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Food In The Market Place


Foods that contain whole oats must contain 0.75 g of soluble fiber ... Foods that contain fiber from whole grains - CHD. Authorized Health Claims - NLEA (1990) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food In The Market Place

Food In The Market Place
Evolution of Health Care
  • 2000 BC-Here, eat this root
  • 1000 AD- That root is heathen. Here, say this
  • 1850 AD-That prayer is superstition. Here drink
    this potion.
  • 1940 AD That potion is snake oil. Here swallow
    this pill
  • 1985 AD-That pill is ineffective. Here, take
    this antibiotic.
  • 2000 Ad That antibiotic doesnt work anymore,
    Here, eat this root.

Functional Foods-Definition
  • Foods which provide a health benefit beyond
    basic nutrition.
  • International Food Information Council

Functional Foods-Definition
  • Those foods in which concentrations of one or
    more ingredients have been manipulated on
    modified to enhance their contribution to a
    healthful diet.
  • Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of

Functional Foods
  • Unmodified whole foods like fruits and vegetables
  • Modified foods including fortified foods
    including those that have been fortified with
    nutrients or enhanced with phytochemicals or

Functional Foods
  • The functional food industry in the U.S. was
    valued at 20.2 billion in 2002 or 4 of the
    total food industry.
  • The market is expected to increase at an AAGR
    (average annual growth rate) of 13.3, bringing
    the market value to 37.7 billion by 2007.

Functional Foods
  • Factors affecting growth of functional foods
  • an aging population
  • self-efficacy or autonomy in health care
  • increased healthcare costs
  • advancing evidence (research) that diet can
    regulate disease progression
  • changes in food regulation

Scientific Research
  • Strong Evidence
  • Substantial scientific agreement relationship of
    a diet-disease relationship
  • Supported by Clinical Trials
  • Examples
  • Fortified Margarines Sterols and Stanols
  • Psyllum soluble fiber
  • Soy
  • Whole oat products
  • Fatty Fish, n-3 fatty acids

Scientific Research
  • Moderate Evidence
  • Scientific evidence supporting diet-disease
    relationship is not conclusive
  • Examples
  • Catechins in green tea reduce risks of certain
    types of cancers
  • Lycopene in tomato products reduce prostate
  • Probiotics in dairy products support GI health

Scientific Research
  • Low Evidence
  • Some scientific evidence suggest a relations ship
    but is limited or not conclusive
  • Examples
  • Garlic reduction of total and LDL cholesterol
  • Lutein in spinach, kale, collard greens
    reduction of macular degeneration

Thy food shall be thy remedy
  • Hippocrates, 2000 years ago

12 Questions and Answers About Functional
Regulation of Functional Foods
  • Federal Food and Drug Cosmetic Act as amended -
  • conventional foods
  • food additives
  • dietary supplements
  • medical foods
  • foods for specialty use

Qualified Health Claims
  • Qualifying language is included as part of the
    claim to indicate that evidence supporting the
    claim is limited.
  • http//

Dietary Supplements
  • The Dietary Supplement Health Education Act
    (DSHEA - 1994) exempts dietary supplements from
    the strict approval required for food additives.
  • Permits dietary structure/function claims with
    out FDA approval.

Structure Function Claim
  • Statements which claim a benefit related to a
    nutrient deficiency disease (like vitamin C and
    scurvy) as long as the claim tells you how
    widespread the disease is in the US.
  • Manufacturers of dietary supplements which make
    structure/function claims on the label must
    notify FDA no later than 30 days after marketing
    the supplement.

Structure Function Claim
  • May also describe the role of a nutrient or
    dietary ingredient affecting a structure or
    function in humans, such as calcium builds
    bones or fiber maintains bowel regularity.

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Dietary Supplements
  • Label must contain disclaimer
  • This statement has not been evaluated by FDA.
    This product is not intended to diagnose, treat,
    cure or prevent any disease.

  • Advertising is regulated by FTC
  • More lenient standards for advertising claims
    about diet-disease relationship than FDA for food

Health Claims
  • Calcium and Osteoporosis
  • Food or supplement must be high in calcium and
    not contain more phosphorus than calcium.
  • High 20 or more of the Daily Value for a
    particular nutrient in a serving
  • Claims for products with 400 mg of calcium must
    state that a daily intake over 2,000 mg offer no
    added benefit.

Health Claims
  • Dietary saturated fat cholesterol and risk of
    coronary heart disease
  • Foods must meet the criteria for low fat, low
    saturated fat and low cholesterol
  • low fat 3 g or less/serving
  • low-saturated fat 1 g or less/serving
  • low cholesterol 20 mg or less 2 g or less of
    saturated per serving

Health Claims
  • Fish and meats must meet criteria for extra
  • Extra lean less than 5 g fat, 2 g saturated fat
    and 95 mg cholesterol per 100 grams.

