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Title: Oral Interaction


1
ORAL COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION
  • Chapter 5

2
1. Introduction.
  • Long tradition about the written language,
    instead of the oral aspect.
  • Know morphology and syntax rules.
  • The dictionary and the book were absolutely
    necessary for the translation of exercises.

3
1. Introduction
  • Nevertheless, there has also been an important
    tradition of teaching oral languages not only for
    classical, but also for modern languages.
  • Immersion techniques and oral practice,
    primarily with native FL speaking teachers, were
    other solutions proposed.

4
1. Introduction
  • Audiovisual methodologies re-discovered the
    memorisation of dialogues, given a really
    functional value through the visualisation of
    meanings.
  • The use of tapes, filmstrips, visuals, recorders
    and language labs were additional aids.

5
2. ORAL COMMUNICATON AND INTERACTION
  • 2.1. Teaching oral communication within a
    curricular design for beginners.
  • General goal children will be able to understand
    and produce easy messages using a basic corpus of
    lexis in a pre-syntactic or conversational
    variety within an interactive encounter.
  • Notions and skills must be clearly selected and
    sequenced from the very beginning.

6
2. ORAL COMMUNICATON AND INTERACTION
  • It is assumed that theoretical knowledge
    completes procedural knowledge.
  • The task of the teacher is to prepare the
    appropriate menu so that pupils feel they are
    learning and communicating in a new language
    while working, playing games, singing songs or
    doing any other specific task.

7
2. ORAL COMMUNICATON AND INTERACTION
  • Each oral activity belongs to a curricular design
    for beginners.
  • The conversation mode of the FL is pre-syntactic.
  • Among linguistic exponents priority is given to
    lexical and textual elements.
  • Contents must be selected and sequenced following
    real-life FL.
  • Activities must allow contents to be practised
    within oral interaction tasks.

8
2.2. The basic communicative code built on
lexical phrases
  • Primary school pupils need a fairly limited
    selection of lexical phrases and vocabulary items
    to participate in preliminary oral interactive
    tasks.
  • We should select or adapt activities linked to a
    series of topics in order to develop and
    consolidate the most basic code.

9
2.2. The basic communicative code built on
lexical phrases
  • Once the functional goal is established, pupils
    are to begin an imaginative path of activities so
    that they can develop both listening and speaking
    competence.
  • We will follow a cyclic sequence. Each task will
    take us to a further, and progressively graded,
    stage along the most natural path.

10
2.3. A generative communicative competence in FL
acquisition
  • A simple greeting, a question or a command and
    their respective verbal and physical answers are
    enough to make learners active participants in a
    simple conversation.
  • Total Physical Response TPR techniques- and
    questions and easy answers, together with lexical
    phrases for social functions

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vikZY6XpB214
11
Different roles according to different skills
  • A silent period is recommended for beginners
    together with a great deal of listening
    activities
  • The teacher provides comprehensible input.
  • Use of audio tapes, video recordings, and other
    resources, including ICT.

12
Different roles according to different skills
  • A single speaker with a clear voice is
    recommended in early listening tasks.
  • When there are two or more speakers, their voices
    should be clearly distinguished.
  • Children must begin by getting involved in the
    listening task.
  • Following recorded directions with some
    descriptive clues is recommendable to improve the
    listening skill. And a first short descriptive
    type of text can go together with a merely
    instructional discourse.

13
Different roles according to different skills
  • If the task is easy to perform and the
    comprehensible input understood, an exchange of
    role is the next step.
  • The more advanced pupils will adopt the leading
    role.
  • Children will reproduce TPR techniques

14
2.6. Visual context, gestures, drawings and body
language.
  • Implication of the learner as listener.
  • The use of gestures, drawings and body language
    is recommended to create an encouraging
    atmosphere in the classroom.
  • Background disturbing noise must be avoided.
  • Sounds or acoustic references may encourage
    comprehension.
  • In time the acoustic material should become more
    realistic.
  • Visual support is always necessary in early
    listening exercises in order to create a context
    and assist the listening effort.

