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Writing in a foreign language

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Title: Writing in a foreign language


1
WRITING IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
2
WRITING IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
  • The process of learning to write in a foreign
    language should be started in Primary Education
    and really never ends.

3
2. WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE REFER TO WRITING?
  • Academic Writing is the production of a sequence
    of sentences arranged in a particular order and
    linked together to form a coherent whole called
    text.
  • From a communicative perspective, we could
    understand writing as the ability to communicate
    with each other and express our own ideas in
    written form.

PASSIVE/ RECEPTIVE ACTIVE/PRODUCTIVE
ORAL/AURAL LISTENING SPEAKING
VISUAL READING WRITING
4
3. SPECIFIC SKILLS ATTACHED TO WRITING
  • Writing is clearly a complex, multifaceted
    process requiring the ability to manipulate many
    sub-skills simultaneously
  • involves being creative, spelling, grammar,
    punctuation, choice of appropriate words,
    sentences linking and text construction.

5
3.1. Graphic or Visual Skills
  • Spelling Difference between pronunciation and
    spelling in the English language.
  • How can our students improve their spelling?
  • We advise them to
  • a) select priority words to learn,
  • b) get plentiful, regular practice,
  • c) know about the language,
  • d) learn techniques,
  • e) develop an interest in words,
  • f) check their work,
  • g) have confidence in themselves.

6
3.1. Graphic or Visual Skills
  • Punctuation Learning how to use punctuation
    correctly is a slow and laborious process. It
    should be started from the very beginning.
  • Layout There are certain conventions on how to
    write a letter, construct a paragraph, organise a
    written text and so on that are culturally
    determined.

7
3.2. Grammatical Skills
  • This refers to the students' skill in making
    efficient use of grammatical structures and
    constructions.

8
Expressive or Stylistic Skills
  • This includes the learners capacity to select
    the most appropriate meaning in a range of styles
    and registers Sociolinguistic competence

9
3.4.Rhetorical Skills
  • This refers to the ability to use linguistic
    cohesive devices what we call connectors and
    modifiers in order to link parts of a text
    into logically related sequences discourse
    competence

10
3.5. Organisational Skills
  • The organisation of pieces of information into
    paragraphs and texts.

11
4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FOUR SKILLS
  • It is an obvious fact that languages are spoken
    before they are written, and there are people who
    communicate perfectly in the spoken language
    without being able to express themselves in
    writing.

12
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FOUR SKILLS
  • When introducing the skills we should know
  • what stage the learners are at in the
    acquisition of their first language skills,
  • to ensure that we do not interfere with the
    learning process of their own language.
  • Only when reading and writing have been acquired
    in L1 can we begin the task with L2.

13
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FOUR SKILLS
  • At beginner levels in particular, writing
    practice should be aimed at
  • reinforcing the learning of linguistic elements
    which have been practised orally,
  • without forgetting to introduce our pupils to
    vocabulary practice and the structures of written
    language itself.

14
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FOUR SKILLS
  • Integrated Skills It means that we can create
    activities, tasks where the four basic skills are
    integrated.

15
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FOUR SKILLS
  • Integrating Reading and Writing. Reading and
    Writing are closely related
  • a) reading is a source of input and model for
    written language
  • b) there is a continual process of feedback
    between the two skills.

16
a) Reading as a source of input and model for
written language
  • Students need to receive language, a
    comprehensible input, by means of reading a
    sufficient amount in order to develop their
    capacity.
  • Beginners should be given models adapted to their
    level.

17
b) Continual process of feedback between the two
skills
  • We constantly read what we have written to revise
    content and grammar, organise the text, etc. So
    there is a continous feedback.

