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Title: active learning


1
ACTIVE LEARNING TEACHING
  • BY J.B.PUJARA
  • A.P.(EE DEPT)
  • Teaching Learning Processworkshop
  • 5-9 JULY,2010
  • KALOL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

2
CONTENTS
  • CONCEPT OF ACTIVE LEARNING
  • Ideas to Encourage Students
  • Daily Lesson Plan
  • 7 Principles of Good Practice in Education
  • Evaluating Our Own Teaching
  • Good Teaching The Top 10 Requirements
  • Improving Teaching
  • Enhancing Our Teaching Effectiveness
  • How to Improve Teaching Quality?

3
WHAT IS ACTIVE LEARNING ?
  • THERE ARE 180000 CITATIONS ON GOOGLE ABOUT ACTIVE
    LEARNING.

4
Definition of active learning
  • Active Learning refers to techniques where
    students do more than simply listen to a lecture.
    Students are doing something including
    discovering, processing, and applying information
    (McKinney 2007 ).
  • Processing and Applying Information.

5
Definition of active learning
  • Construct interesting problem spaces that serve
    to really engage the learners interest, and,
    hence, to motivate them in ways that are
    authentic
  • (Carson 2009).
  • Motivate the students.

6
Definition of active learning
  • Active Learning is comprised of a student
    centered environment which raises students
    motivational level to stimulate thinking and go
    beyond facts and details (Brody 2009).
  • Stimulate Thinking.

7
Active learning
  • Sachin tendulkar wears T shirt, on back side of
    which number 10 is written . Why?

8
TYPES OF LEARNERS
  • Visual Learners
  • Auditory Learners
  • Read-write Learners
  • Kinesthetic Learners

9
Visual Learners
  • Visual learners are characterized by the
    following
  • They tend to be fast talkers.
  • They exhibit impatience and have a tendency to
    interrupt.
  • They use words and phrases that evoke visual
    images.
  • They learn by seeing and visualizing.
  • Our teaching strategy for visual learners should
    include the use of demonstrations and visually
    pleasing materials, and we should make an effort
    to paint mental pictures for learners.

10
Auditory Learners
  • Auditory learners are characterized by the
    following
  • They speak slowly and tend to be natural
    listeners.
  • They think in a linear manner.
  • They prefer to have things explained to them
    verbally rather than to read written information.
  • They learn by listening and verbalizing.
  • Our teaching strategy for auditory learners
    should sound good and should be planned and
    delivered in the form of an organized
    conversation.

11
Read-Write Learners
  • Read-write learners are characterized by the
    following
  • They prefer for information to be displayed in
    writing, such as lists of ideas.
  • They emphasize text-based input and output.
  • They enjoy reading and writing in all forms.

12
Cont.
  • Our teaching strategy for read-write learners
    should include writing out key words in list
    form.
  • The learners will learn by silently reading or
    rewriting their notes repeatedly writing out in
    their own words the ideas and principles that
    were taught or discussed organizing any
    diagrams, graphs, other visual depictions into
    statements.
  • Putting reactions, actions, diagrams, charts, and
    flowcharts into words. They like multiple-choice
    tests.

13
Kinesthetic Learners
  • Kinesthetic learners are characterized by the
    following
  • They tend to be the slowest talkers of all.
  • They tend to be slow to make decisions.
  • They use all their senses to engage in learning.
  • They learn by doing and solving real-life
    problems.
  • They like hands-on approaches to things and
    learn through trial and error.
  • Our teaching strategy for kinesthetic learners
    should include hands on demonstrations and case
    examples to be discussed and solved

14
Cont.
  • There are a variety of types of learners in a
    single classroom.Therefore, it is important to
    incorporate multiple teaching methods.
  • It is also important to know what your own
    predominant learning style is, because when you
    teach, you may unintentionally favor your
    learning style and shortchange other types of
    learners in the classroom.
  • Although it is difficult to address everyones
    needs, it is important to meet as many needs as
    possible. To accomplish this, the instructor
    should assess learners needs and issues.

15
Need of active learning
  • There needs to be some information transfer, but
    information that is only shared in a passive
    learning format is likely to become boring or
    seem irrelevant to learners. The key to teaching
    adults is to provide new information that is
    relevant and usable within a relatively short
    period of time.
  • A good framework to keep in mind is the active
    training credo

16
PASSIVE VS ACTIVE LEARNING
  • .

17
.
  • What I hear, I forget.
  • What I hear and see, I remember a little.
  • What I hear, see, and ask questions about or
    discuss with someone else, I begin to understand.
  • What I hear, see, discuss, and do, I acquire
    knowledge and skill.
  • What I teach to another, I master. (Silberman,
    1996, p. 1)

18
Cont.
  • As a teacher, our goal is not only to present
    information that learners need but also to
    facilitate experiences that will help them gain
    and master the knowledge and skills that they
    need to know and practice.
  • By using a variety of teaching techniques and by
    actively involving learners in the experience, we
    increase the chances that they will retain and
    use the information.

