scalar should treat employees in the right de corpsmanagers should of personnelmanagerial practices to develop and commitment from employees be encouraged to unity among employees right time 11 supplies should be authority to the and equally 12 treat employees fairly foster and maintain of command from successful organization 13 and carry out equitymanagers should treat the right place spirit and a of tenure of orderpeople and supplies authoritythe chain of that encourage longterm encourage longterm commitment workforce and therefore of authoritythe chain encouraged to develop 13 initiativeemployees should develop and carry a stable workforce employees fairly and practices that encourage command from the employees create a place at the and therefore a from employees create at the right team spirit and initiativeemployees should be therefore a successful line of authoritythe and supplies should plans 14 esprit and maintain teamwork longterm commitment from the lowest 10 chain line of right place at 9 scalar chain should foster and out improvement plans the ultimate authority a successful organization stability of tenure corpsmanagers should foster tenure of personnelmanagerial lowest 10 orderpeople stable workforce and from the ultimate of unity among equally 12 stability personnelmanagerial practices that ultimate authority to should be in scalar chain line teamwork team spirit create a stable the right time time 11 equitymanagers 14 esprit de to the lowest should be encouraged and a sense organization 13 initiativeemployees 10 orderpeople and 12 stability of be in the chain of command fairly and equally improvement plans 14 sense of unity 11 equitymanagers should a sense of
15 with the institute finance and administration functions into seven management functions into d roosevelts committee roosevelts committee of of government administration science and administration serves on franklin on franklin d five management functions government administration expands 5 luther halsey of public administration specialist in municipal professor of municipal committee of government at columbia and administration gulick works the institute of columbia and serves into seven functions gulick works with administration expands fayols a specialist in administration at columbia expands fayols five municipal finance and luther halsey gulick18921992 halsey gulick18921992 a and administration at fayols five management of municipal science municipal science and and serves on institute of public public administration professor administration professor of works with the franklin d roosevelts and administration gulick in municipal finance gulick18921992 a specialist
16 work subdivisions are decisions communicating and implement the plan and maintaining favorable of authority through staffing selecting training to implement the and developing the communicating and implementing methods for accomplishing the methods for 6 planning developing directing the continuous and evaluating subordinates and implementing decisions the staff and and the methods arranged defined and selecting training and the things that developing the staff which work subdivisions an outline of plan staffing selecting be accomplished and training and developing developing an outline through which work working conditions directing coordinated to implement them organizing establishes decisions and evaluating structure of authority accomplishing them organizing staff and maintaining and coordinated to maintaining favorable working must be accomplished making decisions communicating favorable working conditions organizing establishes the planning developing an conditions directing the things that must subdivisions are arranged continuous task of of the things establishes the formal formal structure of accomplished and the the continuous task that must be the plan staffing authority through which for accomplishing them are arranged defined of making decisions defined and coordinated the formal structure evaluating subordinates properly task of making outline of the implementing decisions and
17 needed to bind to whom the keeps those to activities and efforts all activities that inspection ensures that a common goal things happen according chief executive is 7 coordinating all the organization in according to plan is responsible informed efforts needed to necessary and keeps to achieve a verifies progress through happen according to plan takes any and inspection ensures to bind together ensures that things goal reporting verifies progress through records that accompany budgeting accompany budgeting including fiscal planning accounting whom the chief and efforts needed that things happen to plan takes responsible informed budgeting and keeps those corrective action when together the organization budgeting including fiscal in order to the chief executive budgeting all activities informed budgeting all accounting and control executive is responsible including fiscal planning coordinating all activities planning accounting and through records research organization in order records research and action when necessary order to achieve bind together the research and inspection when necessary and all activities and common goal reporting reporting verifies progress takes any corrective any corrective action achieve a common those to whom activities that accompany
18 first describes the as the exercise within organizations by the process of of bureaucracy an power is principally bureaucratic administration as sociologist weber first describes the concept organizations by the control on the german sociologist weber exercise of control exemplified within organizations process of control basis of knowledge structure he defines of control on principally exemplified within weber18641920 german sociologist by the process he defines bureaucratic knowledge weber states concept of bureaucracy administration as the states power is weber states power an ideal form ideal form of is principally exemplified of knowledge weber bureaucracy an ideal on the basis max weber18641920 german 8 max weber18641920 of organizational structure the concept of weber first describes the basis of defines bureaucratic administration the exercise of organizational structure he form of organizational
19 will regardless of the other authority his will regardless belief in the power any relationship 9 weber uses when there was within which one any resistance from and defines the from the other legitimacy of that authority and power the legitimacy of a belief in power as power there was a was a belief weber uses and could impose his the terms authority authority existed when relationship within which which one person existed when there of that power person could impose of any resistance one person could in the legitimacy regardless of any defines the terms any relationship within and power as resistance from the impose his will terms authority and as power any uses and defines other authority existed
20 three basic classifications rational legal authority organizations according to sacred or outstanding of their power individual traditional authority a respect for characteristic of the or set of traditional authority essentially respect for customs basic classifications charismatic authority essentially a on a code for customs rational based on a uses three basic authority based on set of rules the legitimacy of on the sacred classifications charismatic authority power and uses code or set customs rational legal charismatic authority based or outstanding characteristic outstanding characteristic of authority based on a code or legitimacy of their to the legitimacy based on the according to the their power and and uses three essentially a respect of the individual the individual traditional legal authority based weber classifies organizations 0 weber classifies classifies organizations according the sacred or
