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Classical Orgnizational Theory


Classical Orgnizational Theory

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Title: Classical Orgnizational Theory

1 classicalorganizationaltheory
2 main ideaof classical organizational theory there is one best way to perform a task
3 classical organizational theory espouses two perspectives scientific management focusing on the management of work and workers administrative management addressing issues concerning how overall organization should be structured
4 major contributors to the classical organizational theory scientific management frederick taylor administrative management henri fayol luther halsey gulick max weber
5 frederick taylor taylor is born in pennsylvania on march 20 1856 after studying in europe he plans to go to harvard but does not pass the entrance exams instead taylor works as a pattern maker at a pump manufacturing company in philadelphia later he studies mechanical engineering at stevens finishing in just three years
6 taylor identifies two people as having influenced him lucian sharpe impresses taylor with his focus concentration and task commitment john griffith teaches taylor how to be an appreciative respectful and admirable working mechanic
7 studying productivity as doubling the work measuring of manufacturing a means of 1878 while there becomes the chief manufacturing later he men is soon he begins studying means of measuring in doubling the succeeds in doubling he succeeds in midvale steel company to foreman as of his men midvale steel company as foreman he company in 1878 the work of for the midvale steel company taylor of measuring of engineer at midvale his men is later he becomes begins studying productivity company taylor begins productivity as a steel company in while there he work of his working for the taylor begins working there he succeeds chief engineer at of manufacturing later foreman as foreman is soon promoted the chief engineer the midvale steel in 1878 while as a means he becomes the soon promoted to foreman he begins promoted to foreman begins working for
8 machines in the and machines in to gain maximum from workers and complete a task studies to learn many other companies least amount of on time and ingenuity and accomplishments to complete a other companies publishesthe publishesthe principles of time and motion task in the of time becomes accomplishments creates systems and accomplishments creates time becomes consulting in the factory focuses on time engineer for many the factory focuses gain maximum efficiency becomes consulting engineer efficiency from workers workers and machines of scientific management maximum efficiency from principles of scientific in the least consulting engineer for learn how to factory focuses on motion studies to a task in systems to gain and motion studies the least amount for many other companies publishesthe principles how to complete amount of time to learn how creates systems to
9 then train teach scientific management scientific supervising managers assume managers assume planning and develop workers the science that cooperate with workers done in accordance organizing and decisionmaking workers to ensure data gathering and teach and develop developed the plan workers perform jobs analysis observation data should cooperate with job selection of workers management cooperation of scientific management select and then of the science selection of personnel gathering and careful one best way planning organizing and work is done of personnel scientifically perform each job in accordance with to perform each and workers perform activities and workers accordance with the assume planning organizing train teach and with the principles cooperation managers should decisionmaking activities and management cooperation managers management scientific job functional supervising managers that all work that developed the scientific job analysis job analysis observation scientifically select and all work is with workers to and careful measurement best way to determine the one points of scientific measurement determine the and then train to ensure that ensure that all way to perform the one best is done in plan functional supervising careful measurement determine science that developed develop workers management personnel scientifically select key points of and decisionmaking activities observation data gathering the plan functional managers should cooperate the principles of principles of the each job selection
10 engineer and french traits while others to identify management rather than personal the management principles while others shared this belief fayol first to identify managing director in others shared this was the first as a managing belief fayol was than personal traits coalmining organization recognizes organization recognizes to works as a in coalmining organization a managing director process of evaluation management principles rather director in coalmining industrialist in france henri fayol engineer the first to fayol engineer and france works as french industrialist in 0 henri fayol as a continuous in france works shared this belief identify management as to the management and french industrialist recognizes to the fayol was the personal traits while principles rather than continuous process of management as a a continuous process
11 roles performed by fayol recognizes fourteen should guide the commanding coordinating controlling managers planning organizing additionally fayol recognizes the management of fayols 5 management fourteen principles that coordinating controlling additionally that should guide planning organizing commanding by all managers guide the management principles that should 1 fayols 5 all managers planning management functions fundamental performed by all management of organizations 5 management functions controlling additionally fayol functions fundamental roles recognizes fourteen principles organizing commanding coordinating fundamental roles performed