19
.
  • The engineering students are visual learners They
    more understands simulations, pictures, graphs,
    videos, charts, drawings.
  • While literature student understand the text
    language. So we have to give proper environment
    to each student.

20
Cont.
  • Instructors may feel that they lose control of
    the class when they allow exercises to dominate
    classroom time.
  • By utilizing multiple training styles such as
    lecture, experiential activities, and small and
    large group activities, and by repeating the
    information Throughout the session we can involve
    students in active learning.
  • An active learning process involves listening,
    demonstrating, interacting, and understanding in
    order to engage all learners

21
FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING
  • Learning is not an automatic process. There
    are a number of factors that can inhibit the
    process. These may include one or more of the
    following
  • Learner feels he or she is at least as competent
    in the subject matter as the instructor.
  • Learner is fearful of being seen as inferior or
    of being embarrassed.
  • Learner is anxious.
  • Learner has had a bad learning experience in the
    past.
  • Not knowing scientific techniques for how to
    read? And how to recall?

22
FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING
  • Learner comes to the session with other problems
    on his or her mind and is unable to focus.
  • Learner is in class against his or her will and
    resents this.
  • Learner is interested in the material but is
    constrained by time and focused on other
    priorities.
  • Learner has personal barriers or biases to
    learning about the topic. For example, a
    learner may be resistant to learning about a
    topic (e.g., evolution) that contradicts his or
    her religious beliefs.
  • Physical problem/ transportation problem
  • Learner is uncomfortable with the learning
    technique being used this is common when
    learners are being introduced to technology for
    the first time.

23
Teaching related problem
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Not like profession
  • Money related/ salary
  • Too much clerical work
  • Not encouragement
  • Poor student quality
  • Lack of infrastructure
  • Discourage by seniors for implementing new ideas.
  • Class strength.
  • Non availability of OHP,LCD and other softwares

24
Ideas to Encourage Students for active learning
  • Faculty student interaction
  • Learn the name of students as quickly as
    possible.
  • At the end of each class, ask one student to stay
    for a minute to chat.
  • Instead of returning tests/ quiz in class, ask
    students to pick them up from your cabin.
  • Give students a respectful answer to any question
    they might ask.

25
Idea Ideas to Encourage Students for active
learning
  • Faculty student interaction (continue)
  • Be aware of the difference between students
    classroom mistakes and their personal successes/
    failures.
  • Be honest about your feelings, opinions and
    attitudes toward students and toward the subject
    matter.
  • Lend some of your books to students and borrow
    some of their in return.
  • Establish a system for absences, work missed,
    assignments, tutorials etc.

26
Ideas to Encourage Students for active learning
  • General classroom management
  • Reach to class before the students arrive be the
    last to leave.
  • Throughout the course, but particularly during
    the crucial first class sessions emphasize your
    willingness to give individual help.
  • List and discuss your course objectives on the
    first day. Tell them what they should expect of
    you and how you will contribute to their
    learning.
  • Distribute an outline of your lecture notes
    before class starts.

27
Ideas to Encourage Students for active learning
  • General classroom management (continue)
  • Use familiar examples in presenting materials.
  • Have movement in the class as we talk or ask
    questions. This brings a closeness to the
    students.
  • Vary our instructional techniques
  • When we answer a students question, be sure
    he/she understands your answer.

28
Ideas to Encourage Students for active learning
  • General classroom management (continue)
  • Return tests/ quizzes etc as soon as possible.
    Write comments ( and -) when appropriate.
  • Give each student a mid-term grade and indicate
    what each student must do to improve.
  • If you had to miss a class, explain why and what
    you will do to make up the time and/or materials.
  • Use new notes not old notes.

29
Ideas to Encourage Students
  • Student initiated activities
  • If the class lends itself to a field trip, have
    the students plan it and make some or all of the
    arrangements.
  • Ask students to submit sample test questions
    prior to a test.
  • Faculty initiated activities
  • Take the initiative to contact and meet with
    students who are doing poor work. Be especially
    cognizant of the passive student.

30
Ideas to Encourage Students
  • Faculty initiated activities
  • Set up special tutoring sessions and extra
    classes. Make these activities mandatory,
    especially for students who are doing poorly.
  • Teach a class with a colleague or switch classes
    for a period or two. Invite a guest lecturer to
    class.