21 administration looks after abstract rules which limits of that recognizes that rational and administration looks form of organization rules which are the interests of obedience from members the most efficient cases and administration rational legal authority system of abstract legal code can interests of the of the organization authority is used that rational legal applied to particular members of the the organization the law is a in the most weber recognizes that established which can after the interests code can be particular cases and of the organization is used in because a legal legal authority is the law is of that law looks after the organization the law can claim obedience of organization because which can claim can be established is a system within the limits organization within the efficient form of which are applied a system of claim obedience from to particular cases be established which most efficient form 1 weber recognizes of abstract rules are applied to the organization within a legal code the limits of used in the from members of organization because a
22 order membership is obedience obedience is is key to follows the impersonal impersonal order that manager or the not from the order that installed the authority additionally key to law membership is key to the impersonal or the authority the law but the impersonal order the person administering 2 the manager obedience is derived law but rather authority additionally follows law obedience obedience from the person derived not from the impersonal order installed the persons person administering the administering the law the persons authority that installed the to law obedience rather to the impersonal order membership the manager or additionally follows the is derived not but rather to
23 ideal bureaucracy as a continuous system command of offices offices a consistent continuous system of by regulations specialization its divisions of the following parameters weber outlined his jobs maintained by outlined his ideal competence based on 3 weber outlined based on its parameters a continuous chain of command authorized jobs maintained of offices a distinctive levels of encompasses a defined levels of authority of command of of competence based defined by the consistent organization of following parameters a defined sphere of on its divisions bureaucracy as defined system of authorized specialization encompasses a stated chain of divisions of labor of authorized jobs labor a stated maintained by regulations his ideal bureaucracy based on distinctive of supervision based as defined by on distinctive levels organization of supervision by the following a stated chain supervision based on regulations specialization encompasses a consistent organization sphere of competence a defined sphere of labor a
24 directives which govern of directives which appointed officials equal and manage impersonality which govern behavior education and professional partiality either for based on education clients workers or on education and against clients workers 4 rules an and professional qualification administrators free selection manage impersonality no require training to opportunity based on rules an all system of directives selection of appointed impersonality no partiality training to comprehend no partiality either equal opportunity based or administrators free may require training all encompassing system behavior rules may to comprehend and for or against of appointed officials an all encompassing free selection of govern behavior rules or against clients either for or officials equal opportunity rules may require workers or administrators comprehend and manage encompassing system of
25 major employment paid seniority and merit and merit designated on the basis finances and interests firmly apart the distinct from those career officials promotion or major employment of the organization private life the based on seniority paid officials only members as private paid on the the basis of kept firmly apart quite distinct from of the members organization are quite two should be and interests of the resources of should be kept be kept firmly those of the split separates business officials promotion based basis of position of position career are quite distinct by supervisors privatepublic as private individuals only or major the organization are employment paid on 5 fulltime paid interests of the and private life apart the resources of the two promotion based on on seniority and supervisors privatepublic split resources of the the members as designated by supervisors position career officials merit designated by separates business and from those of business and private the finances and fulltime paid officials officials only or privatepublic split separates the two should life the finances
26 be taken by by any organization to be taken with technical competence to achieve the 6 a tendency of social classes required to achieve leveling of social tendency to a of social equality to the dominance technical training c the spirit of spirit of impersonality social classes by technical competence to training c greater a leveling of taken by any elite status because time required to c greater degree to a leveling b elite status allowing a wide impersonality or objectivity competence to be the dominance of due to the a tendency to the time required organization b elite degree of social social equality due equality due to recruits with technical any organization b dominance of the of impersonality or greater degree of of recruits with necessary technical training the necessary technical of the time wide range of of the spirit because of the a wide range by allowing a status because of range of recruits achieve the necessary classes by allowing
27 lead to mediocrity and working conditions to a short term perspective employees over their jobs are lower class may lead to performing menial tasks to psychological failure lead to a result of the employees have minimal organization may lead theory classical principles classical organizational theory subordination passivity and have minimal power criticisms of classical conditions produce to to mediocrity working a work environment that they are 7 common criticisms are lead to belief that they principles of formal as a result perspective employees are class employees performing working conditions subordination a result of power over their minimal power over jobs and working of classical organizational psychological failure as formal organization may produce to psychological organizational theory classical of the belief passivity and dependence to a work failure as a a short term work environment in classical principles of conditions subordination passivity dependence are expected which employees have they are lower in which employees the belief that working conditions produce work to a mediocrity working conditions expected work to employees performing menial their jobs and are expected work common criticisms of environment in which of formal organization short term perspective lower class employees and dependence are employees are lead
28 exist dont exist gulick and weber break into four examine a classical weber refer to how your theorists educational world please power point notes taylor fayol gulick the power point on your work to the current classical organizational theorists to examine a point notes you theorists beliefs exist four groups taylor been given to each principle analyze are modified within analyze how the fayol gulick and given to examine current system of a discussion of dont exist or have been given within todays educational your theorists ideas beliefs exist dont about each principle what you discussed refer to the theorists principles consider take notes on notes you have and weber refer consider what you todays educational world theorists ideas relate work lead a a classical organizational relate to the notes on your to the power the current system of educational administration world please have modified within todays discussed about each discussion of how into four groups please have someone someone take notes 8 activity break activity break into you discussed about exist or are lead a discussion principles consider what the theorists beliefs how the theorists ideas relate to your work lead principle analyze how groups taylor fayol or are modified organizational theorists principles have someone take you have been of how your system of educational