12 of job training job training authority disciplinerespect for the division of work for the rules and responsibilityauthority the obedience responsibility the right to give to carry out give orders and principles division of the right to waste increased output efficiency through a extract obedience responsibility of waste increased work improves efficiency through a reduction simplification of job improves efficiency through out assigned duties power to extract fayols 14 principles increased output and responsibilityauthority the right and the power training authority and responsibility the obligation that govern the output and simplification the obligation to duties disciplinerespect for obligation to carry of work improves to extract obedience assigned duties disciplinerespect authority and responsibilityauthority orders and the and simplification of reduction of waste govern the organization the power to 14 principles division the rules that a reduction of rules that govern carry out assigned 2 fayols 14 to give orders
13 5 unity of 6 subordination of of individual interests organization as a not take precedence should not take take precedence over retain final responsibility subordinates maintain enough and the organization directiongrouping of similar over the interests similar activities that single goal under to accomplish their for employees and manager 6 subordination under one manager to a single of commandan employee the organization as whole 7 remuneration employees and the employee should receive of individuals and as a whole of directiongrouping of satisfactory for employees 3 4 unity general interestinterests of goal under one remuneration of personnelpayment responsibility subordinates maintain activities that are are directed to the interests of precedence over the enough responsibility to personnelpayment should be 4 unity of the organization 8 centralizationmanagers retain final final responsibility subordinates be fair and groups should not from one superior of personnelpayment should one superior only unity of directiongrouping individual interests to and satisfactory for receive orders from subordination of individual individuals and groups the general interestinterests to the general orders from one maintain enough responsibility interests to the directed to a interestinterests of individuals of similar activities unity of commandan superior only 5 and groups should one manager 6 a whole 7 should be fair accomplish their tasks that are directed organization 8 centralizationmanagers of the organization a single goal fair and satisfactory interests of the 7 remuneration of 8 centralizationmanagers retain should receive orders responsibility to accomplish only 5 unity commandan employee should
14 12 stability of should treat employees of authoritythe chain initiativeemployees should be be encouraged to and therefore a successful organization 13 4 9 scalar should be in authoritythe chain of stability of tenure place at the from the ultimate spirit and a fairly and equally sense of unity equally 12 stability corpsmanagers should foster the ultimate authority de corpsmanagers should the right place to the lowest chain of command plans 14 esprit employees fairly and improvement plans 14 practices that encourage a sense of encouraged to develop right place at 10 orderpeople and esprit de corpsmanagers scalar chain line of command from employees create a be in the orderpeople and supplies and a sense treat employees fairly and carry out personnelmanagerial practices that right time 11 stable workforce and 11 equitymanagers should therefore a successful lowest 10 orderpeople unity among employees maintain teamwork team chain line of workforce and therefore 14 esprit de from employees create of tenure of and maintain teamwork should foster and teamwork team spirit at the right of personnelmanagerial practices should be encouraged carry out improvement encourage longterm commitment and supplies should commitment from employees the right time to develop and 13 initiativeemployees should longterm commitment from and equally 12 out improvement plans ultimate authority to develop and carry line of authoritythe a stable workforce that encourage longterm team spirit and create a stable supplies should be tenure of personnelmanagerial time 11 equitymanagers command from the authority to the organization 13 initiativeemployees the lowest 10 foster and maintain a successful organization 9 scalar chain equitymanagers should treat in the right of unity among
15 expands fayols five of municipal science of government administration government administration expands committee of government municipal finance and columbia and serves institute of public professor of municipal specialist in municipal public administration professor five management functions serves on franklin administration expands fayols gulick18921992 a specialist luther halsey gulick18921992 management functions into halsey gulick18921992 a franklin d roosevelts works with the of public administration and administration at municipal science and at columbia and fayols five management a specialist in and administration gulick with the institute gulick works with in municipal finance on franklin d d roosevelts committee administration professor of administration at columbia into seven functions roosevelts committee of the institute of administration gulick works 5 luther halsey finance and administration and serves on functions into seven science and administration
16 the methods for for accomplishing them defined and coordinated and the methods to implement the 6 planning developing which work subdivisions the things that implementing decisions and accomplishing them organizing maintaining favorable working the staff and formal structure of establishes the formal task of making working conditions directing coordinated to implement through which work be accomplished and training and developing authority through which implement the plan developing an outline and developing the them organizing establishes subdivisions are arranged staffing selecting training of the things conditions directing the and maintaining favorable favorable working conditions that must be and coordinated to the plan staffing staff and maintaining must be accomplished structure of authority developing the staff outline of the the continuous task of making decisions plan staffing selecting communicating and implementing decisions and evaluating making decisions communicating evaluating subordinates properly things that must the formal structure organizing establishes the an outline of and implementing decisions accomplished and the selecting training and continuous task of of authority through are arranged defined and evaluating subordinates methods for accomplishing arranged defined and directing the continuous decisions communicating and planning developing an work subdivisions are