31
Daily Lesson Plan
  • Instructional Goal (outcome that students should
    be able to demonstrate upon completion of the
    entire unit)
  • Rationale (brief description why you feel the
    students need to learn this topic)
  • Lesson content (what is to be taught)

32
Daily Lesson Plan
  • Instructional procedure
  • Focusing event (something to get the students
    attention)
  • Teaching procedures (method you will use)
  • Formative check (progress checks throughout the
    lesson)
  • Student participation (how you will motivate the
    students to participate)
  • Closure (how you will end the lesson)

33
7 Principles of Good Practice in Education
  • Encourage contact between students and faculty
  • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among
    students
  • Encourages active learning
  • Students must talk about what they are learning,
    write
  • about it, relate it to past experiences and apply
    it to their
  • daily lives.
  • Gives prompt feedback
  • Emphasizes time on talk
  • Students need help in learning effective time
    management
  • Communicate high expectations
  • Important for the poorly prepared, for those
    unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright
    and well motivated.
  • 7. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning

34
Evaluating Our Own Teaching
  • Assuming that no one is perfect and therefore
    everyone has room for improvement.
  • Evaluation is the means by which we try to
    identify which aspects of our teaching are good
    and which need to be changed. The first provide
    global assessment, while the second is analytical
    and diagnostic in character.
  • Evaluation is inherent part of good teaching.
    Therefore, teacher himself should take primary
    responsibility for doing the evaluation.

35
Evaluating Our Own Teaching
  • Why evaluate?
  • 1. Gather information about your teaching and
    make an effort to improve some aspect of it.
  • 2. To document the quality of ones teaching for
    others.
  • 3. Our own mental and psychological satisfaction.

36
Evaluating Our Own Teaching
  • How to evaluate?
  • Sources of information
  • 1. Self-monitoring
  • 2. Audio/video recording
  • 3. Students
  • a. Questionnaires
  • b. Interviews
  • 4. Students test results
  • 5. Outside observers
  • a. Fellow faculty member
  • b. Senior faculty members
  • c. Professionals

37
Evaluating Our Own Teaching
  • Ideas for improving
  • Selected colleagues
  • Books journals
  • Instructional development programs
  • Workshops
  • Offers deep personal and professional
    satisfaction of being able to say, after a single
    course or after a career of teaching,
  • I did my best, and it was good!

38
Good Teaching The Top 10 Requirements
  • 1 Passion 6 Humor
  • 2 Substance 7 Caring / nurturing
  • 3 Humanity 8 What is done?
  • 4 Experimenting 9 Mentoring
  • 5 Style 10 Pleasure
  • Good teachers couldnt imagine doing anything
    else.

39
Improving Teaching
  • Teaching is what almost every professor does, but
    it seems to suffer from that very commonness. It
    occupies the greatest amount of most professors
    time, but rarely operates at the highest level of
    competence.
  • Few professors even regard teaching as so
    straightforward that it requires no special
    training.
  • Most share the common folk belief that teachers
    are born and not made. Yet those who are great at
    their professions (physicians, attorneys,
    engineers) invariably spent an unnatural amount
    of time acquiring skills and practicing in the
    vortex of intense competition.

40
Improving Teaching
  • Potentially great teachers become great by the
    same route through conditioning mind, through
    acquiring skills, and through practicing amidst
    intense competition.
  • Previously, emphasis was to improve subject
    matter competence. Claimed as rationale was a
    deeper understanding of the content of a
    discipline. Practically no attention was paid to
    how that understanding could best be imparted to
    students.
  • The advent of educational technology has forever
    altered concepts about teaching and learning.

41
Improving Teaching
  • Why improve teaching?
  • Institutional reasons
  • College where superior teaching is the rule
    than the exception, and where it is sufficiently
    recognized and rewarded, enjoy a distinct
    advantage in the competition for students.
  • Faculty member
  • Teachers must be attentive to fresh pedagogical
    techniques, student learning theories, and
    technological advances.
  • Even best teachers must continue learning in
    order to remain the best.

42
Improving Teaching
  • Why improve teaching?
  • Students
  • College students are quite a different mix than
    they were even two decades ago. And those who
    teach to todays students must learn to gear
    instruction to a new classroom dynamic.
  • Society and societal forces
  • Telecommunications and computer technology have
    emerged as powerful forces in teaching and
    learning.