18
Integrating Speaking and Writing
  • When we are writing something we usually try it
    out by pronouncing it internally in what is
    known as inner speech

19
4.5 Integrating Listening and Writing
  • To get used to English spelling, it is better
    first to only hear the word, get to know its
    acoustic shape before writing it down.
  • Traditional activities Dictations or listening
    comprehensions
  • Communicative writing activities Information
    gaps and task dependency

20
5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN
DISCOURSE
SPOKEN LANGUAGE WRITTEN LANGUAGE
More informal we sometimes express ourselves by means of short, incomplete sentences, using contractions and fillers. Formal and polished
Spoken discourse is ephemeral, it leaves no record unless it is intentionally taped or transcribed. It is permanent, it leaves a record.
A spontaneous and improvised activity. A deliberate and conscious process, subject to continuous revision, which must be planned and organised.
The situational context helps understanding Only the linguistic context is available
21
5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WRITTEN AND SPOKEN
DISCOURSE
SPOKEN LANGUAGE WRITTEN LANGUAGE
An immediate response is obtained from the audience, who confirm whether or not the message has been understood. No immediate feedback
The context and knowledge shared by the speaker and the listener mean that certain information is assumed without needing to be made explicit. The written text is explicit and concrete.
Proxemic, kinesic or paralinguistic elements may be used to clarify, complete or reinforce the message. There are no expressive resources although this is partially remedied by the use of punctuation.
The natural unit of expression is the sentence The natural unit of expression is the paragraph.
Speech may contain a regional or dialectal variant Standard language is usually used in writing.
22
HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT WRITING ENGLISH?
  • Teachers perspective
  • lack of a well-defined model of teaching how to
    write
  • reduced to exercises known as composition or
    essays.
  • Time-consuming activity.
  • this skill requires a lot of time to obtain an
    acceptable product and relegates it to homework.
  • Focus on Listening and Speaking.
  • Our educational system pays more attention to
    oral skills.
  • The teacher is usually the only audience for the
    pupils work.

23
HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT WRITING ENGLISH?
  • Pupils perspective
  • Pupils tend to see writing as an academic
    activity imposed by the teacher.
  • It is the only skill whose final product is
    fixed and recorded for posterity.
  • There is no immediate feedback.
  • Need for a real audience and real communication
    to give authenticity to this exercise and
    encourage the pupils implication in the process.
  • Choice of subject matter.
  • the themes proposed are often repetitive,
    unimaginative and unattractive.
  • Solitary work

24
7.THE WRITING PROCESS
  • Before beginning
  • The content what you are writing for.
  • The addressee or reader who you are writing to
    or for.
  • The purpose why you are writing.

25
7.1.What do people write?
  • Distinction between personal writing and
    public/professional or institutional writing.
  • a) PERSONAL WRITING

a) Study writing - Lecture notes - Reviews - Summaries - Synopses - New Vocabulary - Copying from the board - Written exercises For others Essays, Reports and exams, Composition, Dictation b) Creative Writing Poems, songs, stories, rhymes, autobiographies, tales, drama, chants. These are text types which are created for an aesthetic reason and for personal satisfaction although they may be shared with others. In TEFL these texts are widely used to practice language and promote the imagination and creativity of the pupil.
26
What do people write?
  • PERSONAL PUBLIC WRITING

a) Study writing - Lecture notes - Reviews - Summaries - Synopses - New Vocabulary - Copying from the board - Written exercises For others Essays, Reports and exams, Composition, Dictation b) Creative Writing Poems, songs, stories, rhymes, autobiographies, tales, drama, chants. These are text types which are created for an aesthetic reason and for personal satisfaction although they may be shared with others. In TEFL these texts are widely used to practice language and promote the imagination and creativity of the pupil.
27
What do people write?
  • PUBLIC OR INSTITUTIONAL WRITING

a) Public Writing Intended for organisations or institutions. -Letters of Enquiry, complaint and request. - Form Filling - Applications - Faxes - Curriculum Vitae b) Social Writing These help us to establish and maintain social relations with those around us. - Letters - Invitations -Notes of thanks, congratulations, of condolence - Telephone messages - Instructions to friends and family. - E-mails - SMS - Online chats c)Professional Writing Specialised texts related to professional tasks (Legal, commercial, educational, advertising, medical, journalism) which have clearly defined characteristics. - Agendas - Minutes - Memoranda - Articles - Public Notices - Contracts - Advertisements - Business Letters - Market research - Specifications
28
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • Pupil needs to write with either a real or
    imaginary reader in mind.
  • The choice of appropriate style and content will
    depend on the audience we are writing for.
  • The teacher should not become the only reader of
    their work.