15
2.7. The use of the mother tongue as a
compensating strategy.
  • Immersion techniques have great value,
  • BUT
  • beginners may feel paralysed when they do not
    understand.

16
2.7. The use of the mother tongue as a
compensating strategy.
The first language can be used as a helping hand to maintain motivation.
2. The first language can also provide context. In this case it is the equivalent to a picture.
3. Some conclusive parts of the listening
interactive task require the exclusive use of
the FL. This recommendation is compulsory.
17
2.8. The expressive function Here I am
  • Before children can express their feelings and
    talk about topics around them,
  • a great amount of work on understanding
    directions and questions can be carried out.
  • The so-called me/here I am function is to be
    promoted.

18
2.9. Early descriptions and oral sentence
structure.
  • Early descriptions may arise from the use of some
    commands as a simple answer to the questions why
    or what for.

Draw some apples. How many? Three. Three apples.
Draw three apples, please. See? There are three
apples. Lets colour the apples. What
colour? Red. Yes, red apples. Colour the apples
red. Look. The apples are red.
19
Early descriptions and oral sentence structure.
Listening Speaking Speaking Speaking
Questions Discursive value Pre-syntax Syntactic production
Whats your name? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? (Name) My names
How old are you? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? (Nine) Im nine
Have you got a mobile? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? Yes/ No Yes, I have No, I havent
Do you like music? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? Yes/No Yes, I do No, I dont
What colours ? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? Red/blue/ Its red/blue
How many ? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? (Number) There are /
Whos ? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? Me, (name)
Whats this? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? A box Its a box
Wheres the box? Pardon Me? Repeat, please I dont know Sorry My name? What? On the table The box is on the table
Strategic questions - Or-question - Yes/No question Silent or meaningful response Body, gesture and mime Drawing First language Silent or meaningful response Body, gesture and mime Drawing First language Silent or meaningful response Body, gesture and mime Drawing First language
20
3. DEVELOPING LISTENING COMPREHENSION
  • 3.1. From listening to understanding oral
    messages
  • The more you can understand, the better you can
    participate in conversations.
  • Importance of listening.
  • It provides comprehensible input, essential for
    language acquisition in the classroom

21
Importance of Listening.
  • It is needed in real life.
  • It is something the whole class can do.
  • It allows pupils to distinguish sounds, stress,
    intonation patterns.

22
3.2. Listening as a complex, active, and
participative process
  • Listening is claimed to be an active skill.

- The listener needs a reason to understand an oral message. Sometimes just the main idea and some items of information will be enough. - The listener needs to cut up complete messages to decipher and interpret some meaning. - The listener must recognise that some gaps in information are not relevant and can be missed. - On some occasions, the listener must anticipate what is coming and remember what has been said before. - The listener has a very limited control over the speed or tone of voice when the task comes from a recording, radio or TV.
23
3.3. Teaching listening with comprehension Basic
points
  • 3.3.1. TPR and the social function of interactive
    listening.
  • Total Physical Response are the most efficient
    tasks to make learners participate and feel
    involved from the first day of class.
  • The first movements through the classroom are an
    exciting experience.

24
3.3.1. TPR and the social function of interactive
listening
Topics and scenarios Actions
Everyday life Stand up, walk, stop, run, jump, come here, look, listen
Everyday life Point to Go to (objects and places)
The classroom Open/ close the door/window. Take your pencil to the table. Write your name in the blackboard. Boys/Girls, be quiet.
My schoolbag Pass me the ruler, the sharpener, the rubber Rub out, sharpen, draw, colour
Sports Bounce, kick, throw, put the ball Walk and bounce the ball. Dont touch the basket.
Water and nature Drink, wash your hands. Sit on the grass. Smell the flower. Put the red apple in the basket. Fly and go to the pear tree.
25
3.3.1. TPR and the social function of interactive
listening
  • Giving directions must be combined with formulaic
    language to develop the social function and to
    produce verbal production.