43
Improving Teaching
  • No matter how good a teacher is in classroom or
    laboratory, he or she can improve.
  • No matter how effective a particular teaching
    method is, it can be enhanced.
  • What constitutes effective teaching
  • Deep knowledge of the subject
  • Ability to communicate with motivate students
  • Enthusiasm for the subject and for teaching
  • Clarity of presentation
  • Fairness

44
Improving Teaching
  • Instructional improvement efforts
  • New teacher
  • Lecturing
  • Discussions
  • Construction tests
  • Mid-career teacher
  • Learning new skills
  • Taking part in interdisciplinary work
  • Adopting new technology in the classroom
  • Latter stages of careers
  • Systematically reflecting on their teaching
  • Becoming mentor for their junior colleagues

45
Improving Teaching
  • Role of Administrators
  • Making the campus environment more responsive to
    teaching
  • Teaching load should be kept to reasonable
    limits so that the teacher has time to keep
    abreast of changes in the discipline
  • Providing the proper setting and tools to support
    instruction
  • Unfortunately, in few colleges, classroom
    conditions-including light, heat, air and
    noise-are no beer controlled. Floors are not
    swept. Equipment doesnt work. Failure to pay
    attention to these details suggests to teachers
    that teaching is considered a second-class
    activity by the institute.

46
Improving Teaching
  • Role of Administrators
  • Rewarding improved teaching
  • Many teachers argue that the biggest roadblock
    to improved teaching is the reward system that
    pits teaching against research. Many institutions
    give lip service to the importance of the
    teaching but then turn around and reward
    scholarly research and publication.
  • Clearly the reward system needs to be reworked
    so that there is greater recognition of superior
    teaching.

47
Improving Teaching
  • Teaching is an art and not science. Yet, every
    artist needs a grounding in technique before
    setting to work, and there is no artist-or
    teacher-who cannot improve his or her skill.

48
Improving Teaching
  • President John F Kennedy was found of telling a
    story about the French Marshall Louis Lyautey.
  • When the Marshall announced that he wished to
    plant a tree, his gardener responded that the
    tree would not reach full growth for more than on
    hundred years. In that case, Marshall replied,
    we have no time to lose. We must start to plant
    this afternoon.
  • Administrators and faculty intent on improving
    teaching also have no time to lose. They, too,
    must start to plant this evening.

49
Enhancing Our Teaching Effectiveness
  • Seize the moment
  • Involve the students in planning
  • Begin with what the students knows
  • Move from simple to complex
  • Accommodate the students preferred learning
    style
  • Sort goals by learning domain
  • Make material meaningful
  • Allow immediate application of knowledge
  • Plan for periodic rests
  • Tell your students how they are progressing
  • Reward desired learning with praise

50
How to implement active learning
  • Many faculty members are irate. They argue that
    TQIwas developed by and for industry to improve
    profits. Industry and institute are totally
    different, and talking of students as customers
    is offensive and makes no sense.
  • Nevertheless, TQI has NOT established itself as
    the way many institutes operate, especially in
    matters related to classroom instruction

51
How to ImproveTeaching Quality
  • Write instructional objectives
  • Instructional objectives are statements of
    specific actions that students should be able to
    perform if they have mastered the content and
    skills, the instructor has attempted to teach.
  • At the end of this course, chapter, week,
    lecture , the students should be able to
  • To do well on the next exam, the student should
    be able to
  • Where is a phrase that begins with an action
    verb.

52
How to Improve Teaching Quality
  • Illustrative phrases attached instructional
    objectives
  • Knowledge list, state
  • Comprehension explain, paraphrase
  • Application calculate, solve
  • Analysis derive, simulate
  • Synthesis design, make up
  • Evaluation determine, select
  • The last three categories are often referred to
    as the higher level thinking skills.

53
How to Improve Teaching Quality
  • Use active learning in class
  • A classroom research study showed that
    immediately after a lecture students recalled 70
    of the information presented in the first ten
    minutes and only 20 of that from the last ten
    minutes.
  • Students attention can be maintained throughout
    a class by periodically giving them something to
    do. i. e. Active learning exercises

54
How to ImproveTeaching Quality
  • Cooperative learning (CL)
  • Proceed gradually when using CL for the first
    time.
  • Form teams of 3-4 students out-of-class
    assignments.
  • Instructor-formed teams generally work better
    than self-selected teams.
  • Give more challenging assignments to teams than
    to individuals.
  • Help students learn how to work effectively in
    teams.

55
How to Improve Teaching Quality
  • An administration wishing to improve the quality
    of its instructional program should first make
    the necessary commitment to provide necessary
    resources and incentives for faculty
    participation.
  • Then, dont talk about TQM just do it.

56
Final words
  • We can teach from our experience but we can not
    teach experience!
  • We cannot teach anybody anything, we can only
    make them think

57
TEACHER IS
  • INSTRUMENT OF
  • INSPIRATION?
  • TOOL OF TORCHER?

58
Teaching Learning Process5-9JULY,2010 KALOL
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
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