Classmates Exchanging written work with
classmates for them to make suggestions or
corrections, using the principle of Peer
Teaching. Reading work out loud for the rest of
the class to hear. Anonymous letters unsigned or
unaddressed letters - the sender or the receiver
have to be guessed e.g. Be my Valentine!
Home-made Books we refer here to an
easy-to-make low-cost book that is made by the
pupils themselves. The teacher explains to the
pupils how to make the books (Cancelas 1997).
29
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • Other students in the school make a newspaper,
    magazine or other mini projects (exhibitions) to
    share with pupils from other classes.
  • The student himself, writing a poem, a few notes,
    or a draft for his eyes only.

30
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • A real outside audience
  • Pen friends
  • Pen pals, Key pals or cyberpals
  • Internet chats
  • SMS messages
  • Writing for information
  • Parents
  • Friends
  • Fictional characters

31
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • An imaginary outside audience.
  • We can create displays of their work class
    surveys.
  • Royal Mail post box will encourage pupils to
    write letters to their teacher

32
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • Royal Mail post box will encourage pupils to
    write letters to their teacher, headmaster, or
    other pupils to express their complaints,
    opinions, suggestions or congratulations.
  • English Notice Board where they can write news
    that interests them and that they want to share
    with the rest of the class.

33
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • The clothes-line allows us to carry out many
    activities in the English classroom.

34
7.1. Who for? The audience
  • We can provide a Book of Envelopes where they can
    put their letters written to the person whose
    address is on the front of each envelope.

35
7.1. Why? The purpose
  • Writing always has a purpose which will determine
    the expressions, vocabulary, style, format, etc.
    that should be used.
  • The writer should have a reason for writing and
    this will depend on age, interests and needs.

36
7.1. Why? The purpose
  • We could propose exercises that fulfil some of
    the following requirements
  • They make you think in order to solve a problem.
  • They are entertaining.
  • They communicate something, such as letters or
    notes.
  • They have a specific use for the pupils the
    words of a song, a recipe, facts and figures,
    etc.

37
8.1. The Controlled-to-Free Approach
  • 8.2. The Free-Writing Approach
  • Intermediate-level students.
  • Quantity rather than quality.
  • Content and fluency rather than form.

38
The Paragraph-Pattern Approach
  • The focus here is on text organisation.
  • Students copy, analyse and imitate model
    paragraphs and passages.

39
The Grammar-Syntax-Organisation Approach
  • Teach students to connect the purpose of a
    written text to the most appropriate forms
    required to convey the message.
  • Attention is paid to grammar and syntax, as well
    as to appropriate choice of vocabulary and the
    structure of the piece of writing

40
The Communicative Approach
  • The purpose and addressee of a piece of writing
    are the focal points of this approach.
  • Addressees other than the teacher.
  • It is believed that writers work better when
    writing for a real reader.

41
The Communicative Approach
  • Describe yourself, but Your penpal from
    England is coming to stay with you for the first
    time. Write a letter describing yourself so that
    he/she will recognise you when you go to meet
    him/her at the station.

42
The Process Approach to Writing
  • Composing processes writers make use of in
    writing, such as
  • planning (also called pre-writing)
  • drafting
  • Composing
  • creating and developing
  • and revising (or editing).

43
The Process Approach to Writing
  • The aim of this approach is to help the student
    answer the question How do I write this? by
    developing their use of composing processes.

44
Pre-writing activities
  • Class discussion of the topic, brainstorming or
    list making).
  • Think about what they are going to write.
  • Who they are writing for.
  • organise their work, etc
  • Students then respond to these ideas in writing
    (the drafting stage).