Social function Hi, Bye-bye, Please, Thank you, How are you? Say sorry, say hello Give me five Good morning, good afternoon Happy birthday Happy Christmas
26
3.3.1. TPR and the social function of interactive
listening
  • It is recommended that the class be divided in
    groups.
  • The combination of these actions and utterances
    will enable us, for example, to act out a walk in
    the jungle, a visit to an unknown island or a
    visit to a magic castle

27
3.3.2. From the first questions to an interview
or passport control
  • Use of questions.
  • Learners try to understand and give short
    answers.
  • Personal identification, likes, possession and
    their own world can constitute the starting
    topic.
  • Then, the time will come for them to complete
    their utterances.

28
From the first questions to an interview or
passport control
  • Each child should make up an Identity where Name,
    Age, Address,
  • The complete understanding of Whats your name?
    will lead to an understanding of its generalised
    role in asking for the name of the teacher,
    friend,
  • The capacity to create dialogue grows from the
    simplest concepts to more general ones.

29
3.3.3. Audiotape or video recordings - commands
and questions Take one, action!
  • The combination of commands and questions with
    their respective actions and short verbal
    responses permits the recording of stories.
  • The teacher becomes a director and other
    colleagues or native speakers add the voice, and
    the pupils become active characters.

30
3.3.4. Listening with visual aspects the symbol
dictation
  • Pair work -or even group work- activity, where
    interaction is fostered.
  • Pupils can express meanings with easy symbols and
    drawings, and they see that the FL is really
    useful.
  • The frame where the symbols are supposed to be
    included provides other scenarios.

31
3.3.4. Listening with visual aspects the symbol
dictation
  • Each frame is a new window where they can look
    out and create a picture of their own by drawing
    and colouring.
  • The frame is the visualisation of a cognitive
    outline shared by the speaker and the listener.
  • Both have something to talk about because there
    are information gaps that only one participant
    knows and tries to transmit to the other.

32
3.3.4. Listening with visual aspects the symbol
dictation
  • In order to obtain more advantages from the
    symbol dictation a sequence must be followed

Symbols must be easy to draw and familiar to the listener bird, flower, kite.. The frame must have clear areas and points of reference where symbols will be placed sky, ground, tree, house, grass, etc. and each corner and side must be numbered. Before the command is given, the topic must be clear. The teacher will ask some introductory question as clues. Only the FL is permitted while doing the activity. Requirement for repeating are easy with just Pardon, Repeat, please, etc. A second repetition to check complete comprehension is recommended. The teacher can change the order and introduce new commands. This second performance can be spoken more quickly.
33
4. TEACHING ORAL ENGLISH THROUGH SONGS
  • Use of songs in the classroom Positive
    statements regarding the efficacy of music as a
    vehicle for first and second language
    acquisition.

34
Songs in the classroom.
Songs are a pleasurable, enjoyable experience which aids relaxation and group dynamics and increases attentiveness and receptiveness in the language classroom. They bring variety to the lesson. They are highly memorable and help internalise quite long chunks of language.
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgFuZ6LPDYQc
35
Songs in the classroom.
  • They are part of everyday life and constitute a
    natural opportunity for meaningful repetition.
  • They are personal and thus allow identification
    with the lyrics.
  • They provide authentic examples of everyday
    language.

36
Songs in the classroom.
  • They allow the target vocabulary, grammar, and
    patterns to be modelled in context.
  • They foster the development of grammatical,
    lexical, and sociocultural competence, as well as
    of the linguistic skills of speaking and
    listening.
  • They contribute to the improvement of
    pronunciation (in terms of both segmental and
    suprasegmental elements), of speed, and of
    fluency.

37
4.3. Pedagogical recommendations for the
exploitation of songs
  • Performing actions in line with the lyrics of the
    songs.
  • According to the trace theory (TPR) memory is
    increased if stimulated by motor activity.
  • Dramatising the songs lyrics can also contribute
    to make their meaning clear to the learner.
  • This technique is especially effective with such
    songs as Head, shoulders, knees, and toes,
    This is the way we wash our hands, If youre
    happy and you know it, clap your hands, Old
    McDonald had a farm

38
Exploitation.
The students are provided with a gapped version of the song, which they must complete (either with words/chunks or pictures). The items may be omitted randomly or, on the contrary, may be specific parts of speech, or grammatical or lexical elements which we seek to emphasise. Alternatively, the students can delete the words themselves to create a gap-fill task for others. The students are provided with scrambled words or lines of the song, which they must then reorder. Photographs, pictures, or cartoons illustrating the different parts of the song can also be jumbled for the children to reorganise.
39
Exploitation
  • The learners answer questions (be they multiple
    choice or comprehension ones) about the text of
    the song or create their own for other classmates
    to answer.
  • Other comprehension-checking activities involve
    the creation or completion of charts and diagrams
    about the text, or the invention of titles for
    each verse and for the overall song.