Health Claims
  • Fiber container grain products, fruits
    vegetables and cancer
  • Food must meet criteria for low fat and be a
    good source of dietary fiber
  • Good source one serving of food that contains 10
    - 19 of Daily Value of food for a particular

Health Claims
  • Fruits, vegetables and grain products that
    contain fiber, particularly soluble fiber and the
    risk of coronary heart disease.
  • Foods must meet criteria for low fat, low
    saturated fat, and low cholesterol
  • They must contain, without fortification, at
    least 0.6 g soluble fiber per reference amount
    and the soluble fiber content must be listed.

Health Claims
  • Dietary sugar alcohol and tooth decay
  • Food must meet criteria for sugar free
  • food contains no amount or only a trivial amount
    of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar
    and calories
  • 5 calories, or 0.5 g/serving for fat and sugar

Health Claims
  • Dietary soluble fiber (oats and psyllium) and
    coronary heart disease
  • Foods must meet criteria for low fat, saturated
    fat and cholesterol
  • Foods that contain whole oats must contain 0.75 g
    of soluble fiber
  • food that contain psyllium seed husk must contain
    at least 1.7 g of soluble fiber

Health Claims
  • Folate and neural tube birth defects
  • Foods must meet or exceed criteria for good
    source of folate
  • at least 40 mcg of folic acid per serving or at
    least 10 of the recommended daily value
  • A serving cannot contain more than 100 of the
    daily value for vitamin A and D

Health Claim
  • Soy and Coronary Heart Disease
  • Foods must meet criteria for low fat, saturated
    fat and cholesterol
  • Foods must contain at least 6.25 grams of soy per

Health Claim
  • Plant Sterol or Plant Stanol in reducing risk of
    Coronary Heart Disease
  • Foods that qualify include spreads, salad
    dressing, snack bars and dietary supplements in
    softgel form
  • Foods must meet the requirement for low saturated
    fat and cholesterol and contain no more that 13
    grams fat/serving

Health Claim
  • Should also state should be consumed as part of
    a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol
  • Must contain 0.65 grams of plant sterol esters
    per serving or 1.7 grams of plant stanol esters
    per serving

Authorized Health Claims - NLEA (1990)
  • Well established relationship between the a food,
    food component, dietary ingredient or dietary
    supplement and risk of a disease.

Authorized Health Claims - NLEA (1990)
  • Calcium Osteoporosis
  • Sodium Hypertension
  • Dietary fat cancer
  • Saturated fat cholesterol Coronary Heart
    Disease (CHD)
  • Fiber containing grain products, fruits
    vegetables cancers

Authorized Health Claims - NLEA (1990)
  • Fruits, vegetables and grains products which
    contain fiber, particular soluble fiber - CHD
  • Fruits and vegetables cancer
  • Folate neural tube birth defects
  • Sugar alcohols dental caries
  • Foods that contain fiber from whole grains - CHD

Authorized Health Claims - NLEA (1990)
  • Foods that contain fiber from Psyllium CHD
  • Soy Protein CHD
  • Plant Sterol/Stanol esters - CHD

Labeling Requirements
The Food and Drug Administration Modernization
Act of 1997 (FDAMA)
  • Allows manufactures to use claims if those claims
    are based on current, published, and scientific
    statements make by authoritative government
    agencies such as NIH, CDC or NAS.
  • Manufacturers must notify FDA 120 days prior to
    using the claim.

The Food and Drug Administration Modernization
Act of 1997 (FDAMA)
  • Potassium blood pressure and stroke
  • Whole grains heart disease and cancer

Qualified Health Claims - 2002
  • Provides for the use of qualified health claims
    when there is emerging evidence for a
    relationship between a food, food component, or
    dietary supplement and reduced risk for a disease
    or health related condition.
  • Manufactures can petition for a claim, which the
    FDA publicly files within 45 days.

Qualified Health Claims
  • Petitioners need to demonstrate that the weight
    of scientific evidence supports the claim.
  • Qualifying language is included as part of the
    claim to indicate that evidence supporting the
    claim is limited.

Folic acid, B6, B12 Vascular disease
  • As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in
    saturated fat and cholesterol, folic acid,
    Vitamin B6 and B12 may reduce the risk of
    vascular disease
  • FDA evaluated this claim and found that diets
    low in saturated fat and cholesterol reduce the
    risk of heart disease, the evidence to support
    this claim in inconclusive.

Walnuts and Heart Disease
  • Supportive but not conclusive research shows
    that eating 1.5 ounces per day of walnuts as part
    of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol
    may reduce the risk of heart disease