45
Writing
  • Drafting improved upon with the help of feedback
    from the teacher and/or other students
  • Creating
  • The final stage is Revising

46
The Eclectic Approach
  • Teachers use what they consider to be the most
    useful techniques from each approach, according
    to the teaching context they are working in, the
    stage their pupils are at, etc.

47
9. IMPORTANCE OF WRITING IN TEFL
  • It is above all a useful learning tool
  • It helps to consolidate and reinforce the
    learning of other knowledge (grammar, vocabulary,
    etc.).
  • It is a useful communication channel.
  • It adds another physical dimension to the
    learning process.

48
TOWARDS A METHODOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING OF
WRITING FAMILIARIZATION, CONTROLLED WRITING,
GUIDED WRITING AND FREE WRITING
  • A series of stages has been established where the
    activities become increasingly more complex.
  • Familiarisation with written texts writing
    words, simple grammatical phrases, routines or
    prefabricated language is the first step before
    pupils can produce their first written sentences.

49
TOWARDS A METHODOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING OF
WRITING FAMILIARIZATION, CONTROLLED WRITING,
GUIDED WRITING AND FREE WRITING
  • copying, tracing and handling language, focused
    mainly on spelling and vocabulary. Possible
    activities crosswords, anagrams, jumbled
    letters, put the words in one sentence, labelling
    objects and pictures, hangman, etc.

50
TOWARDS A METHODOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING OF
WRITING FAMILIARIZATION, CONTROLLED WRITING,
GUIDED WRITING AND FREE WRITING
  • Controlled Writing Controlling the pupils
    production and reducing the possibility of
    mistakes.
  • very little communicative function

51
TOWARDS A METHODOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING OF
WRITING FAMILIARIZATION, CONTROLLED WRITING,
GUIDED WRITING AND FREE WRITING
  • Guided Writing Here the learner begins to
    produce written sentences following very precise
    guidelines provided by the teacher or the
    textbook, which usually lead to predictable
    results.

52
TOWARDS A METHODOLOGY FOR THE TEACHING OF
WRITING FAMILIARIZATION, CONTROLLED WRITING,
GUIDED WRITING AND FREE WRITING
  • Free Writing Also known as Creative, Expressive
    writing or Writing for Fluency.

53
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • Slotboard large board with a row of pockets
    along the bottom.
  • The pupil inserts cards with words on them in the
    pockets to create sentences.
  • Flashcards

54
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • Displaying Charts

55
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • Word displays
  • Sentence markers

56
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • Games from scrabble to help with spelling, or
    snap.
  • Dominoes
  • Puzzles
  • Visual Material (Pictures, drawings, photographs,
    wallcharts, etc.)

57
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • Roll Sentences the children write sentences in
    strips which can be rotated around a cardboard
    tube to make new sentences.
  • Frames Big Books to initiate children in
    writing.
  • Activity Books. Workbooks and worksheets are
    widely used in our Education System

58
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • Computers Use of emails and correspondence with
    penpals (http//www.ks-connection.org/penpal/
    penpal.html) as a way of giving authenticity to
    written communication. Chats are another form of
    communication written in real time

59
11.3. Teaching Aids
  • We should not forget the existence of specific
    computer programmes designed for different levels
    and age-groups to practise this skill.
  • Hot Potatoes, available at http//web.uvic.ca/hrd
    /halfbaked/ is a good example.

60
11.4. The Use of Individual, Pair and Group
Techniques.
  • Although the aim is for each pupil to develop
    writing techniques, it does not have to be an
    individual task relegated to homework assignments.