40
Exploitation
  • The students are asked to identify deliberately
    introduced mistakes in terms of vocabulary,
    grammar, or pronunciation.
  • The children can also be encouraged to manipulate
    the text of a song, modifying grammatical
    elements within it (e.g. tenses or parts of
    speech), changing the final words of some lines
    with others that rhyme, or partially inventing
    the song and subsequently comparing it to the
    original version.

41
Exploitation
  • At slightly higher levels, the stylistic features
    and sociocultural aspects reflected by the songs
    background can also be made explicit in order to
    foster further appreciation of the song and of
    the countrys history and culture.
  • And, of course, the students should be urged to
    sing the song. Recording it and playing it to
    improve pronunciation can also prove a good idea.

42
Songs in the classroom.
  • The students are provided with a gapped version
    of the song, which they must complete (either
    with words or pictures). The items may be omitted
    randomly or, on the contrary, may be specific
    parts of speech, or grammatical or lexical
    elements which we seek to emphasise.
    Alternatively, the students can delete the words
    themselves to create a gap-fill task for others.
  • The students are provided with scrambled words or
    lines of the song, which they must then reorder.
    Photographs, pictures, or cartoons illustrating
    the different parts of the song can also be
    jumbled for the children to reorganise.
  • The learners answer questions (be they multiple
    choice or comprehension ones) about the text of
    the song or create their own for other classmates
    to answer.

43
Songs in the classroom
  • Other comprehension-checking activities involve
    the creation or completion of charts and diagrams
    about the text, or the invention of titles for
    each verse and for the overall song.
  • The students are asked to identify deliberately
    introduced (and plausible) mistakes in terms of
    vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation.
  • The children can also be encouraged to manipulate
    the text of a song, modifying grammatical
    elements within it (e.g. tenses or parts of
    speech), changing the final words of some lines
    with others that rhyme, or partially inventing
    the song and subsequently comparing it to the
    original version.

44
5. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH SPELLING
  • The difficulty of English pronunciation resides
    in the lack of correspondence which exists
    between it and the written code.
  • English spelling presents clear deviations from
    the universal phonemic principle or alphabetic
    principle (one letter/grapheme for each phoneme
    and one phoneme for each letter/grapheme).

45
5. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH SPELLING
  • 5.2. Explicit or implicit spelling instruction?
  • Those who advocate implicit or indirect
    approaches do so on the grounds that Whole
    Language programmes or simply free voluntary
    reading are more effective in aiding children to
    become proficient spellers than formal teaching.
  • Whole Language Education language, should not be
    viewed as the sum of discrete and fragmented
    parts (e.g. phonemes, graphemes, morphemes,
    words), but should rather be approached in a
    top-down manner, emphasising its wholeness.

46
5. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH SPELLING
  • Students learn by doing and spelling and grammar
    are taught gradually not as separate subjects.
  • Those who support the role of reading for
    orthographic acquisition Reading is responsible
    for much of our competence in reading
    comprehension, writing style, vocabulary,
    spelling, and advanced grammatical competence

47
5. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH SPELLING
Access to books and libraries Print-rich
environments Writing style Reading aloud to
children. Valuing traditionally disregarded
literature such as comic books or teen romance
Reading comprehension Writing style
Grammar Spelling Vocabulary
Free Voluntary Reading
48
5. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH SPELLING
  • Free voluntary reading (or FVR) is the only way
    we become good spellers (Krashen )
  • There is now widespread consensus that for many
    children spelling is not caught it must be
    taught.

49
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