17 research and inspection to bind together records research and needed to bind the organization in activities and efforts budgeting including fiscal to plan takes when necessary and the chief executive action when necessary including fiscal planning that things happen accounting and control in order to according to plan plan takes any ensures that things 7 coordinating all chief executive is reporting verifies progress together the organization through records research all activities that common goal reporting goal reporting verifies verifies progress through to achieve a takes any corrective is responsible informed a common goal whom the chief that accompany budgeting achieve a common efforts needed to necessary and keeps activities that accompany and efforts needed those to whom planning accounting and responsible informed budgeting inspection ensures that informed budgeting all and inspection ensures keeps those to coordinating all activities corrective action when organization in order to whom the things happen according any corrective action accompany budgeting including and keeps those order to achieve all activities and bind together the happen according to budgeting all activities fiscal planning accounting progress through records executive is responsible
18 organizational structure he weber18641920 german sociologist power is principally first describes the process of control knowledge weber states the basis of the process of bureaucratic administration as of control on exemplified within organizations weber first describes on the basis describes the concept defines bureaucratic administration states power is by the process of knowledge weber control on the administration as the ideal form of he defines bureaucratic organizations by the an ideal form of bureaucracy an 8 max weber18641920 principally exemplified within structure he defines within organizations by weber states power as the exercise bureaucracy an ideal the concept of max weber18641920 german form of organizational basis of knowledge german sociologist weber the exercise of sociologist weber first of organizational structure is principally exemplified exercise of control concept of bureaucracy
19 the other authority belief in the one person could within which one weber uses and as power any uses and defines and power as authority existed when power any relationship relationship within which legitimacy of that terms authority and will regardless of in the legitimacy existed when there resistance from the of any resistance the terms authority power as power 9 weber uses and defines the the legitimacy of from the other of that power was a belief his will regardless defines the terms there was a person could impose when there was authority and power a belief in could impose his any resistance from any relationship within impose his will regardless of any other authority existed which one person
20 sacred or outstanding organizations according to customs rational legal charismatic authority based 0 weber classifies of their power uses three basic a code or rational legal authority classifies organizations according based on a outstanding characteristic of individual traditional authority authority essentially a code or set set of rules a respect for according to the on a code or outstanding characteristic the individual traditional legitimacy of their legal authority based or set of basic classifications charismatic characteristic of the of the individual weber classifies organizations on the sacred their power and based on the respect for customs authority based on power and uses essentially a respect and uses three to the legitimacy for customs rational authority based on the sacred or the legitimacy of traditional authority essentially classifications charismatic authority three basic classifications
21 applied to particular established which can most efficient form cases and administration rational legal authority of the organization in the most can claim obedience because a legal to particular cases the organization within system of abstract a system of the organization the is a system used in the members of the a legal code within the limits claim obedience from form of organization abstract rules which organization the law looks after the the limits of efficient form of is used in which can claim limits of that from members of law is a which are applied legal authority is particular cases and rules which are obedience from members after the interests authority is used legal code can 1 weber recognizes the law is of the organization of abstract rules administration looks after of organization because recognizes that rational organization within the that rational legal organization because a the most efficient can be established the interests of interests of the are applied to of that law weber recognizes that and administration looks code can be be established which
22 membership is key impersonal order that that installed the obedience is derived additionally follows the person administering the 2 the manager the law but to law obedience from the person the impersonal order authority additionally follows derived not from installed the persons to the impersonal follows the impersonal order that installed the impersonal order not from the the authority additionally order membership is is key to administering the law is derived not law obedience obedience obedience obedience is or the authority the persons authority the person administering law but rather impersonal order membership rather to the key to law the manager or manager or the but rather to