61
11.4. The Use of Individual, Pair and Group
Techniques
  • Techniques for pair work.
  • games such as Back Writing or Palm Writing.
    The pupil writes a word on the back or palm of a
    classmate, who has to guess the word.
  • Techniques for Group work.
  • Group work is very productive.
  • pupils can benefit from the knowledge of their
    classmates and overcome their fear of expressing
    themselves as the work, and therefore the
    mistakes, are collective

62
11.4. The Use of Individual, Pair and Group
Techniques
  • Consequences Learners work in groups of
    seven, and they have to write their answers to a
    series of questions. The first one writes his/her
    answer then folds the piece of paper and passes
    it on to the next person who writes the answer to
    the second question. When they have all finished
    they unfold the sheet of paper, read it aloud and
    then write a text with the information.

63
11.4. The Use of Individual, Pair and Group
Techniques
  • We can assign projects that involve a collective
    writing exercise such as a class newspaper or
    magazine, making a class dictionary or writing an
    English diary.

64
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Change teachers attitudes to writing
  • Learning to write is a gradual, dynamic,
    progressive and developmental process.
  • Writing ability develops through meaningful
    writing experiences.

65
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • We will focus on meaning rather than accuracy.
  • Children should write about what they have talked
    about or read about.
  • The writing process should be planned and
    established.
  • Play with words, sentences and texts .

66
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Introduce motivating and funny activities.
  • Encouraging risk-taking.
  • Acceptance of the mistakes.
  • Be positive. Praise and respect all efforts.

67
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • For young children visual aids (pictures,
    flashcards, cardwords) are very important.
  • Encourage children to be autonomous (consult
    dictionaries, spell-checkers, computers, books,
    etc.)

68
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Our starting point is that the pupils know how to
    write in their L1.
  • We will move step by step, starting with
    spelling, writing words, forming phrases,
    punctuation, paragraphs, and ending with the
    creation of whole texts.

69
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • We will follow the classic stages mentioned in
    section 11
  • Familiarisation,
  • Controlled Writing,
  • Guided writing and
  • Free Writing.

70
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Writing activities go from being tightly
    controlled to being completely free.
  • We should familiarise the pupil with writing and
    most activities will be aimed at learning the
    alphabet, presenting techniques for learning how
    to spell, and writing words.

71
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
Complete these words with oe ue oo u oa o 1. A c____ and a l___ rry on the road. 2. The sky is bl___ and the s___n is yellow. 3. P___t on your sh___s, cr___ss the w___d and go to sch___l!
72
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
73
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Learning spelling is a difficult process due to
    the complexity of the English language, which has
    44 phonemes represented by only 26 letters.
  • Strategies used to improve spelling
  • Traditional and
  • multisensorial techniques

74
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Traditional strategies are
  • a) learn individual words off by heart.
  • b) Apply spelling rules (such as i before e
    except after c and teach Letter Patterns.

75
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
76
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Games such as
  • Hangman.
  • Complete the word.
  • Start at the end or Start with the letter.

77
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Guided Writing
  • Use copying in a way which encourages pupils to
    think using crosswords, or anagrams, and
    matching, sequencing or classifying activities.

78
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
ANAGRAMS Name of animals - OESMU............. -TRA -LULB.. ERITG.............. EYNDOK..........
dice, foggy, mountain, punky, butcher, bike, warden, rucksack, freezing, face, cinema, cool, tent, surfboard, path, path, warm dice, foggy, mountain, punky, butcher, bike, warden, rucksack, freezing, face, cinema, cool, tent, surfboard, path, path, warm dice, foggy, mountain, punky, butcher, bike, warden, rucksack, freezing, face, cinema, cool, tent, surfboard, path, path, warm dice, foggy, mountain, punky, butcher, bike, warden, rucksack, freezing, face, cinema, cool, tent, surfboard, path, path, warm
WEATHER PEOPLE ENTERTAINMENTS HIKING




79
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Dictation
  • The runner and the scribe two pupils sit one in
    front of the other at a distance from the board,
    where there is a text written in small letters.
    One of the students, the runner, goes up to the
    board, reads a sentence, then goes back and
    dictates the sentence from memory to the
    scribe, who writes it down. When they reach a
    mark in the text, they swap roles. The exercise
    is then corrected by means of a listening
    exercise.

80
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • A text is placed outside the classroom.
  • A pupil goes out to the text, reads a sentence,
    then comes back into the room and dictates the
    sentence from memory to the rest of the class.

81
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels.
  • Dictogloss. The teacher dictates a story and at
    certain stages asks learners to write, within a
    time limit, part of the text as a creative
    writing exercise.

82
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Controlled writing at Sentence Level.
  • To develop students' awareness of organising
    thoughts into a logical sequence.
  • Use media such as slotboards and displaying
    boards.
  • Pupils manipulate the language on cards and the
    whole class practises, plays and produces
    sentences before moving on to a more abstract
    plane.

83
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • The resulting phrases are then corrected or
    improved by the whole class.

PUT THE WORDS INTO 1 SENTENCE eats cat a fish lot my of _____________________________________
MARK WORD BOUNDARIES Theangrywomanwalkedintotheforest. Tworedbusesstoppedatthetrafficlights Thehensonmyfarmlayalotofeggs
84
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Copy and rearrange exercises In Primary
    Education pupils should be given a variety of
    written texts adapted to their level and
    interests (letters, postcards, adverts, comics,
    tales, nursery rhymes, etc.) to become familiar
    with them.

85
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Fill-in Exercises,
  • Picture Gaps and
  • Opposites"

OPPOSITES It was a very hot day and Susan was very happy. Her mother had given her a big bag of delicious sweets and she wanted to share them with her friends. The bag was quite heavy and she was walking quickly so she soon got tired. She sat down and went to sleep. When she woke up the bag was empty!
86
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Pupils are given a basic text with no adjectives
    or adverbs. They have to rewrite the text
    including a list of words provided by the
    teacher, or, for higher ability groups, complete
    the text with their own words.

87
11.5. Writing at Elementary Levels
  • Information transfer activities information
    presented in tables provides material to write
    simple phrases and paragraphs. I
  • Guided compositions we can show them picture
    storyboards with vignettes for them to describe
    and write a composition following the given
    storyline.

88
12. SOME SUGGESTIONS ON MARKING WRITING
  • Marking is a vital part of the writing process.
  • As guidance is fundamental for the pupils to
    learn from their mistakes, and make the necessary
    progress in the acquisition of this skill.

89
12. SOME SUGGESTIONS ON MARKING WRITING
  • There is a tendency to mark written work by
    looking for grammatical errors, incorrect use of
    punctuation or misspelling.
  • Before picking up our red pens Read the pupils
    work from beginning to end, looking for strengths
    as well as weaknesses.

90
12.2 Teacher correction/Peer correction/Self
correction.
  • Teacher correction.
  • It is preferable to mark work during class with
    the learner present in order to get more
    immediate feedback.
  • Written comments can be effective and should be
    personal and encouraging.
  • Super work, (students name)! Well done,
    (students name)!I like this picture very much,
    (students name) This is not your best work,
    (students name) Oh dear, (students name)!

91
12. SOME SUGGESTIONS ON MARKING WRITING
  • Peer correction.
  • Pupils often learn from each others mistakes.
  • Pupils become more involved in the
    teaching-learning process
  • The teachers marking load is lightened.
  • Pupils often find it less traumatic to write if
    they know their work will be marked by one of
    their peers.

92
12. SOME SUGGESTIONS ON MARKING WRITING
  • Self correction.
  • More useful when marking controlled or guided
    writing exercises and fairly limited in the case
    of free writing
  • They need to develop the ability to read their
    own work critically

93
12.3 Checklists and lists of symbols.
yes no
Spelling
Punctuation
Grammar
Vocabulary
Ideas
Organisation
Handwriting
94
12.3 Checklists and lists of symbols.
P punctuation error S spelling error something is missing
WW wrong word used WO wrong word order // new paragraph needed
R-O run-on-sentence V verb tense error ? I dont understand this
Agr agreement (subject-verb, adjective-noun or noun-pronoun) good well done I like this
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