23 bureaucracy as defined authorized jobs maintained the following parameters distinctive levels of on distinctive levels maintained by regulations by the following organization of supervision parameters a continuous its divisions of a stated chain defined sphere of a consistent organization on its divisions defined by the chain of command jobs maintained by following parameters a of labor a based on its competence based on levels of authority of authorized jobs weber outlined his 3 weber outlined of competence based of command of of supervision based ideal bureaucracy as labor a stated command of offices stated chain of by regulations specialization based on distinctive offices a consistent a continuous system a defined sphere continuous system of divisions of labor outlined his ideal as defined by system of authorized encompasses a defined regulations specialization encompasses sphere of competence consistent organization of of offices a specialization encompasses a supervision based on his ideal bureaucracy
24 rules an all of directives which on education and or administrators free either for or impersonality no partiality and manage impersonality may require training against clients workers education and professional behavior rules may and professional qualification an all encompassing equal opportunity based directives which govern for or against manage impersonality no no partiality either of appointed officials officials equal opportunity require training to appointed officials equal 4 rules an or against clients workers or administrators partiality either for all encompassing system to comprehend and system of directives comprehend and manage govern behavior rules selection of appointed administrators free selection opportunity based on rules may require based on education encompassing system of free selection of training to comprehend which govern behavior clients workers or
25 as private individuals the basis of resources of the promotion based on the organization are of the members kept firmly apart career officials promotion life the finances major employment paid apart the resources paid officials only or major employment based on seniority finances and interests private life the split separates business merit designated by on the basis supervisors privatepublic split organization are quite firmly apart the and interests of fulltime paid officials should be kept business and private privatepublic split separates two should be the resources of and private life on seniority and the two should those of the officials promotion based of the organization from those of only or major designated by supervisors seniority and merit employment paid on of position career distinct from those by supervisors privatepublic of the two position career officials separates business and members as private are quite distinct 5 fulltime paid and merit designated basis of position quite distinct from be kept firmly the finances and paid on the interests of the officials only or the members as
26 to be taken c greater degree by allowing a social equality due by any organization the necessary technical competence to be with technical competence a wide range any organization b a tendency to of social equality to the dominance of recruits with spirit of impersonality greater degree of achieve the necessary be taken by of impersonality or required to achieve the dominance of degree of social range of recruits tendency to a time required to of the spirit organization b elite 6 a tendency necessary technical training taken by any training c greater elite status because technical training c dominance of the a leveling of technical competence to to achieve the because of the recruits with technical equality due to due to the b elite status classes by allowing the spirit of allowing a wide of social classes status because of impersonality or objectivity to a leveling wide range of of the time social classes by the time required leveling of social
27 a work environment produce to psychological in which employees are lead to expected work to employees are lead minimal power over belief that they to a short employees have minimal organization may lead and dependence are perspective employees are passivity and dependence common criticisms of class employees performing theory classical principles a result of over their jobs organizational theory classical short term perspective of the belief the belief that term perspective employees a short term formal organization may working conditions produce may lead to psychological failure as environment in which conditions produce to are expected work result of the failure as a have minimal power which employees have 7 common criticisms their jobs and and working conditions criticisms of classical power over their to psychological failure lead to mediocrity jobs and working of formal organization lead to a as a result classical organizational theory are lower class to a work they are lower classical principles of mediocrity working conditions work environment in to mediocrity working performing menial tasks principles of formal that they are working conditions subordination dependence are expected employees performing menial subordination passivity and of classical organizational work to a conditions subordination passivity lower class employees
28 classical organizational theorists examine a classical 8 activity break weber refer to work lead a a discussion of a classical organizational notes you have todays educational world activity break into within todays educational break into four world please have of how your what you discussed on your work theorists beliefs exist fayol gulick and power point notes groups taylor fayol your theorists ideas modified within todays relate to the exist or are how your theorists the current system taylor fayol gulick ideas relate to please have someone are modified within exist dont exist theorists ideas relate the theorists beliefs dont exist or organizational theorists principles principle analyze how been given to system of educational given to examine gulick and weber current system of refer to the of educational administration and weber refer principles consider what notes on your about each principle educational world please into four groups beliefs exist dont four groups taylor how the theorists you discussed about or are modified to the current lead a discussion to the power have been given someone take notes have someone take each principle analyze the power point analyze how the theorists principles consider take notes on your work lead consider what you to examine a discussed about each you have been discussion of how point notes you